Dealing with prejudice and bias in work with newcomers

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1 Company LOGO Dealing with prejudice and bias in work with newcomers Jewish Family Services of Ottawa

2 Agenda Why Do We Need this Training? Helping Newcomers Canadian Values Racism, Bias, Prejudice, Stereotypes and Hate Concrete Suggestions for Individuals, Communities and Organizations

3 Why Do We Need this Training? All humans have biases and prejudices. Newcomers expressing biases have less potential for successful settlement, adaptation and integration. Need to address one s own biases, in order to be helpful to newcomers

4 Why is it especially important for those who directly work with immigrants? You are the front line: to help newcomers with biases that hinder them to help newcomers adapt to fight racism in our community

5 Objectives of this Training After this training, you should be able to: Describe the role of settlement work in fighting prejudice and facilitating integration based on Charter values. Define and give examples of racism, hatred, bias, prejudice and stereotyping. Identify prejudice in yourselves and others. Use techniques and methods to deal with these in general, in the work place and with clients in particular. Make use of resources and tools provided to promote multiculturalism and fight racism

6 What You Will Know After training, you should be able to correctly answer questions on: Role of settlement work in fighting prejudice and facilitating integration Civic values and responsibilities implied by Canadian approach to human rights Key moments in history of Canada, and potential harm of racism, prejudice and discrimination even in a democracy Meaning of racism, hatred and associated terms Identification of examples of prejudice, bias and stereotypes

7 Why Do We Need this Training? All humans have biases and prejudices. Newcomers expressing biases have less potential for successful settlement, adaptation and integration. Need to address one s own biases, in order to be helpful to newcomers

8 Settlement and Integration: anti-prejudice in work with newcomers

9 Settlement and Integration: Nature of Sector and Role of Frontline Work Settlement Sector (adapted from OCASI) Settlement/integration is a long-term, dynamic, multi-directional process. Immigrants achieve full equality and freedom of participation in society based on knowing and acting on Charter values. Society gains access to the full human resource potential in its immigrant communities. The settlement/integration process can be viewed as a continuum, as newcomers move from acclimatization, to adaptation, to participation with others. Promoting integration is important from the beginning as it increases the newcomer s acceptance of and by others and thus increases the options for participation.

10 10 Settlement Sector: Settlement, A Two-Way Process (adapted from OCASI) Society Needs... Immigrants Need... a labour force jobs tenants/homeowners housing skilled people service users accreditation/training stability/harmony health/social services leadership security growth/diversity opportunities to advance contributions from its citizens growth congruence with its principles peace anticipation equality/freedom self-esteem/happiness

11 Settlement Sector: Integration, A Multidirectional Process Homeland Diversity Mainstream Institutions Diverse Dominant Culture Canadian Minorities Individual Newcomer Diversity in other Newcomers

12 Central Values for Settlement Sector (quotation from OCASI) Social justice, equality and equity We believe that every immigrant and refugee is entitled to equal access and opportunities to fully participate in the social, economic, political and cultural life of society. We trust that the anti-racist approach of the sector and the spirit of equality established by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as public policy can strengthen our resolve to eliminate barriers to equity which face newcomers. I would like to add and other Canadians, even when these barriers arise from the beliefs and behaviours of newcomers themselves.

13 Another Central Value for Settlement Sector (quotation from OCASI) Diversity We respect differences among people and believe that every immigrant and refugee offers unique and irreplaceable contributions to our society. And we believe that newcomers themselves should come to support this value and apply it to others as they integrate into Canada.

14 Canadian Values: What are they and where do they come from?

15 Values in Canadian Charter:

16 Key Values in Canada s Charter: Core Anti-discrimination Rights 2. Fundamental Freedoms: a) conscience and religion; b) thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication; c) peaceful assembly; d) association. 7. Right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof 15. Right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability

17 Key Value Statements in Canadian Human Rights Act For all purposes of this Act, race, national or ethnic, origin, color, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability and conviction for which a pardon has been granted are prohibited grounds of discrimination.

18 How to implement these values in Behaviour All equal under the law, all deserve equal protection Rights to freedom are balanced by rights to security Special emphasis on equality of men and women, Aboriginal rights Emphasis on maintaining multicultural diversity applies to all How do we implement these values in daily life? R-E-S-P-E-C-T

19 The Lessons of Canadian History Isolation, impoverishment and cultural suppression of Aboriginal Canadians Anti-Irish Catholic prejudice and violence Chinese Head Tax and Chinese Exclusion Act Internment of Ukrainian Canadians in WWI Dispossession, displacement and internment of Japanese Canadians in WWII Discrimination against Black Canadians and racist immigration policies limit Black population Denial of Citizenship rights and discriminatory immigration policies against all Asians Discriminatory immigration policies to limit number of Jews in Canada along with popular anti-semitism

20 Settlement and Integration: Nature of Sector and Role of Frontline Work Settlement Sector (adapted from OCASI) Settlement/integration is a long-term, dynamic, multi-directional process. Immigrants achieve full equality and freedom of participation in society based on knowing and acting on Charter values. Society gains access to the full human resource potential in its immigrant communities. The settlement/integration process can be viewed as a continuum, as newcomers move from acclimatization, to adaptation, to participation with others. Promoting integration is important from the beginning as it increases the newcomer s acceptance of and by others and thus increases the options for participation.

21 The Lessons of Canadian History : TODAY -1

22 Implications of This History for Today Canadian laws and institutions have been developed to deal with mistakes of past, avoid mistakes in future; an ongoing process over the past 140 years. History also shows impetus for discrimination comes from the people as well as from government. Hatred has not disappeared: Need to understand social, moral and civic responsibilities not specified in law

23 Racism, Bias, Prejudice, Stereotypes and Hate: What are they and what can we do about them? United Nations definition of Racism : Any distinction, exclusion, restriction or reference based on race, color, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life. (UN International Convention on the Elimination of All of Racial Discrimination, New York, 7 March 1966)

24 Prejudice, Bias, Discrimination We tend to use these terms interchangeably: Prejudice is a pre-judgment in your mind based on limited information Bias is the difference in the way you treat people Discrimination is what happens to people as a result of prejudice and bias How do these naturally arise? Humans natural search for meaning Perception and generalization tactics We make our reactions automatic Part of our cultural repertoire

25 Prejudice, Bias, Discrimination Perceptions and generalization You see what you think you see You hear what you think you hear You make general rules about you see and hear These rules are ingrained in you and your culture Automatic responses Learning to walk Learning meaning Making life less complicated Tables and chairs Where was I going? What was I saying?

26 The Nature of Racism Racism is the systematic oppression of others based on a conventional, arbitrary set of physical, cultural or religious traits in order to establish and maintain a hierarchy of groups with respect to access to resources and power. (Can operate at the personal or political level.)

27 Consequences of Racism Systemic prejudice and discrimination Hierarchy of traits and groups becomes part of social values Affects self-perception of affected groups Affects social, cultural and economic integration Leads to disaffection and alienation of affected groups

28 The Purpose of Hatred Hatred is the manipulation of negative feelings such as anger, resentment, and envy and fear to justify violence against others (can operate at the personal or political level.)

29 Consequences of Hatred Systemic prejudice and discrimination Isolation and exclusion of affected groups Violence against affected groups sanctioned, socially acceptable Widespread acceptance of open hate speech Affects self-perception and increases fear of affected groups Individual and sporadic group violence against affected groups

30 Organized Racist Hatred Builds on racism and hatred makes organized use of hate propaganda Leads to mass murder, systematic ethnic cleansing and genocide

31 Newcomers still come from places of war, hatred, oppression and genocide Darfur Rwanda Somalia Kosovo South America Middle East Cambodia Afghanistan????

32 Imperative to fight prejudice to prevent racism and hatred Individual responsibility to act: Even the smallest person can change the future Each of us has this responsibility as a citizen Need to know how to exercise this individual responsibility Develop a positive agenda to counter the negative agenda of haters Work with others: students, teachers, parents, police, etc.

33 Confronting prejudice: General Implications Work should be carried out in a racism and prejudice free environment: need for policies and procedures Need to understand basic values and behaviours that we should expect of all Canadians: bridging function of settlement Need to understand both institutional and individual racism Have strategies on how to help newcomers overcome both internalized and external racism and discrimination

34 Anti-prejudice and settlement coaching/advising How to integrate anti-prejudice into working with newcomers How to address biases faced by newcomers How to address biases newcomers express towards others

35 Interventions in Group Immediate need to raise questions and state objections if necessary Otherwise, biased/prejudiced comment becomes acceptable Show your own objection and allow others to see the problem Model for others individual responsibility

36 Interventions with supervisor or Verify what you heard colleague Indicate discomfort/objections Refer to anti-racism and anti-discrimination policy If incident repeats, write note to file Find alternate employment, follow procedures or reduce contact

37 Interventions with Client one on one Need to respect client worker relationship Not necessary to intervene immediately unless directly relevant to issue you are helping with Otherwise leave intervention to later moment Then proceed as in general Refer to supervisor if disagreement continues

38 Final Suggestions for you Know the law and organizational policies Know your responsibilities Practice in recognizing inappropriate behaviour Practice in verifying what one hears or reads Practice in speaking up Practice in self-editing/eliminate biased speech Form or join groups to work with others for rumours for unconscious bias tests Learn how to report hate incidents

39 Next Steps Tell us what you thought: If you interested in getting training for your organization please contact us: Rubin Friedman call (613) x311 Or Farah Aw-Osman, (613) , ext.411 Love each other!

40 Thank you! Citizenship & Immigration Canada, for the grant that made this project possible Mark Zarecki, Executive Director, Jewish Family Services Ottawa Jewish Family Services staff, particularly Rubin Friedman, Farah Aw-Osman, and Esperance Umutesi David Berman Communications (davidberman.com) LASI member agencies (OCISO, Catholic Immigration Services, Lebanese and Arab Social Service Agency, Ottawa Chinese Community Services Centre, Economic and Social Council Ottawa Carleton, Somali Centre for Family Services, Immigrant Women Services Ottawa, and World Skills)

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