3.1 IaaS Definition. IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service

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2 3.1 IaaS Definition IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service Through the internet, provide IT server, storage, computing power and other infrastructure capacity to the end users and the service fee based on the usage amount of resources. End user use Web browser to access the service provided from specific IaaS provider. 2

3 IaaS Features--1 Lower threshold for the use Users can spent lower cost to rent and get available computing resources. They do not need to purchase a large number of hardware. The better scalability Users could dynamically increase or decrease the computing resources on-demand. 3

4 IaaS Features--2 Easier to manage Management of resources through the Internet. More flexible Through Internet, users can unrestricted control the server in the cloud. Resources more flexible Under the conditions of the user to pay, user can always enable or disable all of the resources. 4

5 Key Implementation Technologies of IaaS Server Virtualization Storage Virtualization Networking Virtualization Cloud Computing Management Platform 5

6 3.2 Key Implementation Technologies of IaaS --1:Server Virtualization Technical Terms CPU Virtualization Storage Virtualization I/O Virtualization 6

7 Technical Terms Virtual Machine( 虛 擬 機 器 ) A virtual server which generate from the server virtualization technology is called a virtual machine(vm). Guest OS( 客 體 作 業 系 統 ) Run on a virtual machine's operating system is called the guest operating system. VMM or Hypervisor( 虛 擬 機 器 管 理 器 ) The software responsible for the management of virtual machine called Virtual Machine Manager(VMM) or Hypervisor 7

8 3.2.1 Server Virtualization Hosted Architecture ( 寄 生 架 構 ) Bare-metal Architecture ( 原 生 架 構 ) 8

9 Hosted Architecture Virtual server hosted on the host OS. VMM is installed on a computer's main OS, and then create and manage virtual machines on the VMM. Because the VMM and the VM both are parasitic on the main OS, it is known as a parasitic architecture. Typical examples : Oracle Virtual Box VMware Workstation. 9

10 Parasitic Architecture Drivers Hardware Resource 10

11 Bare-metal Architecture The VMM installed directly on a physical server then produce VM through the VMM, then install other OS (such as Window, Linux, etc.) on it. Typical examples: Vmware ESX Xen KVM etc. Nowadays, widely recognized that the performance of Bare-metal VM architecture is better than the parasitic one. 11

12 Hosted Architecture Examples: XEN Hardware resource 12

13 Bare-metal Architecture Examples: VMware vsphere 13

14 3.2.2 CPU Virtualization Simulating a physical CPU into multiple virtual CPU for the use of VM. VMM responsible for virtual CPU time slice allocating and managing. 14

15 CPU Virtualization The X86CPU instructions set has o-3(4) privilege level(rating),level 0 is highest privilege, it is use to execute OS, and level 3 is lowest privilege, use to execute applications. When in the virtualization model, VMM must use the highest privilege level (level 0), while the OS on VM will be diverted to the other on the lower privilege level, it is why we have to process the VM OS-related instructions. 15

16 CPU Virtualization CPU virtualization simulation execution Through VMM to simulate, such as earlier Vmware. OS assisted CPU virtualization Using Hypercall communicate with VMM, such as Windows. Hardware assisted CPU virtualization Nowadays, hardware-assisted virtualization of CPU is the mainstream technology of VMM, such as Hyper-V, Vmware, etc.. 16

17 3.2.3 Storage Virtualization As seen through the VMM, VM memory has mapping into physical memory. There are 3 kinds of memory addresses: The machine address: hardware address of the real machine. Virtual machine physical address: pseudo-physical address of VM on VMM abstraction. Virtual address: the address provide by guest OS for application. 17

18 3.2.4 I/O Virtualization Through intercepted guest os on the I / O device access requests, using software to simulate real hardware, reuse limited external devices. Typical I/O Device Full virtualization Para-virtualization Software simulation Direct division 18

19 Full Virtualization VMM simulate network cards, disk drives and other key I / O to form a set of uniform virtual I / O devices. Where the Guest OS access to the virtual I/O device, it will be cached by VMM and then mapped to actual I / O devices. Advantages: better performance. Disadvantages: complexity VMM design 19

20 Para-Virtualization Also known as the front-end / back-end simulation On the Guest OS, it need to install special I / O Driver called the front end driver. VMM provides a simplified driver that know as the back-end (Back end driver) Advantages: Simplified VMM design. Disadvantages: It need install special I/O drivers on guest OS or modify guest OS. 20

21 Software simulation Using software simulation approach to realize virtual I / O. I/O on guest OS cached by VMM, and transfer to host OS, then through system call to simulate device action. Advantages: it could reuse current drivers. Disadvantages: lower performance, because finish an operation involving multiple registers, there's a context switch times. 21

22 Direct Division The actual I/O devices are assigned to specific virtual I/O, and guest OS directly access I/O devices without through VMM or privilege domain. Advantages: directly access I/O to reduce consumer of virtualization. Disadvantage: it need to purchase more hardware devices. Related technologies: Intel VT-d AMD IOMMU PCI-SIG IOV etc. 22

23 3.3 Key Implementation Technologies of IaaS 2: Storage Virtualization Applications File Record Layer DB FS Storage area Machine Network Block Cluster Devices Storage Device(HD etc.) Block Layer Services Fig 3.3 SNIA s Common Storage Model 23

24 3.3 Storage Virtualization--1 Storage Devices Storage Layer Virtualization Physical device on bottom layer: hard disk drivers is the most important storage device. Virtualization mainly in data block storage location (address) virtualization. The another important feature of virtual disk is to ensure zero defect of storage, when there is damage to the storage blocks, disk firmware will appreciate mapping it to spare sectors. SINA Share Storage Model 24

25 3.3 Storage Virtualization2 Block cluster layer storage Block Cluster Layer Storage Virtualization Aggregating physical storages to form an enough capacity with reliable and high performance virtual storage, then divide it into several disks for users. Divided into in-frequency and out-frequency virtualization technologies. Example such as Database as a Service; DAS Storage Area Network; SAN SINA Share Storage Model 25

26 Storage Virtualization Storage Virtualization 26

27 3.3 Storage Virtualization--3 File record layer File record layer storage virtualization Objective: to make it easier for users to use the lowerlevel storage resources. The main technologies: the file system and database system virtualization. Application instance: Network Attached Storage; NAS SINA Share Storage Model 27

28 3.4 Key Implementation Technologies of IaaS 3: Network Virtualization Purpose: integration of multiple hardware and software with related network into a resources which can unified control with a software. The key technology divided into two categories: VPN(Virtual Private Network), VLAN( Virtual Local Area Network). The technology of virtual network and virtual bridge. 28

29 Problems need to solve of virtual network How to realize virtual network on physical machine? How to dynamic adjust external network to fit the changing requirement of virtual network? How to ensure the safety of a virtual network environment? How to unified management internal and external virtual network on physical machines? 29

30 Network virtualization technology 1: Traditional network virtualization technology VPN(Virtual Private Network) For the bottom layer computer, VPN data is same as other network data. The most common application is, VPN means to create a virtual encrypted on a two or three-tier network. VLAN(Virtual LAN) Making a group of hosts on a fixed physical network can be dynamically controllable formation of one or more virtual LAN 30

31 Network virtualization technology 2: Host network virtualization technology 31

32 Internet switch Connect to internet host1 host2 Connect to server in intranet Intranet switch Fig Typical Architecture of virtual network 32

33 Key Implementation Technologies of IaaS--3 33

34 3.5 Cloud Computing Management Platform Business service management platform Resource management platform Infrastructure resource pool Virtualization 34

35 Cloud Computing Management Platform Business service management platform To package of resources into a variety of services to provide users with easy-to-use way of external applications. Resource management platform Responsible for the physical device and virtualization resources in a unified management and scheduling Key technologies include: automated deployment of virtual machines, the ability to provide flexibility, resources status monitoring, measurement, and recycling etc. 35

36 Cloud Services Billing Consumer spending amount = Price x Quantity For example: EC2 pricing: Regular Linux 0.031$/hr Regular Windows 0.08$/hr Service name Measure index Scale EC2 Instance Time usage hours Elastic IP address Quantity of IP address using Frequency Amazon Cloud Watch Time usage hours Elastic block store Storage usage * Time Gbytes per month Elastic load balance Time usage hours Internet data transfer Network flow Gbytes 36

37 IaaS Providers NDS Amazon Google https://cloud.google.com/products/compute-engine/ FETnet( 遠 傳 ) Taiwan Mobile( 台 灣 大 ) 37

38 Amazon EC2(Elastic Computing Cloud) Operation Demo Introduction Amazon is a largest B2C e-commerce company in America. To make numerous Server during the low season can be fully applied, so using virtual technology transfer multientity Server into Virtual Server and online transactions in the form of rent, forming AWS (Amazon Web Service). Through the evolution, Amazon not only provide computing services, storage services, network services, monitoring services, they also provide human services. 38

39 Step1 Registered as an EC member 39

40 Step2 Setup available area 40

41 Step3 Setup firewall 41

42 Step4 Deploy Virtual Machine 42

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