1 AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA P.O. Box: 3243, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Tel.:(251-11) Fax: (251-11) PEACE AND SECURITY COUNCIL 73 rd MEETING 16 MARCH 2007 ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA PSC/PR/2(LXXIII) Original: French REPORT OF THE CHAIRPERSON OF THE COMMISSION ON THE SITUATION IN COTE D IVOIRE
2 REPORT OF THE CHAIRPERSON OF THE COMMISSION ON THE SITUATION IN COTE D IVOIRE PSC/PR/2(LXXIII) Page 1 I. INTRODUCTION 1. This report takes stock of the situation in Côte d Ivoire for the period October 2006 to beginning of March II. BACKGROUND TO DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SITUATION AND PEACE EFFORTS BETWEEN OCTOBER 2006 AND BEGINNING MARCH At its 64 th meeting held in Addis Ababa at the level of Heads of State and Government on 17 October 2006, the Peace and Security Council (PSC) adopted Decision PSC/AHG/Comm.(LXIV). In that decision Council decided, inter alia, that a new period not exceeding twelve (12) months shall be established commencing from 1 November 2006 to complete the identification and registration of voters, DDR and restructuring of the defence and security forces, dismantling of the militias, restoration of State authority throughout the territory of Côte d Ivoire and the technical preparations for elections. Council further decided that President Laurent Gbagbo shall remain Head of State until the end of the transition period and that the Prime Minister of the transition, Charles Konan Banny, shall have all the necessary powers and means to implement the disarmament programme, the identification process, the dismantling of the militias, the restoration of State authority throughout the country, electoral issues and the deployment of the administration and public services throughout the territory of Côte d Ivoire. 3. By Resolution 1721 (2006) of 1 November 2006, the United Nations Security Council, inter alia, endorsed the decision of the PSC that President Laurent Gbabgo should remain Head of State as of 1 November 2006 for a new and final transition period not exceeding 12 months. The Security Council further endorsed the decision of the PSC to renew the mandate of the Prime Minister, Mr. Charles Konan Banny, as from 1 November 2006 for a new and final transition period not exceeding 12 months, and endorsed also the decision of the Peace and Security Council that the Prime Minister shall not be eligible to stand for the presidential elections to be organized by 31 October The United Nations Security Council stressed that the Prime Minister, for the implementation of his mandate, must have all the necessary powers, and all appropriate financial, material and human resources, as well as full and unfettered authority, consistent with ECOWAS recommendations dated 6 October 2006, and must be empowered to take all necessary decisions, in all matters, within the Council of Ministers, or the Council of Government, by ordinances or decree. It also stressed that the Prime Minister, for the implementation of his mandate, must have the necessary authority over the Defence and Security Forces of Côte d Ivoire.
3 Page 2 III. REACTIONS OF THE IVORIAN PARTIES 5. Following the adoption of Resolution 1721 (2006), President Laurent Gbagbo addressed the Nation on 2 November On that occasion, after observing that some provisions in the draft resolution had not been retained by the United Nations Security Council, he reaffirmed that the Ivorian Constitution would be applied and that the Prime Minister would not make nominations to civilian and military posts. He added that any breaches noted in the resolution and which constitute a violation of the Constitution of Côte d Ivoire would not be implemented. He called on Ivorians to rally around the Constitution and promised to chart with them a new course to get out of the crisis. 6. The opposition political parties in the Rassemblement des Houphouetistes pour la democratie et la paix (RHDP) and the Forces nouvelles expressed their full support for Resolution 1721 (2006), pointing out that it took on board all the essential issues notably the identification, reform of the Armed Forces and the Security, as well as the strengthening of the powers of the Prime Minister. They also voiced their support to the Prime Minister. Nevertheless, they expressed their disappointment over the fact that President Gbagbo has been asked to remain Head of State, and that there was no mechanism to ensure full exercise of the Prime Minister s authority over the Defence and Security Forces. 7. Reacting to Resolution 1721 in a statement broadcast on both radio and television on 8 November 2006, the Prime Minister first thanked the international community for its abiding interest in the difficult situation facing his country. He said that the resolution was the outcome of the discussions and of a consensus reached and accepted by Côte d Ivoire during the ECOWAS and AU Summits. He further said that he considered himself as a man of duty and with a mission, rather than a man of power. He reaffirmed his determination fully to assume his responsibility, to fulfill the task entrusted to him and complete the actions spelt out in the said resolution as a way out of the crisis. IV. SUBSEQUENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SITUATION 8. Between 4 and 21 November 2006, the President of the Republic carried out the consultations he held alluded to in his address to the Nation. He successively met with the representatives of the various religious faiths, the youth, women, trade unions, economic operators, communities of the different regions of Côte d Ivoire, as well as representatives of nationals of ECOWAS and of France. RHDP gave orders to its militants and sympatizers not to participate in the consultations and, instead, during the same period, organized demonstrations in support of Resolution 1721 (2006). 9. The recommendations arising from these consultations can be summed up as follows: Departure of the Licorne Force and elimination of the confidence zone; Formation of a new Government in line with the Ivorian constitution; Disarmament and extension of State authority throughout the territory; and
4 Page 3 Establishment of direct dialogue with the rebellion without an intermediary. 10. Meanwhile, while preparing for the various tasks spelt out in the roadmap and prior to their effective implementation, the Prime Minister waited for the end of the consultations initiated by the President of the Republic and the conclusions the latter might draw therefrom. The two personalities met on 23 November 2006 without being able to harmonize their positions to end the crisis. 11. On 26 November 2006, the President signed presidential decrees reinstating the Governor of the district of Abidjan, the Director General of Customs and the Director General of the Autonomous Port of Abidjan after their three month suspension by the Prime Minister following the scandal concerning the dumping of toxic waste in several sites in Abidjan. The already strained relations between the President and the Prime Minister following the adoption of resolution 1721 and their respective statements, deteriorated significantly. The Prime Minister expressed his disapproval in a Communiqué read on the Radio Télévision Ivoirienne (RTI) by the Secretary General in the Office of the Prime Minister. 12. It is worth pointing out that by 22 November 2006, the Commission of Inquiry set up by the Prime Minister to shed light on the scandal surrounding the toxic waste had submitted its report. The report implicated the three personalities referred to above and accused them of serious administrative misconduct. Reacting to the presidential decrees in a Communiqué, the Prime Minister observed that the implementation of these decisions would no doubt constitute a major obstacle to the fight against impunity, which is the cornerstone of Government policy. He concluded by saying in view of the aforesaid and in order to preserve public peace and order, it is imperative to defer the implementation of the decisions. The President considered the Communiqué seditious, pointing out that RTI Management had committed a serious mistake by allowing it to be broadcast. Consequently, he issued two decrees dismissing the RTI Director General and dissolving its Board of Directors respectively. 13. It is against this background that the International Working Group (IWG) held its first ministerial meeting following the adoption of Resolution 1721(2006). The Group noted with grave concern the delay in the implementation of the resolution and the deterioration of the political climate in Côte d Ivoire, due essentially to the management of the serious toxic waste crisis. It encouraged the Prime Minister in his efforts to fight impunity and disapproved of the sacking of the Directors General of RTI and Fraternité Matin, the Government-sponsored paper, as well as the dissolution of the Boards of Directors of these companies. The Group deemed the release of the sacked officials of vital necessity. After inviting the Prime Minister to take or initiate immediate measures for the resumption of the identification process, the preparation of the elections, the disarmament, the demobilization of ex-combatants, the dismantling and disarmament of the militias, the reform of the security sector and the code of conduct for the media, the IWG recommended that the AU mediation initiate the necessary contacts as a matter of urgency to restore a conducive climate to end the crisis in Côte d Ivoire.
5 Page Starting from 30 November 2006, those youth supporting the RHDP staged a demonstration aimed at paralyzing those cities of the country under government control, in reaction to the presidential decrees reinstating the Governor of the District of Abidjan and the Directors General of Customs and of the Autonomous Port of Abidjan. The demonstration, which continued until 21 December 2006, affected to various degrees some districts of Abidjan and some cities of the country. It was punctuated by violence, which was severely suppressed by the Security Forces, resulting in five dead, more than fifteen wounded and considerable damage to properly. 15. At the same time, the Catholic Bishops of Côte d Ivoire took some initiatives. After meeting separately with the President and the Prime Minister on 6 and 7 December respectively, they facilitated a meeting of the two on 13 December at the Presidential Palace. The objective was to get then to work hand-in-hand and in genuine collaboration. Furthermore, in keeping with the IWG recommendation, a delegation of the Mediation Group traveled to Nigeria, Niger, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Congo from 12 to 15 December to meet and brief Presidents Olusegun Obasanjo, Mamadou Tandja, Blaise Compaoré and Denis Sassou N guesso on the situation prevailing in Côte d Ivoire and solicit their support for the implementation of resolution On 20 December the delegation attended the ECOWAS Council of Ministers Session to brief the latter about the deadlock in the peace process in Côte d Ivoire. The delegation requested that the ECOWAS Summit be informed of the situation and help end the crisis. 16. It is against this background that President Gbagbo once again addressed the nation on 19 December 2006 to unveil his five-point plan to end the crisis, namely: The establishment of direct dialogue with the rebellion with a view to the disarmament and reunification of the country; The elimination of the confidence zone; The creation of a national civic service; A general amnesty; The establishment of a programme to assist war displaced people. 17. Initially, the RHDP, as early as 20 December 2006, rejected these proposals which it described as delaying tactics designed to ignore the political opposition and disqualify ECOWAS, the AU and the Security Council. Forces nouvelles, it was only on 1 January 2007 that the Forces nouvelles reacted to the proposal made by the Head of State regarding the direct dialogue. In his statement on the occasion of the New Year, Guillaume Soro, the Secretary General of Forces nouvelles, said, among other things, that no one has the right to reject dialogue and consultation if the objective sought is peace. He however added that such a dialogue cannot be envisaged outside Resolution 1721 (2006). He also addressed the G7 made up of RHDP and Forces nouvelles and asked for an urgent consultation. At the end of their meeting of 18 January 2007, the leaders of the G7 gave the Secretary General of Forces nouvelles the green light to embrace the proposed direct dialogue with the Head of State and encouraged him to take part in the said dialogue in order to help break the deadlock but strictly within the confines of resolution 1721.
6 Page The IWG held its twelfth meeting on 12 January On that occasion, it noted that there was a total impasse and called on the Security Council to urge the current Chairpersons of ECOWAS and the AU to convene a meeting of the Ivorian political parties as soon as possible to get things moving again and revive the full implementation of Resolution 1721 and to send an ad hoc mission of the Security Council to Côte d Ivoire to backstop the action of the African leaders in the view to support African leaders action and to secure a firm commitment from the Ivorian parties to implement Resolution 1721 in its totality. In light of the direct dialogue proposed by the Head of State, the Group reaffirmed its commitment to a permanent consultation among the Ivorian parties with a view to a comprehensive implementation of Resolution In the framework of the efforts deployed by the international community, the ECOWAS Assembly of Heads of State and Government,, held in Ouagadougou on 19 January 2007, expressed its grave concern over the persistent crisis in Côte d Ivoire. The Heads of State underscored the need to find an urgent solution to the crisis based on the immediate and concomitant launching of the identification and armed groups disarmament programmes in order to create the conditions conducive to the organization of free elections by They called on the Ivorian political forces to cooperate in the implementation of Resolution 1721 (2006). They welcomed the step taken by President Laurent Gbagbo to initiate dialogue with the Minister of State, Guillaume Soro, and invited the Current Chairperson of ECOWAS to facilitate that dialogue to give impetus to the peace process. The Assembly also decided in concert with the AU to dispatch a high level delegation to the permanent members of the Security Council to explore, in the aftermath of the dialogue, possible ways and means of ensuring a scrupulous and speedy implementation of Resolution The Assembly invited the Untied Nations Security Council to visit Côte d Ivoire to give further impetus to the peace process. The 8 th Ordinary Session of the AU Assembly of Heads of State and Government, held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 29 to 30 January 2007, urged the Ivorian parties, with the support of ECOWAS, the AU, the United Nations and the international community, to redouble their efforts to bring to a successful conclusion the peace process on the basis of resolution 1721, through the direct dialogue proposed by President Laurent Gbagbo and backed by ECOWAS and the AU. 20. Within the context of the direct dialogue, Mr. Desiré Tagro, Special Envoy of President Gbagbo, accompanied by Mr. Djibril Bassole, Minister of State, Minister of Security of Burkina Faso, went to Bouake on 30 January 2007 to establish a first direct contact with Forces nouvelles. At the end of the working session he had with his hosts, the emissary of the Ivorian Head of State said: the fight is over; it is time to hug one another and leave the ring. For his part, the representative of the President of Burkina Faso, after hailing the historic role played by the previous mediations, praised the willingness of the various parties to talk to each other, to hold out their hands to one another and to build peace. Mr. Guillaume Soro said that Forces nouvelles is most willing to hold discussions within the framework of Resolution 1721, adding that with the arrival of Mr. Tagro in a formerly besieged area, a taboo has been broken. He paid tribute to President Gbagbo for his commitment to discuss with them and thereby pave the way for peace and reconciliation in Côte d Ivoire.
7 Page At its 11 th meeting held on 31 January 2007, the Mediation Group took stock of its visit to Bouake at the invitation of Forces nouvelles for an update on the modalities of the direct dialogue. The Group was given the assurance that the dialogue in question forms part of the implementation of Resolution In this connection, the Group decided to observe carefully the progress of the direct dialogue and to continue to monitor, together with the Prime Minister, the implementation of the resolution. It was informed of the ongoing consultations with the French Group SAGEM as the private operator for the identification process. 22. On 4 February 2007, the delegations of the presidential camp and of Forces nouvelles arrived in Ouagadougou and entered into the active phase of the direct dialogue the following day, i.e. 5 February. The same day, Prime Minister Charles Konan Banny received the officials of the local and international media to share with them his understanding of the Ivorian crisis which he is mandated to bring to a conclusion. On that occasion, he proposed to the parties involved in the direct dialogue that the last impediments to a more rapid progress be removed by allowing, in addition to the new provision raising the number of jurisdictions to 208, the enactment of an ordinance which will extend the powers of the judges as regards the issuance of certificate of nationality in areas under their jurisdictions. 23. The Ouagadougou direct dialogue between the presidential camp and the Forces Nouvelles, which started on 5 February 2007 and were facilitated by President Blaise Compaoré, was conducted with great discretion. The facilitator conducted separate consultations with each of the two delegations as well as some personalities of the international community, notably the interim head of ONUCI, the High Representative for Elections in Côte d Ivoire and the commanders of ONUCI and Licorne forces. He also consulted the leadership of RDR and of PDCI-RDA. 24. It is against this background that the members of the Security Council heard the end of mission report of Mr. Pierre Schori, Special Representative of the outgoing Secretary General and took note of the report in which ECOWAS noted the stalemate in the peace process. The Council expressed its grave concern over the delay in the implementation of the ECOWAS decisions, which were endorsed by the AU Peace and Security Council and the UN Security Council in its Resolution 1721 (2006). The members of the Council welcomed the commitment of President Laurent Gbagbo and the Secretary General of Forces nouvelles to dialogue in order to move the peace process forward, with the support of all the Ivorian parties. They encouraged President Blaise Compaoré to facilitate the rapid conclusion of an agreement. They pointed out that this dialogue must form part of the implementation of resolution 1721 (2006). The members of the Council emphasized that the existence of neutral and impartial official media and the immediate and simultaneous launching of a citizens identification programme and armed groups identification programme are a sine qua non for the organization of free, fair and credible elections by 31 October 2007.
8 Page On 12 February 2007, President Gbagbo officially opened a four day seminar at the Grand Bassam West Africa Industrial Institute to give the broad outlines of the national civic service, the fourth component of the proposals to end the crisis which he tabled before his fellow citizens on 19 December The seminar brought together political, administrative and military authorities, as well as youth training and integration structures, technical training and financial institutions. He has reflected on ways and means integrating 40,000 youths in vocational life. 26. It was in this atmosphere of anxious anticipation of the imminent results of the Ouagadougou direct dialogue that the IWG held its 13 th ministerial meeting on 2 March After listening to the report of the Minister of State Youssouf Ouedraogo, Representative of the current Chair of ECOWAS on the progress made in the direct dialogue, the Group commended President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso for his untiring facilitation efforts. The Group urged him to continue his efforts to reach an agreement that could give new impetus to the peace process in Côte d Ivoire in fulfillment of the expectations of the Ivorian people. The Group also considered the preoccupying issue of the Ivorian state media (RTI) and observed that since the decrees of 26 November 2006, the impartiality of RTI and Fraternité Matin as well as fair access of the different political forces to these media could no longer be guaranteed as stipulated in the Pretoria Accords. It recalled that the independence and impartiality of state media were indispensable to the holding of free, transparent and fair elections and that they were a necessity if the electoral campaign was to conform to international norms. 27. The direct dialogue, began on 5 February 2007, culminated in the signing, on 4 March 2007, of the Ouagadougou political Agreement between the President of the Republic, Laurent Gbagbo, and the Secretary General of the Forces Nouvelles, Guillaume Kigbafori Soro, with the facilitation of President Blaise Compaoré, President of Burkina Faso and current Chair of ECOWAS. This Agreement (herein annexed) contains principally the following decisions: a) On the identification of the general population - Public hearings shall be launched across the entire national territory as soon as the new Government identified in the Agreement is in place; these exceptional operations of public hearings shall last for three months and issue only declaratory judgments in place of birth certificates; - Civil status registries lost or destroyed in some civil status centres shall be reconstituted; - After the public hearings, the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) shall, on the basis of the year 2000 electoral list, conduct an electoral census; all Ivorians of at least eighteen years old who have a birth certificate or a declaratory judgment shall be eligible to register on the electoral list;
9 Page 8 - All citizens who enroll on the electoral list shall be issued a receipt bearing their unique identification number which shall be required to issue them a voter s card and the new national identity card; - After the validation of the electoral list by the IEC, a decree issue by the Council of Ministers shall authorize the issuance of the new national identity card to all those who appear on the final electoral list; the final list shall serve as the common database for issuing the new national identity cards and the voter s card; - The making and issuance of the new identity cards shall be the task of the Office National d identification (ONI), under the supervision of the National Identification Supervisory Commission (Commission nationale de supervision de l identification (CNSI); as for the identification operation, the Government shall launch a tender, with the agreement of the two parties, for a technical operator appointed by decree taken in the Council of Ministers. b) On the electoral process: - registration on the electoral list shall be done by the Institut national de la statistique (INS) and the technical operator designated by Government for the identification; the two operators shall carry out their functions under the supervision of the IEC; - under the authority of the IEC, the INS and the technical operator designated by Government shall work jointly to establish voters cards; a decree taken in the Council of Ministers shall spell out the details of this collaboration. c) On the defence and security forces: - A special mechanism for the restructuring and re-establishment of the Army shalll be adopted by ordinance to set the general framework of organization, composition and functioning of the new Forces of Defence and Security; - an integrated Command centre tasked with unifying opposing combat forces and implementing restructuring measures of the Forces of Defence and Security of Côte d Ivoire shall be created; the Centre shall adopt its organigramme and shall be placed under the joint command of the Chief of General Staff of the FANCI forces and the Chief of Staff of FAFN; it shall be equally composed of officers appointed by the two Chiefs of Staff; - within the shortest time possible, the disarmament of opposing combat forces shall be undertaken, in accordance with the recommendations of the Linas-Marcoussis Accords and in accordance with modalities provided in different military agreements;
10 Page 9 - the civic service, intended to cater for all Ivorian Youth and their training for employment, will also welcome all youths who have acquainted themselves with the use of arms in war, so that they too may be trained for future civil or military employment. d) On the restoration of State authority and redeployment of the administration - The redeployment of the administration and public services shall be done by all the ministries concerned, under the authority of the Prime Minister, as soon as the confidence zone and observation posts are dismantled; - the appointment of the heads of major administrative services shall be done after consultation between the two parties; - police Forces and the Gendarmerie, including the 600 elements from the Pretoria Agreement, shall be charged with ensuring the security of the prefectoral corps and the deployed technical services. e) On the institutional framework of execution - The two Parties to the Dialogue have agreed to put in place a new institutional framework for execution; the transitional Government shall work in the spirit of permanent concertation, complimentarity and open to other Ivorian political forces. f) On national reconciliation measures, peace, security and free movement of persons and goods - The two parties have agreed to request the United Nations Security Council to lift the embargo on arms within a period of three months after the organization of presidential elections and an immediate special authorization to import light arms necessary for the maintenance of order and public security, under the control of the Integrated Command Centre; - The two parties agree to request the Impartial Forces to gradually dismantle the confidence zone; - they have also agreed to adopt, by ordinance, a new amnesty law; to seize the African Union, by the intermediary of ECOWAS, to request the United Nations Security Council to lift with immediate effect, the individual sanctions imposed on the actors in the Ivorian crisis; to put in place a programme of aid to displaced returnees of the war and commit themselves to good conduct.
11 Page 10 g) On the follow-up mechanism and concertation - The parties agree to establish a permanent concertation framework (CPC) and an Evaluation and Support Committee (CEA); the CPC, the watchdog and permanent dialogue organ, is made of the President of the Republic, Laurent Gbagbo, the Secretary General of the Forces Nouvelles, Mr. Guillaume K. Soro, the President of RDR, Mr. Alassane Dramane Ouattara, the President of PDCI, Mr. Henri Konan Bédié, and the current Chair of ECOWAS as Facilitator, Mr. Blaise Compaoré; - the CEA, charged with the periodic evaluation of the implementation of the Agreement and of making all practical proposals to assist the execution of the Agreement, is made of the Facilitator or his Representative (Chair) and three representatives for each of the two signatory parties (Members); the two parties shall, by common consent, enlarge the CEA to include other members of the Ivorian political class; the Facilitator shall call upon any other observer, country and international organizations or inter-african representative that he may deem necessary; the CEA shall meet at least once a month in ordinary session and, as need be, in extraordinary session convened by its Chair; the CEA shall report to the CPC on the implementation of the Agreement and keep the Special Representative of the Secretary General of the United Nations informed. h) Miscellaneous and final provisions - The parties undertake to submit to the arbitration of the Facilitator in case of differences in interpretation or the implementation of the Agreement; - the parties agree to request additional African troops to participate in the Peace mission of the Impartial Forces in Côte d Ivoire; - the timetable attached to the Agreement is part and parcel of the Agreement; - the parties agree to request the Facilitator, to seize, by the intermediary of the African Union Commission, the United Nations Security Council to endorse the Agreement. 28. The timetable annexed to the Agreement provides for an execution time of 10 months for all the operations with especially five weeks, after the signing of the Agreement, for the formation of a Government. The dismantling of the militia, combatant groups, redeployment of the administration and the relaunching of public hearings will start two weeks after the formation of the said Government while registration on the electoral list and identification will start one month after the beginning of public hearings.
12 Page 11 V. OBSERVATION 29. The Ouagadougou political Agreement was welcomed by the Ivorian populations and by all the Ivorian political parties. It offers a palpable opportunity to end the crisis and thus it is incumbent upon the African Union to lend its weight to it, especially in the provisions of the Agreement where its support is solicited.
COMUNIDADE ECONOMICA DOS ESTADOS DA AFRICA OCIDENTAL ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES COMMUNAUTE ECONOMIQUE DES ETATS DE L AFRIQUE DE L OUEST EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF THE AUTHORITY OF HEADS OF
United Nations S/RES/1674 (2006) Security Council Distr.: General 28 April 2006 Resolution 1674 (2006) Adopted by the Security Council at its 5430th meeting, on 28 April 2006 The Security Council, Reaffirming
Action Group for Syria Final Communiqué 30.06.2012 1. On 30 June 2012, the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and the League of Arab States, the Foreign Ministers of China, France, Russia, United
Resolution 1244 (1999) Adopted by the Security Council at its 4011th meeting, on 10 June 1999 The Security Council, Bearing in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and
United Nations S/RES/1896 (2009) Security Council Distr.: General 30 November 2009 Resolution 1896 (2009) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6225th meeting, on 30 November 2009 The Security Council,
United Nations S/RES/1820 (2008) Security Council Distr.: General 19 June 2008 Resolution 1820 (2008) Adopted by the Security Council at its 5916th meeting, on 19 June 2008 The Security Council, Reaffirming
THE ROLE OF ECOWAS IN SECURITY SECTOR & JUSTICE REFORM AND REGIONAL DYNAMICS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE SSR 1. ECOWAS regional approach to SSR Insertion of security as insurance for and complement to regional
AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA P. O. Box 3243 Telephone : +251-115- 517 700 Fax : +251-115- 517844 website : www. africa-union.org REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF EMINENT
United Nations S/RES/2177 (2014) Security Council Distr.: General 18 September 2014 Resolution 2177 (2014) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7268th meeting, on 18 September 2014 The Security Council,
AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA P. O. Box 3243 Telephone 517 700 Cables: AU, ADDIS ABABA ASSEMBLY OF THE AFRICAN UNION First Ordinary Session 9 10 July 2002 Durban, SOUTH
United Nations S/RES/1889 (2009) Security Council Distr.: General 5 October 2009 (E) *0954255* Resolution 1889 (2009) Adopted by the Security Council at its 6196th meeting, on 5 October 2009 The Security
AFRICAN UNION MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON COOPERATION IN THE AREA OF PEACE AND SECURITY BETWEEN THE AFRICAN UNION, THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC COMMUNITIES AND THE COORDINATING MECHANISMS OF THE REGIONAL STANDBY
AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA Addis Abéba, ETHIOPIE Boîte postale: 3243 Téléphone 513822 Fax : 519321 E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org EIGHTY-SEVENTH ORDINARY SESSION OF THE CENTRAL ORGAN
SYMPOSIUM ENHANCING WOMEN S SHARE IN PEACE AND SECURITY Good practice, gaps and challenges in the implementation of the women, peace and security agenda emerging trends and priorities in 21st century security
Draft Resolution for the United Nations Human Rights Council 30 th Session, September 14-25, 2015 Situation of Human Rights in Venezuela The Human Rights Council, Guided by the Charter of the United Nations
COMMUNIQUÉ The West Africa Consultative Conference on the Right to a Nationality and Statelessness: Challenges and Opportunities, co-organised by Open Society Initiative for West Africa (OSIWA) and the
AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF ERITREA The Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Government
Human Rights Council Resolution 9/10. Human rights and transitional justice The Human Rights Council, Guided by the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International
THE UNION OF INTERNATIONAL MOUNTAIN LEADER ASSOCIATIONS UIMLA UIMLA Statute www.uimla.org Date created May 2010 (Barcelona) Authors UIMLA statute Working Group Date modified 05 November 2010 Reviewed by
Annex 1 Primary sources for international standards 1. The United Nations The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 20 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
1 AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA P. O. Box 3243, Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA Tel.: (251-11) 5525849 Fax: (251-11) 5525855 Website: www.africa-union.org SECOND AFRICAN UNION CONFERENCE OF MINISTERS
-- Select a year -- Year 2011 Selected En Français N : 040/2011 25 March 2011 [Abuja - Nigeria] FINAL COMMUNIQUE OF THE THIRTY-NINTH ORDINARY SESSION OF THE AUTHORITY OF HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT 1.
Articles of Constitution Association of Public Finance Accountants of Sri Lanka (APFASL) 1 INTERPRETATION The words standing in the first column of the following table shall bear the meaning set opposite
Security Council SC/11453 25 June 2014 Department of Public Information News and Media Division New York Security Council 7210 th Meeting (PM) UNANIMOUSLY ADOPTING RESOLUTION 2164 (2014), SECURITY COUNCIL
Diversity of Cultural Expressions 1.EXT.IGC Distribution limited CE/08/1.EXT.IGC/Dec. Rev. 2 Paris, 20 August 2008 Original: English / French INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PROTECTION AND PROMOTION
Salvador Declaration on Comprehensive Strategies for Global Challenges: Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Systems and Their Development in a Changing World We, the States Members of the United Nations,
Joint Declaration On the Establishment of the Regional Co-operation Council (RCC) Representatives of the Participating States of the South East European Co-operation Process (SEECP), the United Nations
MC.DEC/3/11 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Ministerial Council Vilnius 2011 Original: ENGLISH Second day of the Eighteenth Meeting MC(18) Journal No. 2, Agenda item 8 DECISION No.
AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA P. O. Box 3243 Telephone 517 Fax: 517844 REVISED FOLLOW UP MECHANISM FOR IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND EVALUATIONOF THE PLAN OF ACTION
THE LAW ON NATIONAL COUNCILS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES I. GENERAL PROVISIONS Article 1 This law governs the competences of the national minority councils (hereinafter referred to as the national councils)
LAW NO. 40/2006 OF 25 AUGUST 2006 LAW ON THE ORDER OF PRECEDENCE OF THE PROTOCOL OF THE PORTUGUESE STATE Pursuant to Article 161 c) of the Constitution, the Assembly of the Republic decrees the following:
The Poznan Statement on the Reforms of the United Nations Human Rights Treaty Body System International Seminar of Experts on the Reforms of the United Nations Human Rights Treaty Body System Poznan, 28-29
February 2007 Number 1 Ensuring Civilian Protection in Chad: The Proposed UN Mission Summary... 1 Context...3 Requirements for the Proposed UN Mission in Chad...5 The Mandate...5 The Military and Protection...
COMISSÂO DA CEDEAO ECOWAS COMMISSION COMMISSION DE LA CEDEAO ECOWAS COMMON POSITION ON THE ARMS TRADE TREATY COTONOU, DECEMBER 2010 1 BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION 1. During its 55 th plenary meeting on
Ss Michael & John s Primary School, Horsham School Community School Advisory Council Drafted August, 2014 Ratified October, 2014 Reviewed Central Value: Christian Service Scriptural Context: Having gifts
S. 2125 One Hundred Ninth Congress of the United States of America AT THE SECOND SESSION Begun and held at the City of Washington on Tuesday, the third day of January, two thousand and six An Act To promote
- 1 - CATHAY PACIFIC AIRWAYS LIMITED (Amended and restated with effect from 3rd March 2014) This Code sets out the corporate governance practices followed by the Company. The Board and its responsibilities
309 TH SESSION OF THE GOVERNING BODY OF THE ILO AFRICAN GROUP MEETING Remarks By Mr. Charles Dan ILO Regional Director for Africa 17 November 2010 Geneva, Switzerland 1 P age Honourable Ministers, Dear
PRINCIPAL FAMILY COURT JUDGE S CHAMBERS FAMILY COURT PRACTICE NOTE LAWYER FOR THE CHILD: SELECTION, APPOINTMENT AND OTHER MATTERS 1 BACKGROUND 1.1 The terms of this Practice Note have been settled in consultation
PERSPECTIVE REGIONAL SECURITY POLICY IN WEST AFRICA ECOWAS in Crisis Mode Strengths and limits of regional security policy in West Africa SEBASTIAN SPERLING February 2011 The Economic Community of West
Expert Seminar Engagement with Non-State Armed Groups in Peace Processes Sept. 14 th and 15 th, 2010, Berlin Background: Non-state armed groups (NSAG) conflict regions. By exercising armed violence and
United Nations A/RES/65/281 General Assembly Distr.: General 20 July 2011 Sixty-fifth session Agenda items 13 and 115 Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [without reference to a Main Committee (A/65/L.78)]
Peace operations 2010 reform strategy (excerpts from the report of the Secretary-General) Reporting to the General Assembly on 24 February 2006 on the financing of the United Nations peacekeeping operations
Published in the Gazette of the Parliament of Georgia (November 19, 1996) Law of Georgia On Normative Acts Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 This Law shall define the types and hierarchy of normative
THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS ACT, 2012 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS Section PART I - PRELIMINARY 1 Short title and commencement. 2 Interpretation. 3 Objects and purposes of the Act. 4 Principles of intergovernmental
Statement by Ambassador Asoke K. Mukerji, Permanent Representative, at the meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Revitalization of the General Assembly, 27 April, 2015 Mr. Co-Chairs, Thank you for
United Nations S/2008/434 Security Council Distr.: General 3 July 2008 Original: English Special report of the Secretary-General pursuant to Security Council resolution 1806 (2008) on the United Nations
IFAP-2016/COUNCIL.IX/Inf 7 Paris, 4 April 2016 Original : English Distribution limited Ninth session Intergovernmental Council for the Information for All Programme 30-31 May 2016 UNESCO House, Paris (Fontenoy
Characteristics of Public Budgets in 5 Latin American Countries The Latin American Network for Legislative Transparency is a network of civil society organizations in Latin America that promote transparency,
Sample PPC Foundation Documents Many diocesan models are powerful embodiments of the vision of the Second Vatican Council. They can be found on diocesan websites throughout the country. One example can
PROTOCOL TO THE AFRICAN CHARTER ON HUMAN AND PEOPLES` RIGHTS ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN AFRICAN COURT ON HUMAN AND PEOPLES` RIGHTS The Member States of the Organization of African Unity hereinafter referred
International Conference on the Great Lakes Region Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance 1 st December 2006 PREAMBLE We, Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the International Conference
Peacebuilding Commission Informal meeting of the Organizational Committee 9 April 2014 Summary of the Discussion Background On 9 April 2014, the Organizational Committee of the Peacebuilding Commission
124 CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC Vladimíra Trnkócyová 56 General background Historical overview and future vision of investigation in the Slovak Republic The 2001 Accession Partnership
Ensuring protection European Union Guidelines on Human Rights Defenders I. PURPOSE 1. Support for human rights defenders is already a long-established element of the European Union's human rights external
This policy paper defines a general strategy for the Office of the Prosecutor, highlights the priority tasks to be performed and determines an institutional framework capable of ensuring the proper exercise
Date Secrétariat Fédération Rue de la Loi 83 Général des Experts 1040 Bruxelles 31 March 2003 Comptables Tél. 32 (0) 2 285 40 85 Européens Fax: 32 (0) 2 231 11 12 E-mail: email@example.com Mr Ronald S
United Nations The Arms Trade Treaty Preamble The States Parties to this Treaty, Guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, Recalling Article 26 of the Charter of the United
CASE STUDY: Afghanistan Afghanistan: An Electoral Management Body Evolves Reginald Austin Although elections were held in the Kingdom of Afghanistan in the 1960s, in 1977 after the 1973 coup d état, and
Cyber Stability 2015 Geneva, 09 July 2015 African Union Perspectives on Cybersecurity and Cybercrime Issues. FACTS AND FIGURES As African countries increase access to broadband Internet, issues relating
July 2011 UN Strategic Results Framework on Women, Peace and Security: 2011-2020 In 2010, on the occasion of the ten-year anniversary of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on women and peace and security,
OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights Max Planck Minerva Research Group on Judicial Independence KYIV RECOMMENDATIONS ON JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE IN EASTERN EUROPE, SOUTH CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL
DISPUTE SETTLEMENT 200 UNDERSTANDING REGARDING NOTIFICATION, CONSULTATION, DISPUTE SETTLEMENT AND SURVEILLANCE Adopted on 28 November 979 (L/4907). The CONTRACTING PARTIES reaffirm their adherence to the
Realising the European Higher Education Area Communiqué of the Conference of Ministers responsible for Higher Education in Berlin on 19 September 2003 Preamble On 19 June 1999, one year after the Sorbonne
Annex 4 Political Parties Act 2007 (unofficial translation) In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate Political Parties Act, 2007 Pursuant to provisions of the Interim Constitution
Ethics at the Games of the XXX Olympiad in London Betting on the Olympic Games Table of Contents 1. Introduction... 2 2. Betting activities on the Olympic Games... 2 2.1. Prohibition of betting activities
UNITED NATIONS A General Assembly Distr. GENERAL A/RES/53/243 6 October 1999 Fifty-third session Agenda item 31 The General Assembly, RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY [without reference to a
COUNCIL OF EUROPE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS Resolution Res(2002)8 on the statute of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 13 June 2002 at the 799th
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF TIMOR-LESTE NATIONAL PARLIAMENT LAW No. /2003 INTERNAL SECURITY Ensuring internal security constitutes a pre-condition for safeguarding the peace and stability of any sovereign country
Disciplinary Policy and Procedure Policy The success of the University is dependent on its most important resource, its staff. It is therefore vital that all employees are encouraged to work to the best
THE EUROPEAN LAW INSTITUTE (ELI) AISBL IVZW IVOG ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION: Article 1: Name, Identity and Duration (1) The Association is called "European Law Institute", abbreviated ELI. It may be referred
AFRICAN UNION ROADMAP: PROGRESS IN THE FIRST YEAR Update on progress to implement the African Union Roadmap on Shared Responsibility and Global Solidarity for AIDS, TB and Malaria Response in Africa (2012
Erich Reiter and Johann Frank The European Security Strategy Austrian Perspective The following essay gives the Austrian view on the ESS from a security political perspective and analyses the needs and
United Nations General Assembly Distr.: General 12 April 2011 A/HRC/RES/16/21 Original: English Human Rights Council Sixteenth session Agenda item 1 Organizational and procedural matters Resolution adopted
Education and Early Childhood Development Legislation Reform Discussion Paper No 3 General Provisions for Education and Early Childhood Development Discussion Paper No 3 State of South Australia, 2008.
Council of the European Union Brussels, 18 December 2014 (OR. en) Interinstitutional File: 2013/0255 (APP) 16993/14 EPPO 78 EUROJUST 221 CATS 209 FIN 1006 COP 318 GAF 68 NOTE From: To: Subject: Presidency
AI Index: AMR 27/008/2014 Tuesday 3 June 2014 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC -- Open Letter to President Danilo Medina regarding law 169/14 establishing a special regime for people who were born in the national territory
Mission Report and Post Bangui Forum Action Plan for g7+ DOCUMENT FOR DISCUSSION ONLY INTERNATIONAL DIALOGUE STEERING GROUP MEETING 25 May 2015, Abidjan, Côte d Ivoire Summary Mission Report and Post Bangui
Corporate Governance Code for Shareholding Companies Listed on the Amman Stock Exchange CONTENTS Topic Page Preamble 3 Chapter One: Definitions 5 Chapter Two: The Board of Directors of the Shareholding
1 East African Community STATEMENT BY AMB. DR. RICHARD SEZIBERA, SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY AT THE OFFICIAL OPENING CEREMONY OF THE 6 TH EAC MILITARY GAMES AND CULTURAL EVENTS ON 7
CODE OF PRACTICE APPOINTMENT TO POSITIONS IN THE CIVIL SERVICE AND PUBLIC SERVICE MERIT PROBITY BEST PRACTICE ACCOUNTABILITY CONSISTENCY Published in 2007 by the Commission for Public Service Appointments
THE INITIATIVE OF THE VOLUNTARY PRINCIPLES ON SECURITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS GOVERNANCE RULES As approved by the Plenary on September 16, 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION I. General Provisions... 1 SECTION II.
African Security Dialogue and Research (ASDR) REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON THE STATE OF THE PRIVATE SECURITY SERVICE PROVIDERS IN GHANA 23RD JULY, 2008 MENSVIC HOTEL EAST LEGON - ACCRA African Security Dialogue
Organisation pour l Harmonisation en Afrique du Droit des Affaires Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa Organización para la Armonización en África del Derecho Mercantil Organização
EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE GREAT LAKES REGION SECRÉTARIAT EXÉCUTIF CONFÉRENCE INTERNATIONALE SUR LA RÉGION DES GRANDS LACS LUSAKA DECLARATION OF THE ICGLR SPECIAL SUMMIT TO FIGHT