THE DEADLY QUARTET OF INSULIN RESISTANCE, HYPERTENSION, OBESITY AND DYSLIPIDEMIA

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE DEADLY QUARTET OF INSULIN RESISTANCE, HYPERTENSION, OBESITY AND DYSLIPIDEMIA"

Transcription

1 THE DEADLY QUARTET OF INSULIN RESISTANCE, HYPERTENSION, OBESITY AND DYSLIPIDEMIA The information explosion in the science of nutrition very often creates the impression that available information is contradictory. Consequently, it is no longer easy to distinguish between fact, misinformation and fiction. The Nutrition Information Centre of the University of Stellenbosch (NICUS) was established to act as a reliable and independent source of nutrition information. WHAT IS IT? The Metabolic Syndrome (MS) (also known as Syndrome X or Insulin Resistance Syndrome) is a cluster of primarily metabolic disorders, contributes to morbidity and mortality and hence health care costs. Its prevalence is reported to be increasing with one in five and approximately one in seven Americans and non-diabetic Europeans having MS. It is also emerging as a significant clinical disorder in childhood and adolescence as well as in the developing world. Many studies have linked MS (high blood pressure, high blood triglycerides, low blood HDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance) independently and significantly to an increased risk for type II Diabetes, heart disease and/or stroke. The WHO (World Health Organisation) defines MS as follows: At least ONE of the following: Type II Diabetes Impaired glucose tolerance Insulin resistance PLUS at least TWO of the following: Hypertension (BP 140/90 mmhg) Obesity (BMI 30 kg/m 2, or waist-hip ratio > 0.90 for men, > 0.85 for women) Hypertriglyceridaemia ( 1.7 mmol/l) or low serum HDL level (< 0.9 mmol/l for Men, < 1.0 mmol/l for women) Microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate of 20 µg.min -1 ; albumin:creatinine ratio 30 mg.g -1 ) Other clinical features associated with this syndrome include: hyperuricaemia and gout, raised C- reactive protein levels, pro-inflammatory cytokines [Interleukin 1 (IL-1), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFa)], elevated stress-related cortisol secretion abnormalities in blood coagulation, low cardio-respiratory fitness, presence of fatty liver disease or polycystic ovary syndrome, increased sympathetic nervous system activity and low heart rate variability. INSULIN RESISTANCE: Insulin resistance is the primary feature of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin is the principle hormone released by the pancreas following meals. It stimulates glucose (sugar from the food that we eat) uptake by cells for normal energy metabolism and for storage of excess energy in the liver in the form of glycogen (long chains of glucose) or fat. In Type I Diabetes (Insulin Dependent Diabetes) the pancreas does not make sufficient insulin and in Type II Diabetes (Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes) the body is resistant to insulin resulting in elevated blood glucose in both conditions. In MS however the pancreas is able to compensate for the tissue insensitivity to insulin and secretes excessive amounts of insulin while maintaining 1

2 normal blood glucose levels. Thus, a fasting glucose sample by itself is often insufficient to detect insulin resistance. As insulin resistance worsens, hyperinsulinemia (elevated insulin levels seen in Type II Diabetes and MS) and hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose levels) may occur. INSULIN RESISTANCE (HYPERINSULINEMIA) AND HEART DISEASE: Hyperinsulinemia can cause or contribute to heart disease through several mechanisms. Elevated insulin levels can directly damage the blood vessels by causing abnormal thickening of the walls of the blood vessels, resulting in hypertension. Insulin also causes sodium retention, which raises blood pressure. Hyperinsulinemia also results in the abnormally high serum triglycerides and low HDL (good) cholesterol levels observed in both MS and Type II Diabetes. WHO IS AT RISK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME? Individuals with family history of abdominal obesity (potbelly or apple shape) Inactive overweight individuals Consumption of a high refined carbohydrate (simple sugars) and high fat diet Individuals with a family history of premature cardiovascular disease Individuals with a family history of diabetes mellitus Individuals with a high triglycerides/low HDL cholesterol blood lipid profile Stress, smoking, excess alcohol use and overeating Although the aetiology of the syndrome is not well understood, several factors (insulin resistance, genetics, sedentary lifestyles, poor dietary practices, fetal development and psychosocial stress) are thought to be contributing to its development. The recent appreciation of the endocrine and paracrine functions of adipose tissue together with central obesity being a main component of the metabolic syndrome has led to the proposal that chronic inflammation may be an important component of the metabolic syndrome. REDUCING YOUR RISK FOR THE METABOLIC SYNDROME Lose weight A weight reduction of as little as 10 % of current weight, can promote an improvement in blood lipids, insulin sensitivity and hypertension. Increase physical activity If your doctor permits it, exercise 20 to 30 minutes, at least 3 times a week. Lower blood pressure Weight loss and increased physical activity will lower blood pressure. If necessary, medication can be prescribed. Lower cholesterol Regular physical activity and a diet low in saturated fats and high in fibre can aid in lowering of cholesterol levels. Additionally medication can be prescribed. Stop smoking Smoking can worsen the health consequences of the metabolic syndrome, by increasing blood pressure for example. Schedule regular check-ups for blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar. MANAGEMENT OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME The treatment of the syndrome includes lifestyle modifications (weight management, physical activity and dietary management for the conducive to improving insulin resistance). Additionally all modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease should be addressed. Drug therapy may also be necessary for the treatment of glucose intolerance and diabetes. It should however be brought in mind that at present there is no consensus on the treatment of MS. Nevertheless, treatment is known to impart beneficial outcomes. The approach to management includes: Routinely monitor body weight (especially the index for central obesity), blood glucose, lipoproteins and blood pressure Weight loss Treat individual risk factors (hyperlipidemia, hypertension and high blood glucose) according to established guidelines 2

3 Carefully choose anti-hypertensive drugs because different agents have different effects on insulin sensitivity Moderate exercise has been shown repeatedly to improve insulin resistance, reduce hypertension and improve HDL/LDL ratios. Drug treatment se prescribed as necessary and as prescribed by a doctor NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT OF THE METABOLIC SYNDROME AND OTHER DISEASES OF LIFESTYLE: Controversy still exists with regard to the fat and carbohydrate content of the diet. On the basis of the available evidence, low carbohydrate/high fat diets in relation to weight loss would not appear, in the short term, to be superior to any other sound method of weight loss. Current guidelines include: Obtain and maintain a healthy body weight. Avoid being overweight. It is important to eat a healthy, balanced diet based on suitable foods. If you do need to lose weight, consult your doctor/ dietician. Restrict energy particularly from fats and refined carbohydrates. Reduce or limit your total fat intake: Try to limit the intake of fats and high fat foods. Emphasis should be placed on lowering intake of saturated fats (most animal fats, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, cocoa butter, coconut) and trans-fatty acids (fried chips, chocolates, pies, confectionery, nuts, butter, coconut, and palm kernel oil). Concentrate on replacing saturated and trans-fatty acids with monounsaturated fats. Good dietary sources include avocado pear, olives, olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, peanut butter, cashews, almonds, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pecans and pistachio nuts. Use low fat products: Dairy e.g. 2%/ skim milk, low fat cheese/ cottage cheese, low fat artificially sweetened yogurt. Other: use soft margarine (Flora, Canola) instead of hard margarine. Include chicken and fish more often than red meat. Keep portions small and try out recipes in which pulses are combined with meat. Avoid offals e.g. liver, kidney, since they are high in saturated fat. It should be brought in mind that fat composition rather than the total amount of fat is important. No specific composition of fat intake has been clearly established for MS, and therefore the recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia is advised, namely < 30% total fat with < 10% saturated fat, > 10 % monounsaturated fat and ± 10% polyunsaturated fat. Cooking methods: Remove all visible fat and skin before cooking. Use herbs and spices to add flavour instead of adding mayonnaise, margarine, oil and cream. Rather steam, boil and bake in the oven instead of frying food in oil. To pan fry: spray lightly with Spray & Cook. Eat at least 6 fresh fruit or vegetables portions per day for vitamins and minerals and soluble fibre. Limit the intake of very sweet fruits e.g. grapes/ mangoes. Choose fruit canned in natural juice rather than syrup. Some canned vegetables contain sugar. Dried fruit and fruit juice is a concentrated form of sugar - consume in small quantities and dilute juice with water. Try to cut down on salt and salty foods. Be aware of hidden salt in many tinned, smoked and processed foods (e.g. salami, polony, vienna s, and bacon). The use of small amounts of sugar is considered acceptable. However, the intake of sweet foods with a high fat content should be limited. Use diet cooldrinks. 3

4 It is advisable to keep alcohol consumption at moderate levels. Light beers have a lower sugar and alcohol content and can be used occasionally. The use of artificial sweeteners (e.g. Canderel) and diabetic products may be useful, but special diabetic products are usually unnecessary. By adapting cooking methods, ordinary foods can be used to make healthy and tasty dishes. Fro safe and appropriate exercise, consult a doctor for a suitable training program and a dietitian for dietary advice. Wear good quality shoes to protect your feet. Include at least 2 servings of fat-free or low fat dairy products in your daily diet. Ensure an adequate fiber intake. The recommendation is 20 35g per day, of which 3 to 10g should be soluble fiber. Good sources of soluble fiber include oats, legumes and fruit and vegetables. Whole grain products should be chosen above refined grain products. Low glycemic index carbohydrates should replace the high glycemic index varieties where possible. HOW MUCH you eat is as important as WHAT TYPE of food you eat. It is important that food must still be enjoyed! NUTRIENTS AND FOODS WITH A POSSIBLE BENEFICIAL ROLE IN HEART DISEASE: Anti-oxidants: Fruit and vegetables are by far the best dietary sources of antioxidants. The antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, β-carotene and the phytochemicals) found in fruits and vegetables are thought to be primarily responsible for disease prevention. This has lead to an explosion in the food supplement market of supplements containing one or more of these compounds for the protection and treatment of the so-called diseases of lifestyle. In the process, the collective contribution and complex interaction of these compounds has been overlooked, and at times, even ignored. The available scientific experience indicates that the so-called pill-popping is not only ineffective, but it could also be dangerous, depending on the dose in the pill and the duration of the pill consumption. For example, a study in Finland of male smokers who received either α-tocopherol, β-carotene, both or placebo, revealed a 16% higher incidence of lung cancer associated with high dose β-carotene supplementation. As effective and useful as supplements may be in certain situations, they nevertheless remain a poor substitute for the complex composition of fruits and vegetables. Fruit and vegetables are also a good dietary source of folate, manganese, potassium, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, vitamin K, calcium, magnesium, iron (non-haeme), chromium and molybdenum. Omega 3 fatty acids Omega 3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids. An adequate intake has been shown to have cardioprotective effects in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (heart attacks, strokes). They help to normalise blood lipids (triglycerides) and also play a role in preventing blood clots. A good dietary source of omega 3 fatty acids is oily fish (mackerel, herring, tuna, pilchards, salmon, sardines in sardine oil, snoek, anchovy). Amounts ranging from 1g to 6g per day have been shown to have positive effects on cardiovascular health. An intake of 2 servings of oily fish per week within a varied, balanced diet is recommended. Fibre: Soluble fibre lowers total cholesterol levels and LDL-cholesterol (harmful cholesterol) levels in the blood. The fibre binds bile acids in the bowel, which results in a reduction of blood cholesterol, in order to replete the bile acid pool. Additionally, soluble fibre is fermented in the bowel and the products formed during this fermentation process inhibit cholesterol synthesis. Good dietary sources of soluble fibre include fruits, oats and legumes. Of the total recommended fibre intake (25 30g daily for adults), 6 10 g should be from soluble fibre. 4

5 Niacin (Nicotinic acid): High-dose of nicotinic acid is used as a medical therapy for the treatment of raised blood lipid levels. Niacin lowers blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (harmful cholesterol), and increases the levels of HDL-cholesterol (good cholesterol). However, these large doses should only be administered under the supervision of a medical doctor. Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Elevated homocysteine levels in the blood stream have been linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. An adequate intake of these nutrients, most in the form of supplements, has been reported to lower blood homocysteine levels. Soya: Soy foods are the richest source of isoflavones (soy phytochemicals). Consumption of soya is thought to be beneficial for cardiovascular health. Replacing animal proteins with soy protein within a healthy, balanced diet has been shown to lower total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (harmful cholesterol) and triglycerides in persons with increased blood levels. A daily intake of 25 g of soy protein (with isoflavones intact) has been reported to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Always discuss the use of supplements with your doctor or dietitian, since they can interact with the prescribed drugs. For further, personalized and more detailed information, please contact NICUS or a dietitian registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. References from the scientific literature used to compile this document are available on request. NICUS Nutrition Information Centre University of Stellenbosch Division of Human Nutrition P.O. Box Tygerberg, 7505 Tel: (27) Fax: (27) E mail: Website: 5

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES FAIRFIELD HOSPITAL Department of Nutrition& Dietetics WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES Cholesterol is produced by the liver and found in the blood. It is also found in some animal

More information

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Dietary and Lifestyle Guidelines

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Dietary and Lifestyle Guidelines Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Dietary and Lifestyle Guidelines Risk factors for NAFLD Typically, but not always seen in patients who are overweight. May have Diabetes and or insulin resistance high

More information

CORPORATE HEALTH LOWERING YOUR CHOLESTEROL & BLOOD PRESSURE

CORPORATE HEALTH LOWERING YOUR CHOLESTEROL & BLOOD PRESSURE CORPORATE HEALTH LOWERING YOUR CHOLESTEROL & BLOOD PRESSURE What is Cholesterol? What s wrong with having high cholesterol? Major risk factor for cardiovascular disease Higher the cholesterol higher the

More information

Fat myths. Myth: All fats are equal and equally bad for you. Myth: Lowering the amount of fat you eat is what matters the most.

Fat myths. Myth: All fats are equal and equally bad for you. Myth: Lowering the amount of fat you eat is what matters the most. Alexandra Palumbo Fat myths Myth: All fats are equal and equally bad for you. Myth: Lowering the amount of fat you eat is what matters the most. Myth: Fat-free means healthy. Saturated fats Trans-fats

More information

Dietetics. Advice on. Healthy Eating for Lowering Cholesterol

Dietetics. Advice on. Healthy Eating for Lowering Cholesterol Dietetics Advice on Healthy Eating for Lowering Cholesterol 41 What is blood cholesterol? A waxy, fat-like substance in the blood Made by the liver and also comes from food Important for building and maintenance

More information

It is important to know that some types of fats, like saturated and trans fat, can raise blood cholesterol levels.

It is important to know that some types of fats, like saturated and trans fat, can raise blood cholesterol levels. Healthy Eating You are what you eat! So before you even shop for food, it is important to become a well informed, smart food consumer and have a basic understanding of what a heart healthy diet looks like.

More information

Understanding and Managing Your. Triglycerides

Understanding and Managing Your. Triglycerides Understanding and Managing Your Triglycerides What are Triglycerides? There are several types are one of several types of fat in your body, and triglycerides are the most common. Along with LDL ( bad )

More information

Cholesterol and Triglycerides What You Should Know

Cholesterol and Triglycerides What You Should Know Cholesterol and Triglycerides What You Should Know Michael T. McDermott MD Professor of Medicine Endocrinology Practice Director Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes University of Colorado

More information

Healthy Eating for Diabetes

Healthy Eating for Diabetes Healthy Eating for Diabetes What is diabetes and why is it important to manage it? Diabetes occurs when there is too much glucose in the blood. Learning how to manage your diabetes will help you feel better

More information

Fat Facts That Can Help Your Heart. Most Common Risk Factors for Heart Disease

Fat Facts That Can Help Your Heart. Most Common Risk Factors for Heart Disease Fat Facts That Can Help Your Heart Sally Barclay, MS RD LD Nutrition Clinic for Employee Wellness Most Common Risk Factors for Heart Disease High LDL (bad) cholesterol Smoking Low HDL (good) cholesterol

More information

Blood clot in atheroma. help make vitamin D and hormones, like oestrogen and testosterone, in your body.

Blood clot in atheroma. help make vitamin D and hormones, like oestrogen and testosterone, in your body. CHOLESTEROL This factsheet explains what cholesterol is and why too much cholesterol in your blood is harmful. It also provides information regarding cholesterol testing and tips to help reduce your blood

More information

DIABETES & HEALTHY EATING

DIABETES & HEALTHY EATING DIABETES & HEALTHY EATING Food gives you the energy you need for healthy living. Your body changes most of the food you eat into a sugar called glucose. (glucose) Insulin helps your cells get the sugar

More information

Eating Well with Diabetes. Cassie Vanderwall UW Health Nutrition Registered Dietitian Certified Personal Trainer Certified Diabetes Educator

Eating Well with Diabetes. Cassie Vanderwall UW Health Nutrition Registered Dietitian Certified Personal Trainer Certified Diabetes Educator Eating Well with Diabetes Cassie Vanderwall UW Health Nutrition Registered Dietitian Certified Personal Trainer Certified Diabetes Educator Outline What is Diabetes? Diabetes Self-Management Eating Well

More information

Triglycerides: Frequently Asked Questions

Triglycerides: Frequently Asked Questions Triglycerides: Frequently Asked Questions Why are triglycerides important? The amount of triglycerides (or blood fats) in blood are one important barometer of metabolic health; high levels are associated

More information

Η δίαιτα στην πρόληψη του αγγειακού εγκεφαλικού επεισοδίου

Η δίαιτα στην πρόληψη του αγγειακού εγκεφαλικού επεισοδίου ΠΡΟΓΡΑΜΜΑ ΜΕΤΑΠΤΥΧΙΑΚΩΝ ΣΠΟΥΔΩΝ «Η ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗ ΣΤΗΝ ΥΓΕΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΣΤΗ ΝΟΣΟ» Η δίαιτα στην πρόληψη του αγγειακού εγκεφαλικού επεισοδίου Γεώργιος Ντάιος Παθολογική Κλινική Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλίας Stroke Statistics

More information

Will the cholesterol in my diet raise my blood cholesterol?

Will the cholesterol in my diet raise my blood cholesterol? Healthy eating for your heart What does heart healthy eating mean to me? Heart healthy eating is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. Heart healthy eating, along with regular physical activity and

More information

Health Maintenance: Controlling Cholesterol

Health Maintenance: Controlling Cholesterol Sacramento Heart & Vascular Medical Associates February 18, 2012 500 University Ave. Sacramento, CA 95825 Page 1 What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatty substance. It has both good and bad effects

More information

Lifestyle Coach Facilitation Guide: Post-Core

Lifestyle Coach Facilitation Guide: Post-Core Lifestyle Coach Facilitation Guide: Post-Core Fats - Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fat Content Overview This session answers the question what is fat? It explores the different types of fat, and shows

More information

How healthy is your diet? Questionnaire

How healthy is your diet? Questionnaire This questionnaire is designed to allow you to assess the nutritional value of your diet. Answer yes or no to the questions below and then read the supplementary information that will help you to consider

More information

Elevated Cholesterol and Homocysteine

Elevated Cholesterol and Homocysteine Elevated Cholesterol and Homocysteine The evidence linking inflammation of the blood vessels and heart disease/hardening of the arteries is well documented. There is considerable debate about the role

More information

Mediterranean diet: Choose this hearthealthy

Mediterranean diet: Choose this hearthealthy MayoClinic.com reprints This single copy is for your personal, noncommercial use only. For permission to reprint multiple copies or to order presentation-ready copies for distribution, use the reprints

More information

Nutrition Information from My Plate Guidelines

Nutrition Information from My Plate Guidelines Nutrition Information from My Plate Guidelines Note: This information was compiled from the website: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/ for participants in the 4-H Food Prep Contest 1/12/16. The information

More information

2) Herewith the 2nd question in our Q&A series with Ria Catsicas about 'Nutrition and Diabetes':

2) Herewith the 2nd question in our Q&A series with Ria Catsicas about 'Nutrition and Diabetes': DIABETES Q&A WITH RIA CATSICAS 1) Today is World Diabetes Day! We ve been chatting to clinical dietitian and nutrition consultant Ria Catsicas about nutrition and diabetes. Ria is a specialist in the practice

More information

Let s Talk Oils and Fats!

Let s Talk Oils and Fats! Lesson Overview Lesson Participants: School Nutrition Assistants/Technicians, School Nutrition Managers, Child and Adult Care Food Program Staff, Teachers Type of Lesson: Short, face-to-face training session

More information

What is a balanced diet?

What is a balanced diet? 01 Balanced diet The Eatwell Plate What is a balanced diet? Your balanced diet will be specific to you it will depend on your age, your body weight and your gender. It also depends on how active you are.

More information

Nutrition: Knowing Your Total Cholesterol

Nutrition: Knowing Your Total Cholesterol Nutrition: Knowing Your Total Cholesterol A number of factors can increase your risk for coronary heart disease. To make an accurate assessment your doctor will determine your lipid profile, overall health,

More information

Sinclair Community College, Division of Allied Health Technologies

Sinclair Community College, Division of Allied Health Technologies Sinclair Community College, Division of Allied Health Technologies Health Promotion for Community Health Workers Cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer Class #5 High Blood Cholesterol (date) Course

More information

WHAT DOES DYSMETABOLIC SYNDROME MEAN?

WHAT DOES DYSMETABOLIC SYNDROME MEAN? ! WHAT DOES DYSMETABOLIC SYNDROME MEAN? Dysmetabolic syndrome (also referred to as syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, and metabolic syndrome ) is a condition in which a group of risk factors for

More information

Strokes and High Blood Pressure

Strokes and High Blood Pressure Strokes and High Blood Pressure Quick Review from last Week: What is a Stroke Stroke: blood supply to the brain is severely limited or cut off With no blood to carry oxygen to them, brain cells will die

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Self-Care

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Self-Care TABLE OF CONTENTS Self-Care Self-Care...3 The Major Food Groups...4 Meal Planning...9 Meal Planning Worksheet...12 Smart Shopper Worksheet...15 Personal Hygiene...17 Health Care...21 Medical Care Basics...23

More information

A healthy cholesterol. for a happy heart

A healthy cholesterol. for a happy heart A healthy cholesterol for a happy heart cholesterol A healthy cholesterol for a happy heart You probably already know that cholesterol has something to do with heart disease. But like many people, you

More information

What Does A Healthy Body Need

What Does A Healthy Body Need What Does A Healthy Body Need Michelle Brezinski Michelle Brezinski has studied Fitness and Nutrition at Simon Fraser University and has received a Herbology Diploma from Dominion College. As a Health

More information

Beating insulin resistance through lifestyle changes

Beating insulin resistance through lifestyle changes Beating insulin resistance through lifestyle changes This information is relevant to people at risk for type 2 diabetes, those who already have type 2 diabetes, pre- diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome

More information

10 SUPERSTAR REAL FATS

10 SUPERSTAR REAL FATS 10 SUPERSTAR REAL FATS SATIATION MEETS HEALTH Eat real fats Ever since fat was demonized, people started eating more sugar, refined carbs and processed foods instead. As a result, the entire world has

More information

Lipid & Fat: Overview

Lipid & Fat: Overview Lipid & Fat: Overview What is a lipid? Triglycerides, phospholipids and sterols Triglycerides = Fat Saturated & unsaturated Essential fatty acids ü Omega 3 & Omega 6 Trans fat Why do you need fat? How

More information

Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes

Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes S U P P L E M E N T Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes, and preventing, or at least

More information

The eatwell plate is based on the Government s Eight Tips for Eating Well, which are:

The eatwell plate is based on the Government s Eight Tips for Eating Well, which are: Teachers Notes The eatwell plate The eatwell plate is a pictorial food guide showing the proportion and types of foods that are needed to make up a healthy, varied and balanced diet. The plate has been

More information

Dyslipidemia. Management Strategies for Patients/Clients. Why is it Important to Monitor Your Cholesterol Level?

Dyslipidemia. Management Strategies for Patients/Clients. Why is it Important to Monitor Your Cholesterol Level? Management Strategies for Patients/Clients What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a type of lipid or fat that is essential to the body. It plays a role in the manufacture of cells as well as hormone production.

More information

Nutritional Guidelines for Roux-en-Y, Sleeve Gastrectomy and Duodenal Switch. Gastric Restrictive Procedures. Phase III Regular Consistency

Nutritional Guidelines for Roux-en-Y, Sleeve Gastrectomy and Duodenal Switch. Gastric Restrictive Procedures. Phase III Regular Consistency Nutritional Guidelines for Roux-en-Y, Sleeve Gastrectomy and Duodenal Switch Gastric Restrictive Procedures Phase III Regular Consistency The University of Chicago Hospitals Center for the Surgical Treatment

More information

RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE

RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE Non-modifiable Family history Gender Age Modifiable A pack a day smoker spends over Smoking $5,000 a year on cigarettes Inactivity Obesity Diabetes High Cholesterol High

More information

UW MEDICINE PATIENT EDUCATION. PCOS Nutrition. Eat a Balanced Diet

UW MEDICINE PATIENT EDUCATION. PCOS Nutrition. Eat a Balanced Diet UW MEDICINE PATIENT EDUCATION PCOS Nutrition Eating for health when you have polycystic ovarian syndrome Eating to treat PCOS is not much different than how many people are advised to eat to be their healthiest.

More information

High Cholesterol (Dyslipidemia)

High Cholesterol (Dyslipidemia) High Cholesterol (Dyslipidemia) What is high cholesterol? Cholesterol is a type of fat that is found in every cell in the body. It is used to build healthy cells and some vital hormones. High levels of

More information

REACH Risk Evaluation to Achieve Cardiovascular Health

REACH Risk Evaluation to Achieve Cardiovascular Health Dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus History: A 17-year-old Hispanic female patient is seen for a routine clinic follow-up visit. She was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 6 months ago. Her hemoglobin

More information

The South African Guidelines for Healthy Eating and Food Guide

The South African Guidelines for Healthy Eating and Food Guide The South African Guidelines for Healthy Eating and Food Guide For more information contact: Department of Health. Directorate: Nutrition Private Bag X828; Pretoria 0001. This information pamphlet provides

More information

February 2006. 23 Best Foods for Athletes

February 2006. 23 Best Foods for Athletes 23 Best Foods for Athletes February 2006 1. Beans Legumes a. Excellent source of fiber (important for keeping blood sugar and cholesterol levels under control). b. High in protein and a good source of

More information

Is Insulin Effecting Your Weight Loss and Your Health?

Is Insulin Effecting Your Weight Loss and Your Health? Is Insulin Effecting Your Weight Loss and Your Health? Teressa Alexander, M.D., FACOG Women s Healthcare Associates www.rushcopley.com/whca 630-978-6886 Obesity is Epidemic in the US 2/3rds of U.S. adults

More information

Nutrition and Health Info-Sheet F o r H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s

Nutrition and Health Info-Sheet F o r H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s Nutrition and Health Info-Sheet F o r H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s Produced by Erin Digitale, PhD Cristy Hathaway, BS Sheri Zidenberg-Cherr, PhD Karrie Heneman, PhD UC Cooperative Extension Center

More information

REDUCE YOUR RISK OF STROKE

REDUCE YOUR RISK OF STROKE REDUCE YOUR RISK OF STROKE WHAT IS STROKE? A stroke is a brain attack. It can be fatal. A stroke happens when a blockage such as a clot blocks the blood flow to the brain, or when a burst blood vessel

More information

Eat a Healthy, Balanced Diet

Eat a Healthy, Balanced Diet Eating well is key to maintaining strength, energy, a healthy immune system and general lung heath. The key to a healthy balanced diet is not to ban or omit any foods or food groups but to balance what

More information

Vitamins & Minerals Chart

Vitamins & Minerals Chart Vitamins & Minerals Chart Vitamins & Minerals Functions Food Sources Water-soluble Vitamin B1-Thiamin Necessary to help the body maximizes the use of carbohydrate, its major source of energy. Essential

More information

Living with Cholesterol Cholesterol and healthy living

Living with Cholesterol Cholesterol and healthy living Living with Cholesterol heartandstroke.ca Cholesterol and Healthy Living What is cholesterol? The word cholesterol can refer either to the cholesterol found in the body (blood cholesterol) OR the cholesterol

More information

Pediatrics. Specialty Courses for Medical Assistants

Pediatrics. Specialty Courses for Medical Assistants Pediatrics Specialty Courses for Medical Assistants 7007 College Boulevard, Suite 385 Overland Park, Kansas 66211 www.ncctinc.com t: 800.875.4404 f: 913.498.1243 Pediatrics Specialty Certificate Course

More information

Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome

Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome University of Michigan Hospitals and Health Centers Pediatric Metabolic Syndrome A growing epidemic Shannon Russell Dietetic Intern June 2012 Overview Causes Risk Factors Signs and Symptoms Identification/Diagnosis

More information

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Page 1 of 5 High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) If you have high blood pressure, you have an increased risk of developing heart disease, a stroke, and other serious conditions. In some cases blood pressure

More information

Introduction. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes

Introduction. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2dm) is the most prevalent form of diabetes worldwide. It is characterised by high fasting and high postprandial blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). Chronic

More information

Maintaining Nutrition as We Age

Maintaining Nutrition as We Age SS-207-06 For more information, visit the Ohio Department of Aging web site at: http://www.goldenbuckeye.com and Ohio State University Extension s Aging in Ohio web site at: http://www.hec.ohio-state.edu/famlife/aging

More information

Managing Your Type 2 Diabetes With a Healthy Diet

Managing Your Type 2 Diabetes With a Healthy Diet Managing Your With a Healthy Diet Objectives Understand the importance of nutrition to diabetes management Outline current nutrition guidelines for diabetes management Why is Good Nutrition Important?

More information

Dietary Guidelines 2010 Self-Test Answer Key

Dietary Guidelines 2010 Self-Test Answer Key Name: Date: 1. One Purpose of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) is to a) Provide a science base for U.S. food and nutrition program policies - See page 6 b) Encourage everyone to eat a balanced

More information

Diabetes and Hypertension Care For Adults in Primary Care Settings

Diabetes and Hypertension Care For Adults in Primary Care Settings and Hypertension Care For Adults in Primary Care Settings What is Type 2? The carbohydrates including sugar and starch which we take become glucose after digestion. It will then be absorbed by the small

More information

An International Atherosclerosis Society Position Paper: Global Recommendations for the Management of Dyslipidemia

An International Atherosclerosis Society Position Paper: Global Recommendations for the Management of Dyslipidemia An International Atherosclerosis Society Position Paper: Global Recommendations for the Management of Dyslipidemia Introduction Executive Summary The International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS) here updates

More information

for reviewing the information in this booklet.

for reviewing the information in this booklet. Alzheimer s Australia would like to thank Associate Professor Michael Woodward Medical Director, Aged & Residential Care Services, Austin Health Chief Medical Advisor, Alzheimer s Australia Vic for reviewing

More information

Your Cholesterol Lowering Guide

Your Cholesterol Lowering Guide 1 Your Cholesterol Lowering Guide Cholesterol plays a vital role in the day-to-day functioning of your body. However, too much cholesterol in the blood can affect your heart health. The good news is that

More information

The Mediterranean Diet (Monterey Style)

The Mediterranean Diet (Monterey Style) The Mediterranean Diet (Monterey Style) The use of the typical American Heart Association-recommended low-fat, highcarbohydrate diet did not adequately meet the needs of our lipid clinic. Problems and

More information

NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE. Control Your Cholesterol: Keep Your Heart Healthy

NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE. Control Your Cholesterol: Keep Your Heart Healthy V O L U M E 5, N U M B E R 8 V O L U M E 5, N U M B E R 8 Health Bulletin NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE #42 in a series of Health Bulletins on issues of pressing interest to all

More information

Using the Nutrition Facts Label

Using the Nutrition Facts Label Using the Nutrition Facts Label A How-To Guide for Older Adults Inside Why Nutrition Matters For You...1 At-A-Glance: The Nutrition Facts Label...2 3 Key Areas of Importance...4 Your Guide To a Healthy

More information

Managing your cholesterol

Managing your cholesterol Managing your cholesterol Understanding and managing your cholesterol is one of the keys to leading a healthy lifestyle. If your cholesterol is high, you re at a greater risk for heart disease and stroke.

More information

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Part XII Insulin Resistance By James L. Holly, MD Your Life Your Health The Examiner September 15, 2005

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Part XII Insulin Resistance By James L. Holly, MD Your Life Your Health The Examiner September 15, 2005 Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Part XII By James L. Holly, MD Your Life Your Health The Examiner September 15, 2005 As we approach the end of our extended series on cardiovascular disease risk factors,

More information

Carbohydrate Counting for Patients with Diabetes. Lauren Dorman, MS RD CDE Registered Dietitian & Certified Diabetes Educator

Carbohydrate Counting for Patients with Diabetes. Lauren Dorman, MS RD CDE Registered Dietitian & Certified Diabetes Educator Carbohydrate Counting for Patients with Diabetes Lauren Dorman, MS RD CDE Registered Dietitian & Certified Diabetes Educator Program Purpose To increase knowledge of carbohydrate counting skills for nurses

More information

Heart Healthy Eating Tips

Heart Healthy Eating Tips 2013 Heart Healthy Eating Tips Heart Healthy Eating Tips Healthy eating can lower your risk of heart disease by helping you control your weight, lower your cholesterol, and prevent or control high blood

More information

DIABETES MELLITUS. By Tracey Steenkamp Biokineticist at the Institute for Sport Research, University of Pretoria

DIABETES MELLITUS. By Tracey Steenkamp Biokineticist at the Institute for Sport Research, University of Pretoria DIABETES MELLITUS By Tracey Steenkamp Biokineticist at the Institute for Sport Research, University of Pretoria What is Diabetes Diabetes Mellitus (commonly referred to as diabetes ) is a chronic medical

More information

Eating Healthy for Your Heart. Kelly Cardamone, MS, RD, CDE, CDN

Eating Healthy for Your Heart. Kelly Cardamone, MS, RD, CDE, CDN Eating Healthy for Your Heart Kelly Cardamone, MS, RD, CDE, CDN Do You Know? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 70% of all deaths in the United States are due to chronic diseases.

More information

Heart healthy diet: 8 steps to prevent heart disease

Heart healthy diet: 8 steps to prevent heart disease Heart healthy diet: 8 steps to prevent heart disease Changing your eating habits can be tough. Start with these eight strategies to kick start your way toward a heart healthy diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff

More information

High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes:

High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes: Prepared in collaboration with High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes: Are you at risk? Updated 2012 People with diabetes are more likely to have high blood pressure. What is blood pressure? The force

More information

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Risk factors are traits and life-style habits that increase a person's chances of having coronary artery and vascular disease. Some risk factors cannot be changed or

More information

What You Need to Know about High Blood Cholesterol

What You Need to Know about High Blood Cholesterol What You Need to Know about High Blood Why is high cholesterol bad? is a natural substance found in our diet and made by our liver. It is important for many functions throughout our body. High blood cholesterol

More information

Diabetes 101. Lifestyle Recommendations to Manage Diabetes. Cassie Vanderwall. Licensed, Registered Dietitian Certified Personal Trainer

Diabetes 101. Lifestyle Recommendations to Manage Diabetes. Cassie Vanderwall. Licensed, Registered Dietitian Certified Personal Trainer Diabetes 101 Lifestyle Recommendations to Manage Diabetes Cassie Vanderwall Licensed, Registered Dietitian Certified Personal Trainer Diabetes 101- Outline What is Diabetes? What can I do to control Diabetes?

More information

Executive Summary Report

Executive Summary Report Glucose 65-99 mg/dl Glucose measures the amount of sugar in your blood. Glucose is the primary energy source in your body. Insulin (a natural hormone produced by the pancreas) controls how glucose is used

More information

Living with Cholesterol Cholesterol and healthy living

Living with Cholesterol Cholesterol and healthy living Living with Cholesterol Cholesterol and healthy living heartandstroke.ca Heart and Stroke Foundation Cholesterol and Healthy Living What is cholesterol? The word cholesterol can refer either to the cholesterol

More information

High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease. For People With CKD Stages 1 4

High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease. For People With CKD Stages 1 4 High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease For People With CKD Stages 1 4 National Kidney Foundation s Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI ) The National Kidney Foundation s Kidney

More information

HOW TO SHOP FOR GOOD FATS A SUPERMARKET TOUR SCRIPT. GoodFats101.com

HOW TO SHOP FOR GOOD FATS A SUPERMARKET TOUR SCRIPT. GoodFats101.com HOW TO SHOP FOR GOOD FATS A SUPERMARKET TOUR SCRIPT GoodFats101.com To meet the demand for individual and group supermarket tours, a sample script has been developed to help consumers identify the best

More information

Eat Smart! Follow the. Healthy Eating. Food Pyramid!

Eat Smart! Follow the. Healthy Eating. Food Pyramid! Eat Smart! Follow the Healthy Eating Food Pyramid! Food contains various types of nutrients to keep us healthy. For the sake of health, the nutritional value, functions, freshness and hygiene condition

More information

Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease

Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease National Kidney Foundation s Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-K/DOQI ) The National Kidney Foundation is developing guidelines for clinical care to improve

More information

Cholesterol and your Heart. Public Information Pamphlets

Cholesterol and your Heart. Public Information Pamphlets Cholesterol and your Heart Public Information Pamphlets CHOLESTEROL AND YOUR HEART Cholesterol is naturally present in the body and is an essential substance. It is only when levels of Cholesterol rise

More information

American Cancer Society. Nutritional Guidelines for Reducing Your Risk of Cancer

American Cancer Society. Nutritional Guidelines for Reducing Your Risk of Cancer American Cancer Society Nutritional Guidelines for Reducing Your Risk of Cancer Cancer Impact More than one million Americans will be diagnosed with cancer this year. Scientific evidence suggests that

More information

Normal Effects of Insulin. Correcting Insulin Resistance: When is Insulin Released? Insulin Resistance. Problems with High Insulin

Normal Effects of Insulin. Correcting Insulin Resistance: When is Insulin Released? Insulin Resistance. Problems with High Insulin Normal Effects of Insulin Correcting Insulin Resistance: Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease Tells most cells to allow sugar inside Stop burning fat and use sugar as energy Store excess sugar (mostly

More information

A HEALTHY CHOLESTEROL

A HEALTHY CHOLESTEROL www.irishheart.ie A HEALTHY CHOLESTEROL to reduce your risk of heart disease and stroke A healthy cholesterol You probably already know that cholesterol has something to do with heart disease and stroke.

More information

Heart Healthy Diet: Tips for Lowering Cholesterol and Fat in Your Diet

Heart Healthy Diet: Tips for Lowering Cholesterol and Fat in Your Diet Heart Healthy Diet: Tips for Lowering Cholesterol and Fat in Your Diet Cholesterol Saturated Fats Polyunsaturated and Mono-unsaturated Fats This fat-like substance is needed for good health. However, high

More information

Living with Cholesterol Cholesterol and healthy living

Living with Cholesterol Cholesterol and healthy living Living with Cholesterol www.heartandstroke.ca Cholesterol and Healthy Living What is cholesterol? The word cholesterol can refer either to the cholesterol found in the body (blood cholesterol) OR the cholesterol

More information

Healthy Eating for people at risk of diabetes or with prediabetes

Healthy Eating for people at risk of diabetes or with prediabetes Healthy Eating for people at risk of diabetes or with prediabetes WHAT IS PREDIABETES / AT RISK OF DIABETES Some patients have a blood sugar level which is higher than normal but not high enough to be

More information

Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease

Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease National Kidney Foundation s Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-K/DOQI TM ) The National Kidney Foundation is developing guidelines for clinical care to

More information

The Skinny on Visceral Fat

The Skinny on Visceral Fat The Skinny on Visceral Fat Fat stored deep in the belly is the most harmful kind. Find out how to cut it down to size. People can carry their extra weight in different places on the body: All over On the

More information

MANAGING HYPERTENSION

MANAGING HYPERTENSION MANAGING HYPERTENSION INTRODUCTION Having high blood pressure (hypertension) greatly increases your risk of heart disease stroke and renal disease. It is very important to modify factors in your lifestyle

More information

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Page 1 of 7 High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Having high blood pressure is one of several 'risk factors' that can increase your chance of developing heart disease, a stroke, and other serious conditions.

More information

Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007

Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007 Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007 The cardiometabolic risk syndrome is increasingly recognized

More information

PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Dr. Lana Zinger, QCC CUNY. 12a. FOCUS ON Your Risk for Diabetes. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Dr. Lana Zinger, QCC CUNY. 12a. FOCUS ON Your Risk for Diabetes. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Dr. Lana Zinger, QCC CUNY 12a FOCUS ON Your Risk for Diabetes Your Risk for Diabetes! Since 1980,Diabetes has increased by 50 %. Diabetes has increased by 70 percent

More information

Healthy Eating: A Whole Diet Approach.

Healthy Eating: A Whole Diet Approach. Healthy Eating: A Whole Diet Approach. The importance of a healthy and varied diet A good diet is important for good health. A healthy and varied diet can help to maintain a healthy body weight, enhance

More information

CHOLESTEROL 101: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO KEEP YOUR HEART HEALTHY. By: Camille Quiles, PharmD., RPh.

CHOLESTEROL 101: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO KEEP YOUR HEART HEALTHY. By: Camille Quiles, PharmD., RPh. CHOLESTEROL 101: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO KEEP YOUR HEART HEALTHY By: Camille Quiles, PharmD., RPh. WHAT IS CHOLESTEROL? CHOLESTEROL Waxy, fat-like substance found in all cells of the body Your body uses

More information

FACT SHEET N 394 UPDATED MAY 2015. Healthy diet

FACT SHEET N 394 UPDATED MAY 2015. Healthy diet FACT SHEET N 394 UPDATED MAY 2015 Healthy diet KEY FACTS n A healthy diet helps protect against malnutrition in all its forms, as well as noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, heart disease,

More information

Healthy Eating for Kidney Patients

Healthy Eating for Kidney Patients Kidney Health Information Healthy Eating for Kidney Patients Healthy eating should be important in everyone s life, but sadly not everyone thinks that this is so. It is never too late for anyone to make

More information

HEALTHY EATING FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES

HEALTHY EATING FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES HEALTHY EATING FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES Information Leaflet Your Health. Our Priority. Page 2 of 11 Introduction This leaflet provides general guidance about food choices if you have Type 2 diabetes. Making

More information