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1 COLLEGE AND INSTITUTE APPLIED RESEARCH INNOVATION FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND COMMUNITIES APPLIED RESEARCH ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN SERVING COLLEGES AND INSTITUTES IN CANADA accc.ca

2 ACCC is the national and international voice of Canada s publicly funded colleges and institutes. We work with industry and social sectors to train 1.5 million learners of all ages and backgrounds at campuses serving over 3,000 urban, rural and remote communities in Canada and ACCC operates in 29 countries via 14 offices around the world. Association of Canadian Community Colleges 1 Rideau Street, Suite 701 Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 8S7 Tel Copyright ACCC 2014

3 Table of Contents Executive Summary...i 1. INTRODUCTION COLLEGE AND INSTITUTE COMMITMENTS FOR APPLIED RESEARCH Institutional Budgets for Applied Research Applied Research Structures Building Applied Research Capacity Promotion and Knowledge Transfer Eligibility with Federal Granting Councils Research Opportunities for College and Institute Faculty and Staff Students at the Centre of Applied Research Student Entrepreneurship Research Specializations and Expertise Research Centres and Laboratories Research Networks Provincial / Territorial Research Networks Regional and Sector-specific Networks Performance Measurement of Applied Research Legacy Impact of Applied Research on Curriculum A DIVERSITY OF FUNDING SOURCES The Tri-Council College and Community Innovation Program Impact of the CCI Program Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Canada Foundation for Innovation Regional Economic Development Agencies National Research Council Industrial Research Assistance Program Indirect Costs Program BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIPS PARTNERSHIPS FOR SOCIAL INNOVATION RESEARCH PARTNERSHIPS with other Post-Secondary Institutions Partnerships with other Colleges and Institutes Partnerships with Universities INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PARTNERSHIPS CONCLUSION References College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities

4 Appendices ACCC Applied Research Environmental Scan List of Participating Institutions 2. Areas of Research Specialization by Category and Province or Territory 3. Research Centres and Specialized Laboratories by Category and Province/Territory 4. Research Networks Identified by Respondent Colleges 5. Partnerships with Universities by Province/Territory 6. ACCC Member Colleges and Institutes

5 College and Institute Applied Research Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities Executive Summary Colleges and institutes are contributing to innovation in Canada through enhanced institutional research infrastructure, involvement of faculty and students, and expanded industry and social innovation partnerships. Private sector investments continue to increase significantly, with a 21% increase from and represents the largest source of external funding for applied research with a total of $72 million. Business and Industry Partnerships 5,444 companies partnered with colleges and institutes in (a 19% increase from ) 5,037 for business and industrial research and 407 for social innovation 96% of external funding was for business and industrial research 78% of partnerships were with small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) followed by 14% with large enterprises and 8% with micro-enterprises. 5,444 19% 78% 14% 8% Small- and mediumsized enterprises Large companies Micro-enterprises Partnerships for Social Innovation Research colleges and institutes reported 821 social innovation partners, more than double from % of external funding was for social innovation research most social innovation partners were companies and community or social service organizations. Student Involvement increased investments and improved tracking by colleges and institutes confirmed that 29,356 students were engaged in applied research in , up by 22% over last year colleges and institutes involved students in applied research through in-class projects, summer jobs, internships and the integration of research approaches into curriculum. 81% of colleges and institutes supported student entrepreneurship and 5,021 student received support to pursue an entrepreneurial idea nearly five times more than last year. College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities i

6 Institutional Expertise 2,298 faculty and staff (e.g. industrial experts and technicians) engaged in applied research in , up by 30% from institutions had a dedicated applied research division 489 specialized research centres and labs were identified, up by 26% from areas of research specialization were reported in natural resources, energy, environment, health, information and communications technologies, manufacturing and social innovation colleges and institutes are increasingly supporting student entrepreneurship by embedding entrepreneurship skills across diverse programs including business, health sciences, community services, trades and technology and arts College and institute entrepreneurship centres provide targeted services to support students to pursue an entrepreneurial idea, including coaching, mentoring and linkages to business and industry partners Institutional Investment Colleges and institutes continued to allocate internal resources to support applied research with $49 million reported for , up by 29% from last year. External Funding Colleges and institutes received $185.1 million in external funding from the following sources, with a 3% increase from : Government of Canada: $71.4 million, small decrease of 1% private sector: $72 million, up by 21% provincial and territorial governments: $36.9 million international partners: $3,500,000, more than double community service organizations: $407,000 foundations: $587,000 municipal governments: $313,000 The highest proportion of Government of Canada funding (50%) was from the Tri-Council College and Community Innovation Program, totaling $35.6 million. Other significant federal sources included: Canada Foundation for Innovation s College-Industry Innovation Fund ($5.1 million) National Research Council Industrial Research Assistance Program ($3.2 million) Regional economic development agencies including Western Economic Diversification; the Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario, the Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions for the Regions of Quebec and the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency ($22.1 million) Indirect Costs Program ($1.1 million) Department of National Defence ($1.1 million) International Research Partnerships ACCC member institutions in British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador reported 48 international partnerships in 21 countries: Belgium, Brazil, Cuba, China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican Republic, France, Ghana, Germany, Honduras, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Qatar, the United States, and Uruguay. College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities ii

7 Colleges and institutes are important players in Canada s innovation ecosystem. Through applied research collaborations, colleges and institutes are helping communities and businesses especially SMEs overcome barriers to research and innovation. Federal investments are making a difference by building college and institute applied research capacity to respond to the needs of SMEs and community partners. Current federal allocations for college applied research represent 2.4% of the $2.98 billion of annual federal funding for research conducted by the higher education sector. 2.4% Federal funds for college and institute applied research $2.98 billion Annual Federal Funds for Higher Education Research ACCC s goal is to attract to the college sector 5% of these investments. This will require a modest shift within existing R&D envelopes to increase support for colleges, institutes and their applied research partners. This will enable colleges and institutes to further strengthen their applied research capacity and stimulate innovation among SMEs and community partners. Key Findings Investment Private sector $45,000,000 $45,000,000 $50,300,000 $59,400,000 $72,000,000 Federal government $27,000,000 $28,000,000 $33,700,000 $72,000,000 $71,400,000 Colleges and institutes $35,000,000 $35,000,000 $38,000,000 $38,000,000 $49,200,000 Provincial/territorial governments $25,000,000 $29,000,000 $29,700,000 $44,000,000 $36,900,000 International partners unknown unknown $295,000 $1,533,000 $3,500,000 Foundations unknown $840,000 $1,373,000 $730,000 $587,000 Community service organizations unknown $168,000 $319,000 $831,100 $407,000 Municipal governments unknown unknown unknown $533,000 $313,000 Total Investment $132,000,000 $138,008,000 $153,687,000 $217,027,100 $234,307,000 Partnerships with companies 3,602 3,795 4,444 4,586 5,444 Social innovation research partners unknown unknown Research centres Faculty engaged in applied research 1,209 1,196 1,606 1,774 2,298 Student participation 2,500 8,329 13,585 24,108 29,356 Areas of specialization NSERC eligible institutions SSHRC eligible institutions unknown unknown CIHR eligible institutions Research networks College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities iii

8 figure 1 Canadian Colleges and Institutes Role in Research Development and Commercialization Colleges and Institutes in Canada - Role in the Research and Development Continuum Technology/Commercialization/Implementation Assessments RESEARCH Original/basic research Proof of concept Research conducted by universities, government labs, industry DEVELOPMENT Proof of concept Applied Research Prototyping/simulation Testing/analysis Industrial/field/ clinical trials COMMERCIALIZATION Occurs in business and industry Product launch New business start-up Business development Business expansion Market exploration Implementation of new policies ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACT Outputs New knowledge Patents Licenses Publications Outputs New/improved products, processes and services Documentation Adoption of new technologies New uses for existing technologies Technical solutions New policy development Outcomes Enhanced business capacity Technology diffusion Increased number of jobs Improved policy framework Technology/Knowledge Transfer Process Education & Training Graduate students (masters, doctoral, post-graduate) Undergraduate students (diploma, degree) Business and industry employees Outputs High quality products, processes and services Highly skilled personnel Skilled/upgraded workforce New curriculum Technology Push (supply side) Technology/knowledge developers Market Pull (demand side) Technology/knowledge users Colleges and institutes = Blue Inputs Resources (technical, human, financial, business) Federal, provincial/territorial, colleges, institutes and universities (Business and community partners) Note: Process has feedback loops and is normally not as linear as this chart appears College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 1

9 1 Introduction Given their mandate to support local economic and social development, publicly-funded colleges, institutes, polytechnics, cégeps and university colleges 1 are the ideal source of innovation support for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and community partners. Five years of results from the ACCC Survey of College and Institute Applied Research Activities ( to ) confirm the increased commitments in building colleges and institutes capacity to support SMEs and social innovation in communities. These include commitments from institutions to establish structures and policies to support the delivery of applied research and engage faculty and students, commitments from governments to fund applied research partnerships, and most importantly increased commitments from industry and community partners who turn to colleges and institutes for innovation solutions. The report State of the Nation 2012 Canada s Science, Technology and Innovation System: Aspiring to Global Leadership recognizes the value of the demand-pull model of innovation and that this is an effective mechanism for transferring knowledge that has practical applications and potential commercial value. 2 In the college and institute world, this is the foundational approach for conducting research responding to the needs identified by partner SMEs and community organizations, and where most often than not, the intellectual property remains with the partner. Figure 1 frames the role of colleges and institutes in the research and development continuum and shows where and how colleges relate to other actors in the innovation ecosystem. This framework provides an overview of the research, development and commercialization process and shows that college research is driven by demand pull, by the users of technology or knowledge, who need to improve, refine or adapt products, technology or processes to meet client needs. Colleges and institutes are positioned at the development, commercialization and knowledge transfer stages of research. Canada is fortunate to have an infrastructure in place, through colleges and institutes, to support the innovation needs of SMEs. The vast majority of research partnerships are with SMEs, 78% in Considering that 98% of companies in Canada are small, with less than 100 employees, and employ close to 80% of the total private labour force, increased innovation support for SMEs through partnerships with colleges and institutes would have a significant impact on Canada s economy. 1 Publicly-funded colleges, institutes, polytechnics, cégeps and university colleges will hereafter be referred to as colleges and institutes. 2 Science, Technology and Innovation Council (2013). State of the Nation 2012 Canada s Science, Technology and Innovation System: Aspiring to Global Leadership. pg. 71. College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 2

10 The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) study entitled SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, a part of the OECD Innovation Strategy, emphasizes the need for policies that increase support for SME innovation, non-technological innovation, and social innovation research. According to this study, although a small percentage of SMEs are high performing and focus on breakthrough innovations, the largest proportion could have a more significant economic impact if they begin to innovate incrementally and strengthen their nontechnological innovation. They require a different type of innovation support to high-growth potential enterprises, focused more on increasing their capacity to absorb knowledge from outside the firm. 3 This study also confirms that innovation is not just about science and technology, but includes the implementation of new organizational methods, business practices, external relations and marketing all of which can have significant impacts on the competitiveness and productivity of companies. Non-technological innovations involve a wider range of actors, processes and settings than technological innovation and can be very important for SMEs. 4 OECD also identifies the growing importance of social innovation and social entrepreneurship, to develop solutions to social problems and contribute to social change. Colleges and institutes are increasingly involved in social innovation research. In the number of college/institute social innovation partnerships more than doubled from the previous year. This ACCC report captures the level of college and institute applied research activity for The responses of 109 institutions to the Survey of College and Institute Applied Research Activity demonstrate sustained growth in applied research including institutional commitments, growing participation by faculty and students, and the increasing support from industry, community partners and government. The report demonstrates that colleges and institutes have sustained and increasing commitments for applied research, have sustainable sources of funding and expanding partnerships with business, community and international partners to support economic and social development. The list of participating institutions is provided in Appendix 1. 3 OECD Studies on SMEs and Entrepreneurship SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, OECD Innovation Strategy OECD pg Ibid, pg. 29. College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 3

11 2 College and Institute Commitments for Applied Research The survey results confirm there is growing institutional commitment for applied research including institutional financial commitments, the establishment of research structures, opportunities for faculty and students, areas of research expertise, research facilities, involvement in research networks, the use of performance measurement tools, and their impact on curriculum and program delivery. 2.1 Institutional Budgets for Applied Research Applied research is an essential part of educational programming at colleges and institutes. As a result, institutions are allocating part of their core budgets to support applied research. For , 99 colleges and institutes (91% of respondents) reported a total of $49,157,481 in institutional budgets for applied research development offices and projects, up by 29% from Applied Research Structures Eighty-two percent of institutions indicated they had provincial legislation recognizing applied research and 91% reported that applied research was included in their institutional mission statements. Ninety-eight institutions (90% of respondents) reported having a dedicated research and development office. In , applied research and development offices reported 1,336 full- and part-time staff, up by 15% from last year, with an increase in the number of full-time staff, compared to part-time staff. Table 1 table 1 Staffing Profile of Research and Development Offices Number of Full-time Staff Number of Part-time Staff Management/administrative Technical and scientific Total 1, College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 4

12 2.3 Building Applied Research Capacity Colleges and institutes continue to build capacity through institutional training activities for faculty, staff and students, while strengthening ties with industry and community partners through outreach and promotional activities. Eighty-five percent of respondents reported offering training activities. Institutional education activities included workshops, presentations, seminars, symposia, mentorship activities, one-on-one support for grant applications, and support for participation in conferences and symposia. Training offered in focused on building research capacity; particularly for the preparation of grant applications and research proposals, research ethics and intellectual property. Other topics include: project management research policy development commercialization work plan development research project development secondary research and sourcing technical report writing, team building health and safety connecting applied research to curriculum and assessment dissemination of research results. 2.4 Promotion and Knowledge Transfer The promotion and knowledge transfer of research are indicators of applied research capacity. Ninety-two percent of respondents reported promotion and marketing activities, and 85% reported knowledge transfer activities. These activities targeted key stakeholders that help expand partnership opportunities, including business, industry and community partners, and other colleges, institutes and universities. Activities included presentations to potential partners, networking events and conferences that brought together different partners, and engaging with media, including radio and television interviews. In , more respondents reported using social media to promote applied research including Twitter and blogs, as well as using digital technology to deliver webinars for industry partners, and disseminating news about applied research through electronic newsletters. An increasing number of institutions have applied research publications, magazines or journals to transfer knowledge about applied research projects and initiatives. Activities internal to colleges and institutes raise awareness about applied research among staff, faculty and students, and increase buy-in into the applied research endeavor. To engage more students, colleges and institutes use social media marketing through Facebook and Twitter. Presentations to Program Advisory Committees and Deans Councils enhance the learning experience and integrate applied research into curriculum. Applied research showcase events provide opportunities for students and faculty to showcase their projects, often with the collaboration of their research partners from industry or community partners. These events are key to promoting applied research with external partners, as well as internally to encourage increased participation from students and faculty. College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 5

13 2.5 Eligibility with Federal Granting Councils The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) is a primary source of funding for college and institute applied research. An important indicator of applied research capacity is the number of institutions that have acquired NSERC eligibility. As of January 2014, 96 colleges and institutes were eligible, a slight increase of 4% from It must be noted that the number of NSERC eligible colleges and institutes has increased by 88% in five years, as only 51 institutions had eligibility in In only 13 had NSERC eligibility. There were 59 colleges and institutes eligible for support from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), up from 55 last year and three colleges now have eligibility with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), up from just one last year. 2.6 Research Opportunities for College and Institute Faculty and Staff In , 2,298 faculty and staff (e.g. industrial experts and technicians) participated in applied research activities, a 30% increase from Most faculty and staff (72%) were involved part-time and had an impressive range of credentials: 17% had a college/institute diploma; 36% a bachelor s degree; 29% a master s degree; and 18% a doctorate. Figure 2 shows the approaches colleges and institutes identified for involving faculty and staff in applied research. The highest proportion reported that the applied research office assisted with proposal development, awareness building activities, and the identification of contacts and facilitating networking. Other ways colleges and institutes supported faculty and staff involvement were by identifying potential partners, providing policies and procedures to support applied research, and facilitating linkages with granting councils. Faculty release time 5 is identified as a key success factor for college and institute applied research. Figure For , 2 more colleges and institutes reported they provided faculty release time, 86% of respondents compared to 81% in How Colleges and Institutes Facilitate Faculty Participation in Applied Research figure 2 How Colleges and Institutes Facilitate Faculty Participation in Applied Research Assistance with proposal development Awareness building activities Network and contact identification Identification potential partners Release time Point of contact for faculty, granting councils and partners Policy, procedure and practice assistance / interpretation Internal proposal calls for research projects Database of faculty expertise and curriculum vitae 93% 92% 92% 89% 86% 84% 83% 79% 19% 5 College faculty is expected to teach full time, with no allocation for research-related release time in provincial operating grants or collective agreements. Generally, college faculty is expected to conduct research on their own time, over and above full teaching loads. The lack of adequate funding for release time for college faculty to engage in research activities is a limiting factor for the expansion of research at colleges. The CCI Program is the only funding program that recognizes faculty release time as an eligible expense and provides up to $7,000 per faculty release (to hire a replacement teacher) to allow a faculty to participate in CCI projects. College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 6

14 2.7 Students at the Centre of Applied Research The primary reason colleges and institutes engage in applied research is to enhance student learning. Research activities give students hands-on experience to address real world challenges. The OECD Innovation Strategy recognizes that: Universities, colleges and vocational training centres are essential nodes in the innovation system, both producing and attracting the human capital needed for innovation. These institutions act as essential bridges between players businesses, governments and countries in broader and more open systems of innovation. They also contribute to the local quality of life and thus can help to attract the highly skilled from around the globe. ( ) Vocational education and training also play an important role in innovation, by helping firms make incremental changes to production processes and adopt technologies, and by lifting the overall capacity to innovate. 6 Colleges and institutes reported that 29,356 students participated in applied research in , up by 22 % from This is a result of increased investments in college and institute applied research and improved tracking by institutions. The majority of students participating in applied research (93%) were unpaid, and 2,095 students (7%) were paid through part-time and summer employment, and internships. Colleges and institutes have different approaches for involving students in applied research. Figure 3 shows that the most common approach was in-class projects to provide students with direct research experience in their field of study. Colleges and institutes are increasingly including capstone projects in programs. These are large and intensive research projects required for program completion. These projects provide graduates with the dynamic and multi-faceted skills that employers are seeking. Figure 3 Summer and part-time employment and internships provide Figure 3 How Colleges and Institutes Facilitate students with essential work experience and exposure to olleges and Student Institutes Participation Facilitate Student in Applied Participation Researchin Applied Research employers. Some institutions build in requirements for all funded applied research projects to include employment of at least one paid student research assistant. 90% 84% 68% 51% 17% 8% In-class projects Summer jobs Internships Integration of research approaches into curriculum Contests Scholarships College and institute students would benefit from increased opportunities to participate in applied research through targeted awards. ACCC is advocating for a dedicated envelope of $2.25 million per year for 500 applied research awards for college and institute students in diploma, post-graduate and degree programs. The Budget 2013 announcement allowing students in college/ institute degree programs to be eligible for the NSERC Industrial Undergraduate Student Research Awards was a welcome first step however students in diploma and post-diploma programs are not eligible. A more targeted program for college/institute students would increase opportunities for students to access industry-relevant research experience that contributes to business innovation. 6 Ministerial report on the OECD Innovation Strategy Innovation to strengthen growth and address global and social challenges - Key Findings Pg. 10. College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 7

15 2.7.1 Student Entrepreneurship There is increasing recognition of the importance of integrating entrepreneurial skills as part of education curricula at the secondary and post-secondary levels of education. The OECD emphasizes the link between the development of entrepreneurial skills and innovation. In , 81% of respondent institutions reported they supported student entrepreneurship, and that 5,021 students received support to pursue an entrepreneurial idea, nearly five times more than last year. Most institutions achieved this through the integration of courses into education programs; competitions and awards; participation in applied research projects; and through the services of on-campus entrepreneurship centres and incubators. Examples of Entrepreneurship Centres and Incubators at Colleges and Institutes Alberta The Medicine Hat College Entrepreneurship Development Centre provides students seed money to develop and implement business ideas, and to receive other supports such as business coaching and mentorship. The Olds College Canadian Institute for Rural Entrepreneurship (CIRE) provides information, tools, and training for entrepreneurs and small businesses as well as access to financing and information about grants. CIRE provides students opportunities to meet iconic rural entrepreneurs and be inspired by 100 brilliant ideas in rural entrepreneurship. Ontario The Centennial College Centre of Entrepreneurship helps teach, coach and inspire aspiring entrepreneurs in their lives. The Centre provides the tools and experiences needed to turn ideas into reality with hands-on training taught by seasoned business experts, and supports a student business incubator competition. The Conestoga College ITAL Centre for Entrepreneurship includes the RBC Ventures Lab, BMO Small Business Centre, Great West Life New Enterprise Hotel (incubator), and Scotiabank International Business Office. Students benefit from seminars, courses and programs related to entrepreneurship, receive business coaching and professional advice, and work creatively in the incubator space to develop their businesses. The Humber College ITAL HumberLaunch incubator provides Humber students and alumni with the environment and resources to cultivate innovative ideas into successful business ventures. This is achieved by offering Humber entrepreneurs funding, mentorship, coaching, resources, business development, one-on-one assistance and meeting facilities. Quebec The Cégep de Jonquière Entreprise-école Tango en techniques administratives is a business training school that enables students to work directly with real clients and not in a virtual context, as in a practice firm. This enables students to acquire concrete work experience, share knowledge, skills and expertise by creating partnerships with business. The Dawson College Centre for Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education serves as a portal and central hub for entrepreneurship education, promotion, advancement, support and resources driving entrepreneurial initiatives, economic growth and productivity in the artistic and cultural sectors in Montreal with emphasis on economic, social and environmental responsibility, and sustainability. College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 8

16 Colleges and institutes identified 688 entrepreneurship courses offered in a diverse range of programs, with the highest proportion (75%) being in business administration or related programs. It is interesting to note the diversity of other programs in which colleges and institutes integrate entrepreneurship courses as follows: Business administration diploma and degree programs, and related programs: accounting, human resources management, sales and marketing; financial planning and new venture development; international business management; purchasing, global logistics and supply chain management; international transportation and customs marketing management; green business management; tourism and hospitality management; sports and entertainment management: professional golf management and business office skills event management (sports, entertainment, arts); retail management, fashion business management; museum management; wood product management. Health sciences programs: home care, dental hygiene, hearing instrument specialist, massage therapy, medical office management, dental office management. Community services: health and community studies; social work; fitness and health promotion; exercise science and lifestyle management; physical fitness management; community and social service management; early childhood education; esthetic services; funeral services. Trades and technology programs: Bachelor of Technology Management; mining engineering technology; power engineering technology; natural resources management; sustainable energy and building technology; computer programmer analyst; computer systems technician; energy systems engineering; architectural technology; information technologies support; agricultural technology and management. Arts, including visual and graphic arts: studio arts; digital arts and new media; media and design; graphic design; animation and graphics; creative photography; creative book publishing; digital photography; fashion studies; electronic game design and 3D graphics; music program business of music; interior design. Colleges and institutes also reported integrated approaches for entrepreneurship skills development. For example, Fanshawe College reported that most of the college s 110 diploma and degree programs have some form of business or entrepreneurial course, particularly in technology, business, arts, communications, tourism and hospitality. Cégep Marie-Victorin offers a complementary course entitled Starting your own business that can be taken by students in different programs. Entrepreneurial skills are also integrated into some programs for example the Fashion Marketing program. Réseau Trans-Tech also reported that the Youth Secretariat of the Government of Quebec developed a pedagogical guide entitled Entrepreneurial Spirit in College Getting Down to Business which aims to support college faculty in building the entrepreneurial skills across programs. The guide is available in French and English at: entreprendre-collegiale.asp College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 9

17 2.8 Research Specializations and Expertise Through Applied Research Environmental Scans over the last five years, colleges and institutes continue to report an expansion of areas of research specialization, with a current total of 654 areas as of Table 2 identifies areas of specialization for eleven provinces and territories across six categories: natural resources and energy; environmental science and technologies; health, medical and life sciences; information and communication technologies (ICT); manufacturing and building technology; and social innovation. The top three areas are highlighted and colour-coded. The areas of expertise concentrate on the economic and social development priorities of the regions served. The list of all areas of specialization is provided in Appendix 2. Ontario colleges and institutes reported the highest number of areas of research expertise across five of six categories. For natural resources and energy, Ontario had the highest proportion of areas of specialization focused on renewable energy and agriculture research. Alberta had high areas of concentration in social innovation, natural resources and energy and the environment. In Quebec, cégeps and their affiliated centres for technology transfer focused on research in manufacturing and building technology, social innovation and natural resources and energy. In British Columbia, the main areas of focus were health, social innovation, natural resources and energy. table 2 Distribution of Areas of Research Specializations - Total 654 Table 2 Distribution of Areas of Research Specializations - Total 654 Natural Resources and Energy Environmental Science and Technologies Health, Medical and Life Sciences Information and Communications Technologies Manufacturing and Building Technology Social Innovation # % # % # % # % # % # % Newfoundland & Labrador 5 4% 6 7% 1 1% 3 3% 3 3% 2 2% Prince Edward Island 3 2% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1% 4 3% Nova Scotia 2 1% 1 1% 2 2% New Brunswick 8 6% 1 1% 1 1% 4 4% 7 6% 5 4% Quebec 18 13% 6 7% 4 4% 12 13% 22 20% 19 14% Ontario 38 27% 25 31% 39 39% 42 47% 46 41% 30 23% Manitoba 11 8% 4 5% 4 4% 4 4% 3 3% 9 7% Saskatchewan 2 2% 1 1% 1 1% 1 1% Alberta 31 22% 22 27% 20 20% 11 12% 12 11% 33 25% British Columbia 21 15% 12 15% 26 26% 12 13% 12 11% 29 22% Yukon 4 3% 2 2% 1 1% 3 3% Total Highest Concentration of Research Expertise Second Highest Third Highest College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 10

18 2.9 Research Centres and Laboratories To date, colleges and institutes have identified 489 specialized research centres and laboratories, 102 more than last year. Table 3 shows the distribution of research centres by province/territory for the same categories. A list of all research centres and laboratories is provided in Appendix 3. Ontario colleges and institutes reported the highest proportion of research centres and labs for all categories, with the exception of social innovation. Quebec cégeps reported the highest number of social innovation research centres. The research centres in Quebec included 46 college centres for technology transfer affiliated with cégeps. Alberta had a significant concentration of research centres in natural resources and energy, environmental science and technologies and social innovation. Colleges and institutes from British Columbia have a significant proportion of centres in social innovation, health, medical and life sciences and environmental science and technologies. The number of centres in Saskatchewan, the Atlantic and the Yukon were evenly distributed among all categories. table 3 Table 3 Distribution of Research Centres and Laboratories - Total 485 Distribution of Research Centres and Laboratories - Total 489 Natural Resources and Energy Environmental Science and Technologies Health, Medical and Life Sciences Information and Communications Technologies Manufacturing and Building Technology Social Innovation # % # % # % # % # % # % Newfoundland & Labrador 3 3% 2 2% 1 1% 2 2% Prince Edward Island 1 1% 3 4% 3 3% 1 1% Nova Scotia 3 3% 2 3% 1 1% 3 4% New Brunswick 2 2% 2 2% 2 2% 1 1% Quebec 21 24% 7 11% 8 10% 10 12% 21 22% 26 34% Ontario 25 29% 26 42% 50 60% 51 61% 52 54% 21 27% Manitoba 4 5% 3 5% 2 2% 1 1% 1 1% Saskatchewan 1 2% 1 1% 2 3% Alberta 21 24% 14 23% 8 10% 9 11% 7 7% 13 17% British Columbia 5 6% 7 11% 8 10% 5 6% 9 9% 13 17% Yukon 1 1% 2 3% 1 1% 1 1% Total Highest Concentration of Research Expertise Second Highest Third Highest 2.10 Research Networks Colleges and institutes identified 232 research networks at the local, regional, provincial and national levels, many of which are sector-specific. A list of the research networks is available in Appendix 4. College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 11

19 Provincial / Territorial Research Networks The purpose of provincial and regional research networks is to increase capacity and advocate for increased financial support for college and institute applied research. The current provincial and regional networks are described below. The British Columbia Applied Research and Innovation Network (BCARIN), with representatives from colleges in British Columbia and from Yukon College, meets to share information about applied research and innovation activities and to support the development of institutional policies and practices. Website: The Heartland Applied Research Partners (HARP), formerly the Great Plains Applied Research Network (GPARN), comprises directors of applied research from Red River College and the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology, and senior officers of academic and research services from University College of the North and Assiniboine Community College. HARP delivers applied research capacity that brings value to students, industry and community partners and the regional economy. The Colleges Ontario Network for Industry Innovation (CONII) comprises 20 colleges and institutes supported by the Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation. CONII connects SMEs to the applied research and commercialization expertise of colleges and institutes to help SMEs develop their products and become more competitive. Website: All 24 colleges and institutes have representation on the Colleges Ontario Heads of Applied Research Committee that assists with the promotion and expansion of applied research. The Association pour la recherche au collégial (ARC), representing 48 Quebec cégeps, fosters research throughout the college system disseminating position papers on research issues, research-related activities and conferences, and offering support measures and prizes for student applied research. Website: The Réseau Trans-tech is the network representing the 46 college centres for technology transfer in Quebec. Website: The Applied Research Network of the Atlantic Provinces Community College Consortium (APCCC) comprises directors of research from the College of the North Atlantic, Nova Scotia Community College, Holland College, New Brunswick Community College and Collège communautaire du Nouveau Brunswick. Its main objective is to advance applied research through collaboration, cooperation and sharing of best practices. Website: The Social Sciences Research Network in the North is part of a national research program funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. This network is led by Aurora College, Nunavut Arctic College and Yukon College and their respective research institutes. The network links researchers working in the North with students, community organizations and universities for research on the following themes: the social economy in northern Canada; resource regimes and social economy in the north; the impact of public policy on social economic development in the north; and indigenous communities and the social economy. College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 12

20 Regional and Sector-specific Networks Involvement in regional and sector-specific research networks enables colleges and institutes to remain current with industry innovations and connected to leading-edge practices and research. The following are some examples of sector research networks. The Regional Innovation Network of Southern Alberta (RINSA) is a collaborative partnership between Lethbridge College, Economic Development Lethbridge, and the University of Lethbridge, with support from Community Futures Lethbridge Region, SouthGrow Regional Initiative and the National Research Council Industrial Research Assistance Program. RINSA serves an area from south of Calgary to the Canada/USA border, and from the town of Taber to the Alberta/BC border, however its effect is felt far beyond these informal borders. The purpose of RINSA is to offer entrepreneurs and SMEs: innovation support, technology transfer and commercialization programs marketing, business development, training and export development services networking and match-making services business incubation opportunities access to funding at various stages (vouchers, angel investment, venture capital); and access to funding through Community Futures lending services for start-up and/or expansion Website: The Canadian Rural Research Network (CRRN) facilitates sharing of research outputs and research-related information among various rural stakeholders from academia, the public sector and the private sector, including practitioners, professional consultants, formal and informal community groups and organizations, local government and government officials. CRRN is a vehicle for partners on the demand and supply side of rural research to keep up-to-date with rural research news, to make connections with other stakeholders or interested parties, and to develop partnerships for research and dissemination purposes. College members of the CRRN include Selkirk College in British Columbia and public colleges in Alberta, as part of the Alberta Rural Development Network. Website: Interactive Manufacturing Innovation Networks (imin) is an online network for manufacturers throughout Ontario, developed in partnership with local manufacturers, government, associations and academic institutions. imin helps manufacturers become more innovative by building awareness and innovation throughout Ontario and beyond. imin aims to improve collaboration and knowledge sharing between companies and industry professionals facilitate the sharing of best practices, standard protocols and new innovations. Ontario colleges with connections to imin include Centennial College, Conestoga College, Durham College, St. Clair College, St. Lawrence College and Seneca College. Website: Territoire innovant en économie sociale et solidaire (TIESS-OLT) has been established in Quebec by the Chantier de l économie sociale, the Centre de recherche sur les innovations sociales (CRISES), the Karl Polanyi Institute at Concordia University, and the Université du Québec à Montréal Service aux collectivités (SAC). Cégep régional de Lanaudière is involved in TIESS-OLT through their social innovation research activities. TIESS-OLT brings together organizations and researchers working on the social economy, and collects and disseminates information about innovations that address challenges related to regional development. Website: College and Institute Applied Research : Innovation for Small Businesses and Communities 13

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