1 Riflessi di Basilea III sul debito bancario subordinato Conseguenze per tipologia di strumenti di capitale: Da tenere conto che i dettagli dei requisiti / condizioni degli strumenti sottostanti non sono ancora definitivi. Tutti gli strumenti di capitale emessi dopo il 31/12/2012 non saranno eleggibili per il grandfathering. Secondo la CRD IV, sono riconosciuti solo 2 tiers di capitale: Tier 1 e Tier 2 (la distinzione tra UT2 e LT2 sarà rimossa). Requisiti di eleggibilità per strumenti di capitale di tipo Additional T1: Gli strumenti sono perpetui e non includono alcun incentivo al riscatto da parte dell emittente (i vecchi strumenti di capitale, eleggibili per il grandfathering, possono essere perpetui con incentivo al riscatto >= 10 anni dalla data d emissione oppure avere una scadenza >= 30 anni senza incentivo al riscatto);. Coupon: - Pagato sulla base dei profitti di periodo + riserve distribuibili secondo il diritto nazionale; - Non modificabile sulla base del merito di credito dell emittente o dell impresa madre; - E discrezione dell emittente cancellare il dividendo senza limiti di tempo e senza base cumulativa, e ciò non rappresenta un evento di default dell emittente; - Né Dividend Pusher nè Dividend Stopper. (I vecchi strumenti di capitale, eleggibili per il grandfathering, devono cancellare il coupon se l emittente perde i requisiti di capitale necessari al pagamento, prevede il differimento dei coupon con requisiti per il loro pagamento se possibile altrimenti vengono cancellati, prevedono un Dividend Pusher e un Dividend Stopper). Write down o conversione in equity se CET1<=5.125% specificando il tasso di conversione; Nessun ostacolo alla ricapitalizzazione; Infine, i vecchi strumenti di capitale perdono 10% all anno di eleggibilità dal gennaio 2013 con il grandfathering. I vecchi strumenti di tipo T1 potrebbero valere come capitale T2 dopo il call date anche con step-up. Requisiti di eleggibilità per strumenti di capitale di tipo T2: Scadenza >= 5 anni (come per i vecchi strumenti LT2, eleggibili per il grandfathering); Nessun incentivo al riscatto da parte dell emittente (i vecchi strumenti LT2, eleggibili per il grandfathering, possono prevedere la clausola di step-up se <= 50% del CS iniziale); Il coupon non è modificabile sulla base del merito di credito dell emittente o dell impresa madre; Infine, i vecchi strumenti LT2 perdono 20% all anno di eleggibilità dopo la call date. Sia gli strumenti additional T1 che i T2 possono essere riscattati prima della loro scadenza, ma non prima di 5 anni dalla loro emissione, a meno che non ci sia una variazione nella classificazione normativa dello strumento oppure una modifica nel trattamento fiscale. LEGENDA: CRR: Capital Requirement Regulation (an EU regulation): una volta entrata in vigore sarà direttamente applicabile in tutti gli stati EU membri, senza bisogno di implementazione a livello nazionale CRD IV: Capital Requirement Directive IV Dividend Pusher: l emittente DEVE pagare il coupon se paga/ha pagato dividendo a strumenti + subordinati di capitale Dividend Stopper: l emittente DEVE cancellare il dividendo a strumenti più subordinati se non paga il coupon. CS: Credit Spread Grandfathering: caratteristica dei soli strumenti di capitale emessi prima del 31/12/2012 che non rispettano più i criteri di eleggibilità previsti per i nuovi strumenti di capitale e che perciò verranno sostituiti nell arco di 10 anni ad un ritmo del 10% all anno a partire dal 01/01/2013.
2 Il seguente riassunto è stato ottenuto dal Basel III Handbook (da qui in avanti rinominato il testo originale ) realizzato nel 2011 da Accenture. Il riassunto è stato realizzato facendo dei semplici copia/incolla e/o rielaborazioni del testo originale sul contenuto principale; per una visione integrale e più dettagliata dell argomento è consigliata la consultazione del Basel III Handbook. Per ogni paragrafo del riassunto sottostante è riportata la pagina esatta del testo originale. INTRO: [pag.8-9 del testo originale] Basel III has the goal of improving the banking sector s ability to absorb shocks arising from financial and economic stress. In particular, the BCBS (Basel Committee on Banking Supervision) aims to improve risk management and governance as well as strengthen banks transparency and disclosure. Basel III is also designed to strengthen the resolution of systemically significant cross-border banks. It covers primarily the following aspects: 1. Definition of capital: new definition of capital to increase the quality, consistency and transparency of the capital base. 2. Enhanced risk coverage/counterparty Credit Risk: Basel II framework and its amendments increased capital requirements for the trading book and complex securitization. Basel III now adds the calculation of the capital requirements for counterparty credit risk (CCR); introduction of a capital charge for potential mark-to-market losses (i.e., credit valuation risk); strengthening standards for collateral management and initial margining; higher capital requirements for OTC derivatives exposures; raising CCR management standards. 3. Leverage ratio: a supplementary measure to the risk-based framework of Basel II. The objective is to constrain the build-up of leverage and avoid destabilizing deleveraging processes. 4. Reducing procyclicality and promoting countercyclical buffers: measures to make banks more resilient to procyclical dynamics and avoid the destabilizing effects experienced in the last crisis, in order to protect the banking sector from periods of excess credit growth. 5. Global liquidity standard: introduced to achieve two objectives. The first objective, pursued by the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR), is to promote short-term resilience of a bank s liquidity risk profile by ensuring that it has sufficient high quality liquid assets to survive a stress scenario lasting one month. The second objective is to promote resilience over the longer term by creating additional incentives for a bank to fund its activities with more stable sources of funding. The Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR), with a time horizon of one year, should provide a sustainable maturity structure of assets and liabilities. 1. BIII DEFINITION OF CAPITAL: [pag del testo originale] Basel III introduces a new definition of capital to increase the quality, consistency and transparency of the capital base. It also requires higher capital ratios. Key elements of the revision include: Raise quality and quantity of Tier 1 capital; Simplification and reduction of Tier2 capital; Elimination of Tier 3 capital; More stringent criteria for each instrument; Harmonization of regulatory adjustments;
3 Enhanced disclosure requirements; Introduction of a new limit system for the capital elements. The own funds requirements under Basel III are the following (as a percentage of risk-weighted assets, RWA): CET 1 (Common Equity Tier 1) capital ratio of 4.5%; Tier 1 capital ratio of 6%; Total capital ratio (TCR) of 8%. Besides, Basel III will also introduce two new capital buffers: a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% and a countercyclical buffer of 0-2.5% depending on macroeconomic circumstances. For both buffers, an extra cushion of CET 1 capital needs to be held leading to a CET 1 capital ratio of up to 9.5%. Additional capital surcharges between 1% and 2.5% (extra cushion of CET 1 capital) for systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs) depending on the systemic importance of the institution are currently in discussion. Basel III foresees a transition period before the new capital requirements apply in full (see figure 2 and 3).
4 Basel III foresees a transition period before the new capital requirements apply in full. The going concern (Tier 1) capital requirements will be implemented gradually between 2013 and 2015; the capital buffers between 2016 and The new prudential adjustments will be introduced gradually, 20% a year from 2014, reaching 100% in Grandfathering provisions over 10 years would also apply to capital instruments that are currently used but do not meet the new rules. They are phased out over a 10-year period beginning in 2013 (10% a year). While the proposals of the BCBS require that these instruments were issued prior to the date of agreement of the new rules by Basel (September 12, 2010), instruments issued after this cut-off date would need to comply with the new rules or would not be recognized as capital as of January 1, [COMITATO DI BASILEA PER LA VIGILANZA BANCARIA BIS COMUNICATO STAMPA -12 / 09 / 2010] Existing public sector capital injections will be grandfathered until 1 January Capital instruments that no longer qualify as non-common equity Tier 1 capital or Tier 2 capital will be phased out over a 10 year horizon beginning 1 January Fixing the base at the nominal amount of such instruments outstanding on 1 January 2013, their recognition will be capped at 90% from 1 January 2013, with the cap reducing by 10 percentage points in each subsequent year. In addition, instruments with an incentive to be redeemed (callable with step-up coupon) will be phased out at their effective maturity date. Capital instruments that no longer qualify as common equity Tier 1 will be excluded from common equity Tier 1 as of 1 January However, instruments meeting the following three conditions will be phased out over the same horizon described before: (1) they are issued by a non-joint stock company; (2) they are treated as equity under the prevailing accounting standards; and (3) they receive unlimited recognition as part of Tier 1 capital under current national banking law. Only those instruments issued before the date of this press release should qualify for the above transition arrangements.
5 CET1 CAPITAL [pag del testo originale] Common Equity Tier 1 (CET 1) instruments mainly common shares (or comparable instruments) and retained earnings must be the predominant form of Tier 1 capital. According to the proposed EU Regulation, CET 1 items consist of the following: a) Capital instruments, provided the conditions laid down in Art. 26 of the proposed EU Regulation are met; b) Share premium accounts related to the instruments referred to in point a; c) Retained earnings; d) Accumulated other comprehensive income; e) Other reserves; f) Funds for general banking risk. According to Article 26 of the proposed EU Regulation, capital instruments need to meet all of the following conditions to qualify as CET 1 items: a) The instruments are issued directly by the institution with the prior approval of the owners of the institution or, where permitted under applicable national law, the management body of the institution; b) The instruments are paid up and their purchase is not funded directly or indirectly by the institution; c) The instruments meet all the following conditions as regards their classification: I. They qualify as capital within the meaning of Article 22 of Directive 86/635/EEC; II. They are classified as equity within the meaning of the applicable accounting standard; III. They are classified as equity capital for the purposes of determining balance sheet insolvency, where applicable under national insolvency law; d) The instruments are clearly and separately disclosed on the balance sheet in the financial statements of the institution; e) The instruments are perpetual; f) The principal amount of the instruments may not be reduced or repaid, except in either of the following cases: I. The liquidation of the institution; II. Discretionary repurchases of the instruments or other discretionary means of reducing capital, where the institution has received the prior consent of the competent authority in accordance with Article 72 of the proposed EU Regulation; g) The provisions governing the instruments do not indicate expressly or implicitly that the principal amount of the instruments would or might be reduced or repaid other than in the liquidation of the institution, and the institution does not otherwise provide such an indication prior to or at issuance of the instruments, except in the case of instruments referred to in Article 25 of the proposed EU Regulation, where the refusal by the institution to redeem such instruments is prohibited under applicable national law; h) The instruments meet the following conditions as regards distributions: I. There are no preferential distributions, including in relation to other Common Equity Tier 1 instruments, and the terms governing the instruments do not provide preferential rights to payment of distributions; II. Distributions to holders of the instruments may be paid only out of distributable items;
6 III. The conditions governing the instruments do not include a cap or other restriction on the maximum level of distributions, except in the case of the instruments referred to in Article 25 of the proposed EU Regulation; IV. The level of distributions is not determined on the basis of the amount for which the instruments were purchased at issuance, and is not otherwise determined on this basis, except in the case of the instruments referred to in Article 25 of the proposed EU Regulation; V. The conditions governing the instruments do not include any obligation for the institution to make distributions to their holders and the institution is not otherwise subject to such an obligation; VI. Non-payment of distributions does not constitute an event of default of the institution; i) Compared to all the capital instruments issued by the institution, the instruments absorb the first and proportionately greatest share of losses as they occur, and each instrument absorbs losses to the same degree as all other Common Equity Tier 1 instruments; j) The instruments rank below all other claims in the event of insolvency or liquidation of the institution; k) The instruments entitle their owners to a claim on the residual assets of the institution, which, in the event of its liquidation and after the payment of all senior claims, is proportionate to the amount of such instruments issued and is not fixed or subject to a cap, except in the case of the capital instruments referred to in Article 25 of the proposed EU Regulation; l) The instruments are not secured, or guaranteed by any of the following: I. The institution or its subsidiaries; II. The parent institution or its subsidiaries; III. The parent financial holding company or its subsidiaries; IV. The mixed activity holding company or its subsidiaries; V. The mixed financial holding company and its subsidiaries; VI. Any undertaking that has close links with the entities referred to in points (i) to (v); m) The instruments are not subject to any arrangement, contractual or otherwise, that enhances the seniority of claims under the instruments in insolvency or liquidation. Capital instruments issued by mutuals, cooperative societies and similar institutions need to meet the conditions mentioned in Article 26 of the proposed EU Regulation as well as the following conditions as with respect to the redemption of the capital instruments to qualify as CET 1 instruments: a) Except where prohibited under applicable national law, the institution shall be able to refuse the redemption of the instruments; b) Where the refusal by the institution of the redemption of instruments is prohibited under applicable national law, the provisions governing the instruments shall give the institution the ability to limit their redemption; c) Refusal to redeem the instruments, or the limitation of the redemption of the instruments where applicable, may not constitute an event of default of the institution. The EU also addresses the topic of silent partnership, pointing out that it is a generic term covering capital instruments with widely varying characteristics (e.g., in terms of ability to absorb losses). Whether or not silent partnership would qualify as a CET 1 item depends on the characteristics of the instrument. The items must be of extremely high quality and able to absorb losses fully as they occur. The CET 1 capital should include CET 1 items after the application of regulatory adjustments, deductions and exemptions and alternatives.
7 ADDITIONAL T1 CAPITAL [pag del testo originale] Additional Tier 1 instruments include: a) instruments where the below-mentioned conditions of Article 49 of the proposed EU Regulation are met; and b) the share premium accounts related to these instruments. According to Article 49 of the proposed EU Regulation, capital instruments need to meet all of the following conditions to qualify as additional Tier 1 capital items: a) The instruments are issued and paid up; b) The instruments are not purchased by any of the following: I. The institution or its subsidiaries; II. An undertaking in which the institution has participation in the form of ownership, direct or by way of control, of 20% or more of the voting rights or capital of that undertaking; c) The purchase of the instruments is not funded directly or indirectly by the institution; d) The instruments rank below Tier 2 instruments in the event of the insolvency of the institution; e) The instruments are not secured, or guaranteed by any of the following: I. The institution or its subsidiaries; II. The parent institution or its subsidiaries; III. The parent financial holding company or its subsidiaries; IV. The mixed activity holding company or its subsidiaries; V. The mixed financial holding company and its subsidiaries; VI. Any undertaking that has close links with entities referred to in points (i) to (v); f) The instruments are not subject to any arrangement, contractual or otherwise, that enhances the seniority of the claim under the instruments in insolvency or liquidation; g) The instruments are perpetual and the provisions governing them include no incentive for the institution to redeem them; h) Where the provisions governing the instruments include one or more call options, the option to call may be exercised at the sole discretion of the issuer; i) The instruments may be called, redeemed or repurchased only where the conditions laid down in Article 72 of the proposed EU Regulation are met, and not before five years after the date of issuance; j) The provisions governing the instruments do not indicate explicitly or implicitly that the instruments would or might be called, redeemed or repurchased and the institution does not otherwise provide such an indication; k) The institution does not indicate explicitly or implicitly that the competent authority would consent to a request to call, redeem or repurchase the instruments; l) Distributions under the instruments meet the following conditions: I. They are paid out of distributable items; II. The level of distributions made on the instruments will not be modified based on the credit standing of the institution, its parent institution or parent financial holding company or mixed activity holding company; III. The provisions governing the instruments give the institution full discretion at all times to cancel the distributions on the instruments for an unlimited period and on a non-cumulative basis, and the institution
8 IV. may use such cancelled payments without restriction to meet its obligations as they fall due; V. Cancellation of distributions does not constitute an event of default of the institution; VI. The cancellation of distributions imposes no restrictions on the institution; m) The instruments do not contribute to a determination that the liabilities of an institution exceed its assets, where such a determination constitutes a test of insolvency under applicable national law; n) The provisions governing the instruments require the principal amount of the instruments to be written down, or the instruments to be converted to CET 1 instruments, upon the occurrence of a trigger event; o) The provisions governing the instruments include no feature that could hinder the recapitalization of the institution; p) Where the instruments are not issued directly by the institution or by an operating entity within the consolidation pursuant to prudent consolidation (Chapter 2 of Title II of Part One), the parent institution, the parent financial holding company, or the mixed activity holding company, the proceeds are immediately available without limitation in a form that satisfies the conditions laid down in this paragraph to any of the following: I. The institution; II. An operating entity within the consolidation pursuant to Chapter 2 of Title II of Part One; III. The parent institution; IV. The parent financial holding company; V. The mixed activity holding company. The EU standard requires that all capital instruments recognized in the Additional Tier 1 capital are written down or converted into Common Equity Tier 1 instruments when the CET 1 capital ratio falls below 5.125% (contingent capital). Contingent capital not fulfilling these requirements will not be recognized as regulatory capital. Hybrid capital instruments need to absorb losses by being written down or converted into CET 1 instruments when CET 1 capital ratio falls below 5.125%. Hybrid capital instruments with an incentive to redeem, which are currently limited to 15% of the Tier 1 capital base, will be phased out under Basel III. The Additional Tier 1 capital base consists of the corresponding instruments after deductions. T2 CAPITAL [pag.19 del testo originale] The new definition of capital rationalizes Tier 2 capital by eliminating Upper Tier 2 from the capital structure. It also introduces harmonized and strict eligibility criteria. Under Basel III, Tier 2 capital ensures loss absorption in case of liquidation (gone-concern). Tier 2 capital includes the following items: a) Capital instruments, where the conditions laid down in Article 60 are met; b) The share premium accounts related to the instruments referred to in point (a); c) For institutions calculating risk-weighted exposure amounts in accordance with the Standardized Approach, general credit risk adjustments, gross-of-tax effects, of up to 1.25% of risk-weighted exposure amounts calculated in accordance with the Standardized Approach; d) For institutions calculating risk-weighted exposure amounts under the Internal Ratings Based approach (IRB), positive amounts, gross-of-tax effects, resulting from the calculation laid down in Article 154 and 155 up to 0.6% of risk-weighted exposure amounts calculated under the IRB approach. Instruments need to fulfill the following conditions to qualify as Tier 2 capital: a) The instruments are issued and fully paid-up;
9 b) The instruments are not purchased by any of the following: I. The institution or its subsidiaries; II. An undertaking in which the institution has participation in the form of ownership, direct or by way of control, of 20% or more of the voting rights or capital of that undertaking; c) The purchase of the instruments is not funded directly or indirectly by the institution; d) The claim on the principal amount of the instruments under the provisions governing the instruments is wholly subordinated to claims of all non-subordinated creditors; e) The instruments are not secured, or guaranteed by any of the following: I. The institution or its subsidiaries; II. The parent institution or its subsidiaries; III. The parent financial holding company or its subsidiaries; IV. The mixed activity holding company or its subsidiaries; V. The mixed financial holding company and its subsidiaries; VI. Any undertaking that has close links with entities referred to in points (i) to (v); f) The instruments are not subject to any arrangement that otherwise enhances the seniority of the claim under the instruments; g) The instruments have an original maturity of at least five years; h) The provisions governing the instruments do not include any incentive for them to be redeemed by the institution; i) Where the instruments include one or more call options, the options are exercisable at the sole discretion of the issuer; j) The instruments may be called, redeemed or repurchased only where the conditions laid down in Article 72 of the proposed EU Regulation are met, and not before five years after the date of issuance; k) The provisions governing the instruments do not indicate or suggest that the instruments would or might be redeemed or repurchased other than at maturity and the institution does not otherwise provide such an indication or suggestion; l) The provisions governing the instruments do not give the holder the right to accelerate the future scheduled payment of interest or principal, other than in the insolvency or liquidation of the institution; m) The level of interest or dividend payments due on the instruments will not be modified based on the credit standing of the institution, its parent institution or parent financial holding company or mixed activity holding company; n) Where the instruments are not issued directly by the institution or by an operating entity within the consolidation pursuant to prudent consolidation (Chapter 2 of Title II of Part One), the parent institution, the parent financial holding company, or the mixed activity holding company, the proceeds are immediately available without limitation in a form that satisfies the conditions laid down in this paragraph to any of the following: I. The institution; II. An operating entity within the consolidation pursuant to Chapter 2 of Title II of Part One; III. The parent institution; IV. The parent financial holding company; V. The mixed activity holding company. The Tier 2 capital base consists of the corresponding instruments after deductions.
10 PRUDENTIAL FILTERS AND DEDUCTIONS: just an overview [pag del testo originale] Prudential filters, that should be excluded from an institution own funds, are made up by: - Securitized assets; - Cash flow hedges and changes in the value of own liabilities; - Additional value adjustments; - Unrealized gains and losses measured at fair value. Deductions from CET 1 capital are: - Intangible assets; - Deferred tax assets; - Negative expected losses; - Benefit pension fund assets; - Direct and indirect holding of CET 1 items; - Holdings of CET 1 items of entities with reciprocal cross holding; - Not-significant and significant investments in relevant entities; - Amount that exceed Additional Tier 1 capital; - Alternative to risk-weight of 1.250%; - Tax charge; Deductions from Additional Tier 1 capital are: - Direct and indirect holding of Additional Tier 1 items; - Holdings of Additional Tier 1 items of entities with reciprocal cross holding; - Not-significant and significant investments in relevant entities; - Amount that exceeds Tier 2 capital; - Tax charge. Deductions from Tier 2 items are: - Direct and indirect holding of Tier 2 items; - Holdings of Additional Tier 2 items of entities with reciprocal cross holding; - Not-significant and significant investments in relevant entities; 2. COUNTERPARTY CREDIT RISK: [pag.28 del testo originale] Basel III strengthens the requirements for the management and capitalization of counterparty credit risk (CCR). It includes an additional capital charge for possible losses associated with deterioration in the creditworthiness of counterparties or increased risk-weights on exposures to large financial institutions. The new framework also enhances incentives for clearing over-the-counter (OTC) instruments through central counterparties (CCP).
11 3. LEVERAGE RATIO: [pag.32 del testo originale] Leverage Ratio: Basel III introduces a non-risk-based leverage ratio to supplement the risk-based capital framework of Basel II. Starting in 2015, publication of the leverage ratio by the institutions is proposed. The leverage ratio should be calculated by dividing an institution s capital measure by the total exposure (expressed as a percentage). The ratio should be calculated as the simple arithmetic mean of the monthly leverage ratios over a quarter. For the numerator of the ratio (capital measure), the Tier 1 capital should be considered. The denominator (exposure measure) should be the sum of the exposure values of all assets and off-balance sheet items not deducted from the calculation of Tier 1 capital. At this time a leverage ratio of 3% is proposed: 4. CAPITAL BUFFERS: [pag.26 del testo originale] Capital Conservation Buffer: The capital conservation buffer, 2.5% of RWA and to be met with CET 1 capital, applies at all times and it is intended to ensure that institutions are able to absorb losses in stress periods lasting for a number of years. Considering the 4.5% CET 1 capital ratio, institutions must hold 7.0% CET 1 capital on an individual and consolidated basis at all times. Institutions are expected to build up the capital in good economic times (see figures 2 and 3). Countercyclical Capital Buffer: The countercyclical capital buffer is introduced to achieve the broader macro-prudential goal of protecting the banking sector and the real economy from the system-wide risks stemming from the boom-bust evolution in aggregate credit growth and more generally from any other structural
12 variables and from the exposure of the banking sector to any other risk factors related to risks to financial stability. The level of this buffer is set by each Member State, ranges between 0% and 2.5% of RWA and has to be met by CET 1 capital. The buffer is required during periods of excessive credit growth and it is released in an economic downturn (see figures 2 and 3). 5. GLOBAL LIQUIDITY STANDARD: [pag del testo originale] Liquidity Coverage Ratio: The Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) requires institutions to hold a sufficient buffer of high quality liquid assets to cover net liquidity outflows during a 30-day period of stress. The Stock of highquality liquid assets (numerator) should include assets of high credit and liquidity quality. The stress scenario that is used to determine the net cash outflows (denominator) reflects both institutionspecific and systemic shocks. The LCR will be introduced by 2015 after an observation period to avoid possible unintended consequences. From 2013 on, there is a general requirement for banks to keep appropriate liquidity coverage. To meet the requirement, institutions shall at all times hold liquid assets, the sum of the values of which equals, or is greater than, the liquidity outflows less the liquidity inflows under stressed conditions so as to ensure that institutions maintain levels of liquidity buffers which are adequate to face any possible imbalance between liquidity inflows and outflows under stressed conditions over a short period of time. The LCR should be reported on a monthly basis.
13 Net Stable Funding Ratio: The Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) requires institutions to maintain a sound funding structure over one year in an extended firm-specific stress scenario. The minimum requirement is to be introduced by January 1, There is an observation period until then. The NSFR should be reported not less than quarterly. The numerator of the NSFR includes the stable sources of funding. The denominator of the NSFR includes the items requiring stable funding:
14 ENHANCED GOVERNANCE: [pag.48 del testo originale] According to the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and the EU Commission in many cases risk oversight by boards was inadequate, often due to insufficient time commitment, inadequate technical knowledge or insufficient diversity in board composition. Boards were often not sufficiently involved in the overall risk strategy or did not spend sufficient time discussing risk issues, as risk management was considered a low priority compared to other concerns. In addition, the risk management function has not been given appropriate weight in the decision-making process. The strengthening of the corporate governance framework requires: Increasing the effectiveness of risk oversight by boards; Improving the status of the risk management function; Ensuring effective monitoring by supervisors of risk governance.
15 BIOGRAPHY: - Basel III Handbook, Accenture 2011, pag Comitato di Basilea per la vigilanza bancaria, Banca dei Regolamenti Internazionali (BIS), Comunicato Stampa del 12 Settembre 2010, pag. 4
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