Grup 6: Şarj Sistemi Geliştirilmesi; Elektrikli Araçlarda EMC Optimizasyonu; Enerji Dağıtım Şebekeleri ile Entegrasyon

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1 Grup 6: Şarj Sistemi Geliştirilmesi; Elektrikli Araçlarda EMC Optimizasyonu; Enerji Dağıtım Şebekeleri ile Entegrasyon Moderatörler: Burak Kelleci (Okan Üniversitesi) Murat Yılmaz (İTÜ) 6/22/2015 1

2 Proje Moderatörler: Burak Kelleci (Okan Üniversitesi) Murat Yılmaz (İTÜ) 6/22/2015 2

3 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging System and Power Levels GRID Off-Board Charging On-Board Charging On-Board C. Level 2 (1-3~ 240Vac) Private or public Level 3 (3~ AC - DC) Commercial, like a gas station Level 1 (1~ 120Vac) Home garage or office Charge Connector Wheel Wheel On/Off Board Battery Charger AC DC AC-DC Converter L PFC Traction drive: 30 kw and up C DC DC DC-DC Converter Power Flow (Birectional/Unidirectional) Battery Pack C DC-Bus DC DC Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Traction Drive DC AC Electric Motor Unidirectional Regenerative Braking Electronic Loads (Light, Heater, Aux, etc.) Wheel T, w Wheel Differential Electric Propulsion System is like the heart of the PEV, plays vital role in vehicular electrification. 6/22/2015 3

4 Battery Chargers for Plug-in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Battery chargers play a critical role in the development of PHEVs and EVs. Charging time and battery life are linked to the characteristics of the battery charger. A battery charger must be efficient and reliable, with high power density, low cost, and low volume and weight. 6/22/2015 4

5 Introduction Four important barriers include: 1. Lack of charging infrastructure. 2. High cost and cycle life of batteries. 3. Complications of battery chargers and electric machines. 4. Resistance from automotive and oil sectors, and social, political, cultural and technical obstacles. Economic costs, emissions benefits, and distribution system impacts of PEVs depend on: Vehicle and battery characteristics and capacity. Charging/discharging frequency and strategies. Power capacity of electrical connection and market value. PEV penetration. 6/22/2015 5

6 ZigBee, Bluetooth Z-wave, HomePlug On-board and off-board intelligent metering and control. Smart metering can make PEVs controllable loads. 6

7 Charging Power Levels and Infrastructure for PEVs Power Level Types Charger Location Typical Use Expected Power Level Charging Time Vehicle Technology Level 1 (Opportunity, slow) 120 Vac (US) 230 Vac (EU) Level 2 (Primary, semi-fast) 240 Vac (US) 400 Vac (EU) Level 3 (Public, DC Fast) (up to 600Vac or dc) On-board 1-phase Dedicated On-board 1 or 3 phase Off-board 3-phase, high power Charging at home or office Charging at private or public Charging at station 1.4kW (12A) 1.9kW (20A) 4kW (17A) 8kW (32 A) 19.2kW (80A) 50kW 100kW 4 11 h h Overnight 1 4 h 2 6 h 2 3 h h h PHEVs (5-15kWh) PEVs (16-50kWh) PHEVs (5-15 kwh) PEVs (16 30kWh) PEVs (30 50kWh) PEVs (20 50kWh) PEVs (50 100kWh) Wide availability of chargers can address range anxiety. A lower charge power is an advantage for utilities seeking to minimize on-peak impact. High-power rapid charging can increase demand and has the potential to quickly overload local distribution equipment at the peak times. 6/22/2015 7

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10 Şarj Noktaları ve Maliyetleri 6/22/

11 Charger Cost, Location Level 1 and 2 will be the primary options. Charging stations are expected to use Level 2 or 3 installed in parking lots, shopping centers, hotels, rest stops, restaurants. Fast charging can stress the grid distribution network because power is high: typical PEVs more than double an average household load. Level 1 charging: cost reported as $500 - $900 but usually integrated into vehicle. Level 2 charging: cost reported as $ $3000 (Tesla Roadster). Level 3 charging: cost reported as $30,000 - $160,000. J1772 combo connector for ac or dc Level 1 and Level 2 charging. SAE International, SAE s J1772 combo connector for ac and dc charging advances with IEEE s help, retrieved Sept 8, 2011 [Online]. Available: 11 6/22/

12 Battery Type and Energy All- Electric Range Connector Type Level 1 Charging Level 2 Charging DC Fast Charging Demand Charge Time Demand Charge Time Demand Charge Time Toyota Prius PHEV2012 Li-Ion 4.4kWh 14 miles SAE J kW (120V) 3 hours 3.8kW (240V) 2.5 hours N/A N/A Chevrolet Volt PHEV Li-Ion 16kWh 40 miles SAE J kw 5 8 hours 3.8kW 2 3 hours N/A N/A Mitsubishi i-miev EV Li-Ion 16kWh 96 miles SAE J1772 JARI/TEPCO 1.5kW 7 hours 3kW 14 hours 50kW 30 minutes Nissan Leaf EV Li-Ion 24kWh 100 miles SAE J1772 JARI/TEPCO 1.8kW hours 3.3kW 6 8 hours 50 + kw minutes Tesla Roadster EV Li-Ion 53kWh 245 miles SAE J kW 30 + hours kw 4 12 hours N/A N/A 6/22/

13 Power Electronics In order to over come hurdles and to meet the EV/HEV/ PHEV/FCV electrical power requirement, the current research and development is focused on some technical challenges; Development of new PEC (inverter, DC DC converter, rectifier) topology that reduces the part counts, size and cost of the converters, Reduction of passive element like capacitor and inductors that increases reliability, Reduction of EMI and current ripples. Suitable integration and packaging of these components will give the compactness in design which will lead significant reduction in over all weight and cost of PECs. Therefore, to meet future requirement for sustainable development of electrified vehicle new innovations and substantial modifications in power electronic converters are necessary from component level to system. 6/22/

14 Güç Elektroniği 6/22/

15 Yeni Nesil Yarı-iletken Teknolojiler The selection of power semiconductor devices, converters /inverters, control and switching strategies, packaging of the individual units, and the system integration are very important for the development of efficient and high performance vehicles. The challenges are to have a high efficient, rugged, small size, and low cost battery charger, inverter and the associated electronics for controlling a three phase electric machine. The devices and the rest of the components need to withstand thermal cycling and extreme vibrations. 6/22/

16 Yeni Nesil Yarı-iletken Teknolojiler With the advancement of semiconductor device technology, several types of power devices with varying degrees of performance are available in the market. Presently IGBT devices are being used in almost all the commercially available EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs. The IGBTs will continue to be the technology in the near future until the Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) based devices are commercially available at a cost similar to that of silicon IGBTs. 6/22/

17 Yeni Nesil Yarı-iletken Teknolojiler 6/22/

18 Yeni Nesil Yarı-iletken Teknolojiler Achieving highest power density and a compact package considering the thermal aspects and reliability is one of the critical items for the successful deployment of power electronics systems in electric and hybrid vehicles. The original GM EV1 inverter had 4.8kW/kg, but with the advances in technology and packaging, GM is able to achieve the power densities of about 26kW/kg. 6/22/

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21 AC Requirements An PEV charger must minimize power quality impact. Draw current at high power factor to maximize power from an outlet. (IEEE-1547, the SAE-J2894, IEC and the US NEC 690) Boost active PFC topology is a typical solution. Interleaving can reduce ripple and inductor size. Multilevel converters reduces size, switching frequency, and stress of the devices and suitable for Level 3 chargers. EMI Filter Rectifier Power Factor Correction Unidirectional, Series Resonant DC/DC Converter Battery 110/220V AC I s V s EMI Filter I in D 1 D 2 D 3 C in D 4 L PFC S 0 D 0 V DC C DClink S 1 S 4 S 3 S 2 I p L r n p n s C rl m HFTR L lk2 D 1 D 2 D 3 C 0 D 4 I 0 L 0 V 0 Level 1 unidirectional full-bridge resonant charger (3.3kW). 6/22/

22 PFC (Power Factor Correction) Şebekeye bağlı güç elektroniği devreleri, şebekeye yüksek derecede harbonikler enjekte eder. Bunun sonucunda EMI, hat akımında bozulmalar ve hat akımında yükselmeler meydana gelir. Dolayısıyla şebekedeki güç kalitesinde ve güç katsayısında düşmeler oluşur. Temel olarak düşük güç katsayısı ek kayıplara, ısınmalara, erken bozulmalara, hatalı çalışmalara vb. sebep olmaktadır. Bu durumu önlemek, istenilen standartlarda güç faktörü ve harmonik değerlerini sağlamak üzere çeşitli GFD devreleri geliştirilmiştir. Aktif filtreler, şebeke akımının dalga şeklinin izlenmesine bağlı olarak oluşturulmakta, bu yüzden oldukça pahalı ve karmaşık bir yapıdaır. Pasif filtreler, ağır ve hantal olmaları, geniş hat ve yük aralığında kullanılamama gibi olumsuz özelliklere sahiptir. Bu sebeplerden dolayı son yıllarda AC-DC dönüştürücü tabanlı yüksek frekanslı GFD (boost PFC) devrelerine olan ilgi artmıştır. 6/22/

23 Boost PFC (Power Factor Correction) Boost çeviricinin girişinde bulunan endüktans giriş akımının yumuşak bir şekilde değişmesini sağlamakta, giriş akımında ki yumuşak değişimler nedeniyle EMI azalmakta ve bunun sonucunda girişte kullanılan filtrenin boyutları küçülmektedir. Ayrıca bu endüktans ile güç elemanı üzerindeki akım stresi de azalmaktadır. Böylece de güç elemanındaki kayıplar azalmaktadır. Çıkış gerilimi giriş geriliminden daha yüksek olduğundan çıkış kondansatörü daha fazla enerji depolayabilir ve çıkış kondansatörünün çıkış gerilimini tutma süresi de uzamaktadır. 6/22/

24 Boost PFC As the power level increases, the diode bridge losses significantly degrade the efficiency, so dealing with the heat dissipation in a limited area becomes problematic. Due to the constraint, this topology is good for a low to medium power range, up to approximately 1 kw. For power levels greater than 1 kw, typically, designers parallel semiconductors in order to deliver greater output power. The inductor volume also becomes a problematic design issue at high power. 6/22/

25 Bridgeless Boost PFC Köprüsüz güç faktörü düzeltme devresi ile girişte bulunan köprü doğrultucu ortadan kaldırılmaktadır. Böylece yarıiletkenlerin sayısı azalmakta, kayıplar azalarak daha verimli bir sistem oluşturulmaktadır. Fakat EMI artmakta. 6/22/

26 Interleaved Boost PFC For higher power levels, an interleaved topology can be used. The most common is a two channel interleaved operation. This is nothing different than having two boost converters in parallel and making them share the load. Yüksek güç uygulamalarında klasik yükseltici PFC yerine sarmaşık (anahtarlamalı dönüştürücülerin faz farklı paralel bağlanması - interleaved) yapıda bağlanması akım dalgalılığının azalmasını sağlar. 6/22/

27 Bridgless Interleaved Boost PFC A bridgeless interleaved topology is proposed for power levels above 3.5kW. In comparison to the interleaved boost PFC, it introduces two MOSFETs and also replaces four slow diodes with two fast diodes. The gating signals are 180 out of phase, similar to the interleaved boost. Since the topology shows high input power factor, high efficiency over the entire load range, and low input current harmonics, it is a potential option for single phase PFC in high power Level II-III battery charging applications. 6/22/

28 Power Factor Correction 6/22/

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33 Multilevel Converter Three-level diode-clamped bidirectional charger circuit Multilevel converters can reduce size and stress on devices and are suitable for high power Level 3 chargers. They allow for a smaller and less expensive filter. These converters provide a high level of power quality at input mains with reduced THD, high power factor and reduced EMI noise. They are characterized by low switch voltage stress and used in smaller energy-storage devices such as inductors and capacitors. The added complexity and additional components increase the cost and required control circuitry. 6/22/

34 AC AC AC AC AC Half-Bridge and Full-Bridge Topologies PEV chargers can be half-bridge or full-bridge. Half-bridge topology, which has fewer components and lower cost, is the simplicity of the design. However, they exhibits high component stresses. Full-bridge systems have a higher cost, since it has more components. Component stresses are lower than half-bridge. This topology requires more PWM inputs that add to the complexity and cost of control circuitry. It has a high conversion ratio and power level. I DC I DC I DC I s V s S 1 C 1 S 2 C DClink V DC I s S 1 S 3 V s C DClink V DC S 4 S 2 V a V b V c I a I b I c S 1 S 4 S 3 S 5 DC S 2 S 6 C DClink V Bidirectional DC/DC Converter C 2 (a) (b) (c) (a) Single-phase half-bridge bidirectional charger (b) Single-phase full-bridge bidirectional charger (c) There-phase full-bridge bidirectional charger 6/22/

35 Battery Charger Topologies 6/22/

36 On-board and Off-board Chargers On-board chargers limit the power because of weight, space, and cost constraints. It uses a low charging rate for a long time and must be light and compact. This solution is most suitable to a PHEV in which energy is low. An off-board charger has high power level and is less constrained by size and weight. Charging time can be less than one hour with off-board Level 3. Disadvantages include the extra cost of redundant power electronics, and risk of vandalism. 36 6/22/

37 Conductive Chargers Use metal-to-metal contact as in most appliances and electronic devices. Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Roadster, and Toyota Prius Plug-in use Level 1 and 2 conductive chargers with basic infrastructure. Conductive chargers on the Nissan Leaf and Mitsubishi use either basic infrastructure or dedicated off-board Level 3 chargers. Chevrolet Volt PHEV Nissan Leaf EV The driver needs to plug in the cord, but this is conventional problem. apteraforum.com 6/22/

38 engadget.com Inductive Chargers Similar to transformers and induction motors. They have poor magnetic coupling and high leakage flux. This charger has been tested for Level 1 and 2. Cords are eliminated. Low-power and efficiency High-cost and complexity. 110/220V AC AC Off-Board Infrastructure AC DC Paddle (Primary Transducer) DC AC I1 L1 Coupler On-Board L2 AC DC DC Bus C DC/AC Conversion High Frequency Conversion Rectifier Charge Port (Secondary Transducer) Battery Pack GM EV1 System 6/22/

39 Kablosuz (Inductive) Şarj 6/22/

40 Conductix-Wampfler Contactless Roadbed Charging Transfers power from a stationary source embedded below the pavement to secondary loads installed in a moving vehicle. They can be used to reduce battery weight and size. Inductive charging could strongly reduce the need for a fast-charging infrastructure. Low coupling and high leakage flux High reactive current Lateral misalignment Large air-gap 6/22/

41 Integrated Chargers 6/22/

42 Integrated Chargers The vehicle is parked, there is a possibility to use EM and inverter. An integrated charger decreases the system components, weight, space and cost. EM windings as inductors or an isolated transformer. The EM inverter operates as a bidirectional converter. In traction mode, the EM and inverter are used to propel the vehicle. Battery Pack DC DC DC/DC Converter 3-phase Inverter and Winding Switching Device Wheel Electric Motor L T, w Differential Wheel Low-cost & high-power, Bidirectional fast charging, Unity power factor and Isolation. Control complexity. 6/22/

43 Classic Electrical traction in a EV All three windings are used in the charging with using inexpensive switch Single-phase integrated charger 6/22/

44 Ticari Elektrik ve Hibrit Araçlar Companies/Models Year Types of EMs Companies/Models Year Types of EMs All EV Models DCM VW CityStormer 1989 PM motor Conceptor G-Van 1989 DCM BMW PM motor Fiat Panda Elettra 1990 DCM Toyota Prius PM motor Peugeot/Berlingo-Saxo 1995 DCM Honda EV Plus 1997 PM motor Peugot Partner 1999 DCM Honda Insight 2000 PM motor Reva EV 2001 DCM Honda Civic HEV (17kW) PM motor Nissan Micra HK IM Ford Escape HEV 2005 PM motor BMW 518i 1994 IM Honda Accord 2006 PM motor GM EV IM (Lead-Acid) Toyota Camry 2007 PM motor GM S IM Chevrolet Tahoe 2008 PM motor Ford Electric Ranger IM Mitsubishi i-miev 2009 PM motor BMW X IM Volvo V70 PHEV 2009 PM motor Ford Th!nk City IM Nissan Leaf 2010 (Li-based) PM motor Tesla Roadster 2008 IM (215kW) Chevrolet Volt 2011 (Li-based) PM motor Mini E 2009 IM Audi A PM motor Ford Focus EV 2010 IM Honda Jazz 2012 PM motor REVA NXR 2011 IM Toyota Prius PHEV 2012 (Li-based) PM motor Chevrolet Malibu Eco 2013 IM Ford Focus 2012 PM motor Chloride Lucas N/A SRM Volkswagen Jetta 2013 PM motor Holden /ECOmmodore 2000 SRM Lincoln MKZ 2013 PM motor 6/22/

45 G2V/V2G System Requirments and Power Flow 6/22/

46 G2V/V2G Components and Requirements Typical personal vehicles operate 4 5% of the time. In many cases, parked vehicles can support V2G capabilities. The system consists of six major subsystems: 1. Energy resources and an electric utility 2. An independent system operator and aggregator 3. Charging infrastructure and locations 4. Two-way electrical energy flow and communication between each PEV and ISO or aggregator 5. On-board and off-board intelligent metering and control. Smart metering can make PEVs controllable loads. 6. The PEV itself with its battery charger and management (BMS). 6/22/

47 ZigBee, Bluetooth Z-wave, HomePlug 47

48 Unidirectional Power Flow Power Flow - Simplifies interconnection issues - Simple control and easy management - Avoids extra battery degradation - Reactive power support (current phase angle control) - With high penetration of EVs: meets most utility objectives A bidirectional system supports charge from the grid, battery energy injection back to the grid (V2G operation). This allows: - Power Stabilization - Reactive power support - Active power regulation (Frequency and voltage) - Tracking the output of renewable energy sources - Current harmonic filtering - Load balance 6/22/

49 PEV Penetration and Charging/Discharging Strategies Uncoordinated Charging/Discharging PEV starts charging immediately when plugged in. Continues until full or disconnected. Timing can cause local distribution problems. Relatively high potential for overloads in distribution transformers and cables. System estimate based on uncoordinated charging, simulation study 2,200 EVs. [O. Sundström and C. Binding, Flexible charging optimization for electric vehicles considering distribution grid constraints, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 1, pp , March 2012] 6/22/

50 The Results of Simulation and Case Studies for Uncoordinated Charging Simulation and Case Studies United Kingdom Belgium Los Angeles California Netherlands Western Australia Danish Island of Bornholm Belgium New York Portugal Uncoordinated Charging References K. Qian, C. Zhou, M. Allan, Y. Yuan, Modeling of load demand due to EV battery charging in distribution systems, IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 26, no. 2, pp , 2011 K. Clement-Nyns, E. Haesen, and J. Driesen, The impact of charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on a residential distribution grid, IEEE Trans. Power Syst, vol. 25, no. 1, pp , Feb T. Markel, M. Kuss, and P. Denholm, Communication and control of electric drive vehicles supporting renewables, in Proc. IEEE Veh. Power Propulsion Conf., 2009, pp C. N. Shiau, C. Samaras, R. Hauffe, and J. J. Michalek, Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles, Energy Policy, vol. 37, pp , Penetration Level of PEVs 10 % 20 % Peak Load Increase (%) % 56 5 % 20 % 10 % 20 % C. Weiller, Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle impacts on hourly electricity demand in the United States, Energy Policy, vol. 39, pp , % 7 M. D. Galus, M. Zima, and G. Andersson, On integration of Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle s into existing power system structures, Energy Policy, vol. 38, no. 11, pp , Nov W. Di, D. C. Aliprantis, and K. Gkritza, Electric energy and power consumption by light duty plug-in electric vehicles, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 26, no. 2, pp , May A. De Los Ríos, J. Goentzel, K. E. Nordstrom, and C. W. Siegert, Economic analysis of vehicle-to-grid (V2G)-enabled fleets participating in the regulation service market, in Rec. IEEE Power and Energy Syst. Innovative Smart Grid Tech. Conf., January J. P. Lopes, F. Soares, and P. R. Almeida, Identifying management procedures to deal with connection of electric vehicles in the grid, in Proc. IEEE Power Tech, 2009, pp J. A. P. Lopes, F. J. Soares, P. M. Almeida, and M. M. Silva, Smart charging strategies for electric vehicles: Enhancing grid performance and maximizing the use of variable renewable energy resources, in Proc. EVS24 Int. Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell EV Symp., May 2009, pp % 31 % ,200 vehicles % 30 % % % 14 6/22/

51 PEV Penetration and Charging/Discharging Strategies Coordinated Smart Charging/Discharging Smart charging/discharging can optimize power demand and timing. Reduces daily electricity costs and system impacts. Can flatten load curves and voltage profiles. 1. Decentralized Coordination PEV charger optimizes its behavior based on price signals, dual tariff (cheap night rate). Tracks data and costs based on a prearranged contract. 2. Centralized Coordination Performed by utility or by professional aggregator. Focus on a centralized unit that directly controls PEV charging. Useful to meet various operational objectives if customer energy requirements are met. 6/22/

52 PEV Penetration and Charging/Discharging Strategies Uncoordinated Charging/Discharging Coordinated Smart Charging/Discharging - Reduces the reliability - Increase the load at peak hours - Voltage deviations - Extra power losses - Low load factor - Overload distribution transformers and cables - Increase in the electric bill - Optimizes power demand and time - Increased operating efficiency - Little effect on peak and maximizes the grid load factor. - Reduces voltage deviations, electricity costs and line currents - Balances the daily load pattern and voltage profile - Avoids incremental grid investments and high energy losses - No significant impact to transformers and cables - Maximizes utilization of renewable sources - Maximizes consumer convenience through use of available infrastructure 6/22/

53 PEV Penetration and Charging/Discharging Strategies Power Losses and Power Quality for Belgium Test Grid Without PEVs (Average Household Load) Uncoordinated Charging Coordinated Charging Peak Load (kva) Line Current (A) Node Voltage (V) Power Losses (%) (Totals in the grid) [K. Clement-Nyns, E. Haesen, and J. Driesen, The impact of charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on a residential distribution grid, IEEE Trans. Power Syst, vol. 25, no. 1, pp , Feb. 2010] 6/22/

54 Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Chevrolet Volt PHEV Toyota Prius PHEV Tesla Roadster EV Nissan Leaf EV Plug-in vehicles (PEVs) can behave either as loads (G2V) or as a distributed energy and power resource in a concept known as vehicleto-grid (V2G) connection. V2G benefits for grid operators and vehicle owners are likely to accelerate PEV deployment. Several organizations, such as IEEE, the SAE, EPRI, the Infrastructure Working Council, Europe and Japan Institutes and Automotive Companies are preparing standards and codes for system requirements at the utility/customers interface. 6/22/

55 Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Chevrolet Volt PHEV Toyota Prius PHEV Tesla Roadster EV Nissan Leaf EV Connection to the grid allows; Improve the performance of the grid such as efficiency, stability, and reliability. Reactive power support, tracking of variable renewable energy sources, current hamonic filtering, and load balancing. Reduce utility operating costs and potentially generate revenue. Researchers estimate that potential net returns from V2G methods range between $90 and $4,000 per year per vehicle based on power capacity of electrical connections, market value, PEV penetration, and PEV battery energy capacity. 55

56 Challenges of Vehicle-to-Grid Systems Although V2G systems have many benefits, increasing the number of PEVs may impact power distribution system dynamics and performance through overloading of transformers, cables, and feeders. This reduces efficiency and produces voltage deviations. The greatest challenges to a V2G transition are battery performance and the high initial costs. Some impediments and barriers to the V2G transition: battery degradation, investment cost, energy losses, resistance of automotive and oil sectors, and customer acceptance. Need for assured and secure communications. Security issues are important in the communication network at public charging facilities. An additional issue is that the distribution grid has not been designed for bidirectional energy flow; this tends to limit the service capabilities of V2G devices. 6/22/

57 Fast Charging Systems 6/22/

58 DC Fast Charging The electrical grid in all countries use AC voltages, while recharging a battery pack requires DC current. Therefore the AC must be rectified to DC. Cost and thermal issues limit the size and power capacity of a car-mounted rectifier. For very high speed charging, it may be better to locate the rectifier in an external unit, rather than mounting it in the car. Hence, the current fast charging systems use a high power DC connection between charging station and car. The rectifier is in the charging station, and most DC Fast Charge stations are the size of a large refigerator. 6/22/

59 EV Charger Systems 6/22/

60 CHAdeMO: This standard was developed in Japan, and first deployed in 2008 to support the Mitsubishi i-miev and other Japanese electric cars. The primary poster child for CHAdeMO is the Nissan Leaf. CHAdeMO wasn t approved by a standards committee for a long time, hurting the deployment of these charging stations. SAE Combo Charging System (CCS): The SAE developed this standard in lieu of adopting CHAdeMO. It wasn t approved until late 2012, and the first car with a CCS port went on sale in late 2013 (the Chevy Spark EV - a pure Compliance car of very limited production). The primary poster child for CCS is the BMW i3. Tesla Supercharger: This is the proprietary DC fast charging system developed by Tesla Motors for the Model S and Model X. Tesla is spending lots of money building a worldwide Supercharger network, and between their vehicle s long range and ultra-fast charging at Supercharger stations, the Model S is the first electric car that can do proper road trips. 6/22/

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64 ABB Terra 53 System Designed Primarily For Commercial and Fleet Application, Allows For CHAdeMO, CCS, and Level 2/Fast AC Charging 6/22/

65 CHAdeMO An example of a Level 3 quick charging system is the CHAdeMO system developed by the Japanese auto industries and proposed as a global standard. The name is an abbreviation of CHArge de MOve", equivalent to charge for moving, and is a pun for O cha demo ikaga desuka in Japanese, meaning How about some tea (while charging) in English. The CHAdeMO "fast charger" is basically a current source which can deliver up to 62.5 kw of DC at voltages between 50 Volts and 500 Volts via a proprietary electrical connector. The vehicle charger tells the charging station through the CAN Bus, the battery capacity, and at what level to set the voltage. Every 0.1 seconds the vehicle tells the charging station how much current to deliver following a very specific CC/CV charging curve profile defined in the CHAdeMO specification and finally it tells it when to stop. Safety interlocks are also managed through the CAN Bus which tests the charger circuit and the battery for any fault conditions (short circuits, high leakage currents, overheating) before the charging station can apply power to the connector preventing it from being energized before it is safe. 6/22/

66 CHAdeMO CHAdeMO is a form of DC Fast Charge, for high-voltage (up to 500 VDC) high-current (125 A) automotive fast charging via a JARI DC fast charge connector. The connector is specified by the JEVS (Japan Electric Vehicle Standard) G from the Japan Automobile Research Institute. The connector includes two large pins for DC power, plus other pins to carry CAN-BUS connections. 6/22/

67 Quick chargers are high-capacity power sources that convert alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC) as part of the charging infrastructure. Because these chargers have a high-voltage output of 500 volts, a special connector is required when charging cars. A battery management system (BMS) constantly monitors the state of the invehicle lithium-ion battery to ensure safety and reliability, and the quick charger communicates with the BMS during charging. 6/22/

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69 SAE The connector shown contains a normal J1772 connector, to allow for AC Level 1 and 2, and at the bottom two pins for a DC connection allowing for DC Level 1 and 2. BMW i3 and Volkswagen e- Golf electric cars using Combined Charging System (CCS) DC fast charging 6/22/

70 Chevrolet Spark EV at CCS fast charging station in San Diego. 6/22/

71 Tesla Motors Supercharger The charging port on the Tesla Roadster, Model S and Model X does not follow any standard. Tesla says The Supercharger is an industrial grade, high speed charger designed to replenish 160 miles of travel in about 30 minutes when applied to the 85 kwh vehicle. The port supports J1772 via an adapter. Superchargers consist of multiple Model S chargers working in parallel to deliver up to 120 kw of direct current (DC) power directly to the battery. 6/22/

72 Europe and Asian European electric cars use a J1772 connector with a different physical shape than the J1772 connectors in the U.S. Further Asian cars have multiple charge ports for their J1772 and CHAdeMO variants. 6/22/

73 Renault has unveiled yet another fast charging system, this time relying on three phase AC and a 43 kilowatt charge rate. Renault s 43 kilowatt fast charge system for ZOE and other electric cars for more details. 6/22/

74 BRUSA has announced a 23 kilowatt three phase AC charging unit that is small enough to go on-board a car. 6/22/

75 6/22/

76 Communication The DC Fast Charge communications protocol is Home Plug (or ZigBee, Z*-wave, Bluetooth. The portion of this connector that corresponds to the traditional level 2 connector uses signals over the J1772 pins to communicate various conditions. The DC Fast Charge must communicate more things, such as pack voltage, charge rate, when to back off. Additionally, for the system to support smart grid things such as borrowing electricity out of the pack, it needs to be able to read state of charge, as well as request extraction of electricity. 6/22/

77 The point is that DC Fast Charging is important, but the battle between CHAdeMO and SAE Combo and Tesla Supercharger is splitting the field. Unfortunately, while fast charging electric cars were available in 2011 (Nissan Leaf, Mitsubishi i-miev), CHAdeMO charging infrastructure didn t grow very fast. From observing the situation it seems the problem is that CHAdeMO wasn t a standard accepted by the SAE, and therefore some people in the industry were able to successfully lobby against CHAdeMO deployment. At the same time, the SAE developed their own fast charging standard (J1772 Combo Charging System), and Tesla Motors developed a proprietary fast charging system (Supercharger). 6/22/

78 The figure shows that in the EV-trendsetting state there are 324 CHAdeMO connectors, 104 CCS plugs, and 224 Tesla Superchargers, as of March These growth charts are particularly good at revealing historical trends in the market. A quick look shows that, while all the different charging standards are growing relatively quickly in California, the SAE Combo standard is about two years behind CHAdeMO, based on both current plug counts and trend lines. 6/22/

79 Horizon 2020 de Benzer Projeler CALL EUROPEAN GREEN VEHICLES INITIATIVE H2020-GV-2016/2017 Smart, green and integrated transport SOURCE: HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME (Transport_WP_ pdf) 6/22/

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