WLAN Positioning Technology White Paper

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1 WLAN Positioning Technology White Paper Issue 1.0 Date HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

2 2014. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Trademarks and Permissions and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders. Notice The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied. Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Address: Website: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen People's Republic of China Tel: Fax: i

3 About This Document About This Document Keywords WLAN, positioning, tag, terminal, and component Abstract Development of wireless communications technology and improvement in data processing capability make location-based services one of the most promising mobile Internet services. With unique advantages, WLAN positioning has received growing attentions and are widely used. This document describes implementation of WLAN positioning and its main applications on networks. Abbreviations Abbreviation STA AP AC FFT RFID Full Name Station Access Point Access Controller Fast Fourier Transformation Radio Frequency Identification ii

4 Contents Contents About This Document... ii 1 Background Technology Implementation Tag Positioning Terminal Positioning Benefits to Customers Typical Application Scenarios iii

5 1 Background 1 Background Development of wireless communications technology and improvement in data processing capability make location-based services one of the most promising mobile Internet services. The demand for accurate and fast location-based services becomes more and more stringent in both indoor and outdoor environments. Wireless communications technology is used to locate mobile terminals through measurement and calculation of related parameters. The location information obtained facilitates location-based service provision, optimizes network management, improves service quality and network performance. Major wireless positioning technologies include WLAN, Global Positioning System (GPS), ZigBee, Bluetooth, and cellular system (2G, 3G, and 4G), among which WLAN becomes the research focus and mainstream positioning technology of the industry due to its low costs and wide application in both indoor and outdoor environments. Huawei WLAN positioning solution supports location of tags and Wi-Fi terminals (including rogue APs and non-wi-fi devices). WLAN tag positioning technology uses radio frequency identification (RFID) devices and a positioning system to locate a target through the WLAN. An AP forwards collected RFID tags to the positioning server. The positioning server computes the physical location and sends the location data to a third-party device. After that, users can view the location of a target through maps and tables. Huawei works with Ekahau and AeroScout, mainstream tag vendors in the industry, to provide the WLAN tag positioning solution. Terminal positioning locates Wi-Fi terminals and rogue APs on a network based on radio signal information collected by APs from the surrounding environment. The APs report the collected information to a positioning server, which computes locations of Wi-Fi terminals or rogue APs based on the received information and APs' locations, and presents the computing results to users on display devices. The terminal positioning solution is independently delivered by Huawei and uses only Huawei WLAN devices. 1

6 2 Technology Implementation 2 Technology Implementation Huawei WLAN positioning solution consists of the tag positioning solution and Wi-Fi terminal positioning solution. Huawei partners with a third-party vendor to deliver the tag positioning solution. The third-party vendor provides tags, location engine, and monitoring platform while Huawei provides APs and ACs. The Wi-Fi terminal (including rogue APs) positioning solution is independently delivered by Huawei and uses only Huawei WLAN devices. 2.1 Tag Positioning Components The tag positioning solution is made up of a Wi-Fi network, location engine, and monitoring platform. Figure 2-1 shows functions and the provider of each component. In actual applications, tag location data can also be integrated to the enterprise application platform, such as the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) platform. Figure 2-1 Tag positioning solution components 2

7 2 Technology Implementation Location tags Location tags are attached to targets (assets or personnel) that need to be tracked and periodically send radio signals to APs on the 2.4 GHz radio. Based on tracked targets, the location tags are classified into asset location tags and personnel location tags. Some tags support two-way communications. An alarm can be generated through a button on the tag. Sending signals consumes power of tags. All tags have a battery life, usually four years (the battery life varies according to different tags and depends on the sending interval. A larger sending interval indicates a longer battery life. A four-year battery life corresponds to a signal sending interval of 1 hour). There are also rechargeable tags, which are not limited by battery life. Wi-Fi network The Wi-Fi network collects and forwards tag signals. APs receive location information sent by RFID tags and send the information to an AC or a positioning server. The AC receives and forwards configuration instructions delivered by the positioning server to the APs. It also functions as a transit station to forward location information sent from the APs to the positioning server. Positioning server Physically, the positioning server works as both the location engine and monitoring platform. (1) Location engine: runs the location algorithm to compute locations of RF tags based on the collected location information. (2) Monitoring platform: displays tag locations on electronic maps, records and queries the historical traces of tags, and makes notifications and alarms based on specified rules. Figure 2-2 Tag positioning services 3

8 2 Technology Implementation Positioning Principles Since the location algorithm is provided by the partner, details about the location algorithm and frame formats of tags are not provided here. The following paragraphs describe the tag positioning principles. Tag message formats vary according to different tag producers and require customized APs for message parsing. Huawei WLAN products can parse frames sent by Ekahau and AeroScout tags and have passed strict verification and certification tests. Figure 2-3 Tag positioning process (in this example, the location information passes through the AC) 1. The RFID tag sends a tag message. The RFID tag does not need to connect to the WLAN. It sends frames at regular intervals. To ensure that signals sent by the tag can be listened on by more APs, the RFID tag sends tag messages simultaneously on all channels. Tag messages may have different formats, but all tag messages contain information required by the positioning server for tag location. Take AeroScout tags as an example. AeroScout redefines four address fields in the frame. Figure frame structure Address1 specifies a multicast address. The AP identifies a packet as a tag message through this multicast address. 4

9 2 Technology Implementation Address2 indicates the MAC address of the RFID tag. According to this field, the positioning system collects information about the same RFID tag that is received from different APs. Address3 carries RFID tag information. The most important information in this field is about the channel that transmits the tag message. The AP determines whether the channel information in the received tag message matches its working channel. Address4 is available only when the tag message needs to be transmitted on a wireless distribution system (WDS) network. This field indicates the extended RFID tag information. 2. The AP receives the tag message and forwards it to the positioning server. After receiving the tag message, the AP records the RSSI (signal strength), timestamp, rate, and channel information. RSSI is the most important information and key data used by the positioning server to determine the distance between the tag and AP. To ensure RSSI accuracy, the AP needs to filter out tag messages received from adjacent channels. For example, if an AP works on channel 1, it may receive frames sent by the tag on channel 2. Since the AP and tag are located in different channels, the RSSI received by the AP is low. The positioning server may incorrectly consider that the tag is far from the AP. To prevent inaccurate location calculation, tag message received from adjacent channels must be filtered out. The AP encapsulates all tag messages into a UDP packet (tag report) and sends the UDP packet to the positioning server or AC. The report mode and location information required differ slightly according to positioning servers of different vendors. For example, the Ekahau positioning server requires APs to report tag messages in real time but the AeroScout positioning server allows APs to periodically report multiple tag messages at one time. The destination IP address and port number in a tag report is configured by the AC. If the destination IP address is configured as the positioning server, the AP directly sends the tag report to the positioning server. If the destination IP address is configured as the AC, the AP sends the tag report to the AC, and the AC forwards the tag report to the positioning server. This mode applies to scenarios where the AP cannot directly communicate with the positioning server. Spectrum analysis data and location data on WLAN products are not user data; therefore, their forwarding is not limited by the local forwarding or centralized forwarding mode defined in the service set. Location data includes tag location data and terminal location data. 3. The positioning server computes the tag location. To accurately determine the location of the RFID tag, the positioning server needs to receive RFID tag information from at least three APs. After receiving the tag report from the APs, the positioning server uses a built-in location algorithm to compute the tag location based on the imported map, AP locations, and information carried in the tag report such as the RSSI and radio mode, and sends the location information to the graphical interface of the third-party device for presentation. 5

10 2 Technology Implementation 2.2 Terminal Positioning Components The WLAN terminal positioning solution requires no tags and can locate regular Wi-Fi terminals, rogue APs, and non-wi-fi interference sources. The terminal positioning solution is composed of the Wi-Fi network, terminal, location engine, and monitoring platform. The location engine and monitoring software are integrated on the positioning server, similar to those in the tag positioning solution. Huawei terminal positioning solution uses esight NMS as the positioning server. Figure 2-5 Terminal positioning solution components Wi-Fi terminals Wi-Fi terminals refer to regular Wi-Fi terminals, rogue APs, and non-wi-fi interference sources. They send wireless signals. Wi-Fi network The APs collect wireless signals. Wireless signals can be collected in two modes: the APs collect RSSI information of WLAN terminals and rogue APs and report the information to the positioning server to locate WLAN terminals or rogue APs; the APs scan spectrums and report fast Fourier transform (FFT) results of wireless signals to the AC to identify and locate non-wi-fi interference sources. RSSI information must contain AP identifiers, STA identifiers, RSSIs, and channel information. The APs can send the collected location information directly to the positioning server or to an AC first. The AC will filter the information before sending it to the positioning server. The AC implements spectrum analysis on FFT data reported by the AP, identifies non-wi-fi interference sources, calculates RSSIs of the interference sources, and reports the RSSIs to the positioning server. If the APs report the RSSI information to the AC first, the AC filters the RSSI information before sending it to the positioning server. RSSI information of the interference sources must contain IDs of the APs that have detected the interference sources, types and IDs of interference sources, and RSSIs. Positioning server 6

11 2 Technology Implementation Positioning Principles The positioning server integrates the location engine and monitoring platform. Huawei solution uses esight NMS as the positioning server. (1) The location engine computes the signal transmission model according to locations of APs and obstacles, and calculates locations of terminals, rogue APs, or non-wi-fi interference sources based on the RSSI information reported by APs or the AC. (2) The monitoring platform displays tag locations on electronic maps, records and queries the historical traces of tags, and makes notifications and alarms based on specified rules. Similar to APs in the tag positioning solution, APs in the terminal positioning solution need to collect wireless signal information and send the information to the positioning server. The positioning server calculates the terminal location according to the location algorithm. Figure 2-6 Terminal positioning process (in this example, the location information passes through the AC) 1. The AP collects RSSI information of radio signals and sends the collected information to the positioning server. (1) The AP periodically switches channels to collect radio signals in the surrounding environment on each channel and records location information in the received frames, including the RSSI, timestamp, rate, and channel. RSSI is the most important information and key data used by the positioning server to determine the distance between the terminal and AP. (2) The AP encapsulates all the collected radio signal information into a UDP packet and reports the collected data to the positioning server in either of the following modes: The AP reports the collected data to the AC, the AC then reports the data to the positioning server. If the network between the AP and positioning server is unreachable, the AP can send the data to the AC first. The AC filters the data, 7

12 2 Technology Implementation selects location information about terminals and rogue APs, and reports the selected information to the positioning server. The AP directly reports the data to the positioning server. If the network between the AP and positioning server is reachable, and the AC is not required to identify rogue APs, the AP can directly send data to the positioning server. This prevents impacts on WLAN services because the AC does not need to process location data. 2. The AC receives information reported by the AP and forwards the information to the positioning server (optional). When the AP reports the collected data to the AC first, the AC processes the data as follows: (1) The AC checks whether the data reported by the AP is location data based on the destination port number. If not, the AC performs other processing on the data. (2) When the AC receives location data, it checks the type of devices that send the data. If the data is sent from an access terminal, the AC reports the data to the positioning server; if the data is sent from an AP, the AC checks whether the AP is an authorized AP or rogue AP. The AC discards data from authorized APs and sends location data of rogue APs to the positioning server. Figure 2-7 Location information processing on the AC 3. The positioning server computes the terminal location. The positioning server computes the terminal location in two phases: Offline phase: The positioning server divides the whole network into multiple equal area grids and derives the radio signal transmission model according to onsite environment 8

13 2 Technology Implementation characteristics (characteristics of indoor or outdoor environments and obstacles). In combination with AP locations imported into the positioning server, the positioning server computes the RSSI of a STA in a grid to each AP and stores the information in the database. Online phase: APs report RSSIs to the positioning server after the APs (at least three APs) receive location information of the terminal to be located. The positioning server compares the RSSI information received by each AP with the information in the database to obtain the terminal location. Figure 2-8 Location algorithm 9

14 3 Benefits to Customers 3 Benefits to Customers WLAN positioning technology brings considerable benefits to customers. Compared with other positioning systems, WLAN positioning has low costs and applies to various scenarios. It helps locate rogue APs and network faults in a timely manner, improving the O&M efficiency. In addition, value-added applications based on WLAN positioning technology, such as asset management and security monitoring provide enterprises with an increased level of security assurance and improved efficiency. Precise advertisement push creates significant business values. Huawei tag and terminal positioning solutions achieve a location accuracy of 3 to 5 meters at a movement speed lower than 3 km/hour. 1. Low deployment costs WLAN has become one of the most popular hotspot access modes and widely used in shopping malls, office buildings, restaurants, cafes, and parking lots. WLAN positioning technology uses existing devices on a WLAN and requires no additional devices to offer the location services, which reduces deployment and O&M costs. 2. Wide application scenarios There are increased requirements on indoor applications of wireless positioning technology, such as indoor navigation and asset location. Traditional positioning systems such as GPS and cellular system are inapplicable to indoor scenarios because they provide no signals or poor signals indoors. WLAN positioning applies to both indoor and outdoor scenarios. Different from GPS or cellular system, the Wi-Fi system is widely deployed and Wi-Fi signals are available indoors. This is also one important reason that most indoor positioning technologies are implemented based on the Wi-Fi system. 3. Improved O&M efficiency WLAN positioning technology helps the O&M personnel accurately and quickly locate interference sources in the system, such as rogue APs and non-wi-fi devices, improving network performance and reliability. 4. Rich value-added services Rich value-added services are developed based on the WLAN positioning technology, which bring customers security, efficiency, and business values. (1) Personnel tracking and locating: Fun parks and theme parks usually have complex geographies and have a large number of entertainment facilities. Wireless positioning technology helps locate lost children fast and accurately. Wireless positioning technology helps monitor patients in hospitals or surveil prisoners in prisons and alerts on escape of prisoners from supervision areas. In high-risk production industries, such as the mining industry, wireless positioning technology is used to track miners and confirm the number, location, and status of workers. 10

15 3 Benefits to Customers (2) Device and asset management: The manufacturing and logistics industries use wireless positioning technology to locate and manage key assets, monitor distribution of production materials, track removal of goods, tools and devices to prevent them against theft. Wireless positioning technology can help hospitals monitor and track valuable medical equipment to protect them against theft and monitor device usage to improve device usage efficiency. (3) Manufacturing visibility: In hospitals, wireless positioning is used to monitor the medical treatment process, arrange medical consultation, and reduce congestion of patients. The mining industry uses the wireless positioning system to monitor mineral manufacturing, track trucks and other vehicles on or under the ground, prevent occurrence of collisions, and alert drivers about surrounding vehicles or personnel. (4) Indoor navigation: The wireless positioning technology provides customers indoor navigation services. Parking navigation helps a car driver find a parking place and navigates the car there. Shopping navigation helps consumers find the desired shop in a shopping mall. The navigation services bring great convenience to the users (consumers). (5) Advertisement push: Shop vendors can use the wireless positioning technology to push advertisements or sales promotion messages to consumers when the consumers reach the shopping mall. The wireless positioning system notifies the consumers of the latest commodity information or discount offers to attract consumers. (6) Business value analysis: The property owner can analyze historical location data and record where users stay and how long they stay there to make consumer traffic analysis. The property owner can charge for rental based on the consumer traffic analysis. 11

16 4 Typical Application Scenarios 4 Typical Application Scenarios WLAN positioning is widely applicable to many scenarios, including network fault troubleshooting, location-based navigation, value-added service analysis based on historical location data, as well as asset and personnel tracking. 1. Network fault troubleshooting Wireless positioning is used to locate faults reported by users and interference sources in this scenario. (1) Once a user reports a fault, the O&M personnel need to obtain the location where the fault occurs to analyze surrounding environments and find the causes based on AP distribution, signal coverage, signal strength, and user access information. (2) Many interference sources exist in the radio environment, such as rogue APs and microwave ovens. These interference sources affect usage of WLAN. Even if the network generates alarms about the interference sources, the O&M personnel still cannot troubleshoot the fault if they do not obtain the positions of the interference sources. Figure 4-1 Network fault troubleshooting Microwave oven The wireless positioning function provides and displays locations of terminals, rogue devices, and interference sources, helping the O&M personnel troubleshoot network faults quickly. 12

17 4 Typical Application Scenarios To enable the wireless positioning function, perform the following configuration on the WLAN (configurations on esight are not provided here). 1. Run the system-view command to enter the system view. 2. Run the wlan command to enter the WLAN view. 3. Run the ap ap-id radio radio-id command to enter the AP's radio view. 4. Run the work-mode hybrid command to configure the AP radio to work in hybrid mode. By default, the AP radio works in normal mode and only transmits data of wireless users. 5. Run the location enable command to enable terminal positioning on the AP. By default, terminal positioning is disabled on an AP. 6. Run the channel scan-switch enable command to enable the AP to scan all channels. By default, an AP scans only working channels. If WIDS, spectrum analysis, background neighbor probing, or terminal positioning is configured on a radio, the radio cannot be used for WDS bridging or Mesh link setup. 7. Run the quit command to return to the WLAN view. 8. Run the radio-profile { id profile-id name profile-name } * command to create a radio profile and enter the radio profile view. 9. (Optional) Run the channel scan-time time command to configure the channel scan period. The default period during which an AP scans channels is 60 ms. This command applies to the WIDS, background neighbor probing, and terminal positioning functions. 10. (Optional) Run the channel scan-frequency time command to configure the channel scan interval. The default interval at which an AP scans channels is 10s. This command applies to the WIDS, background neighbor probing, and terminal positioning functions. 11. (Optional) Run the location report-frequency time command to configure the interval at which an AP reports channel scan information. By default, an AP reports channel scan information every 20s. 12. Run the quit command to return to the WLAN view. 13. Run the location ap report-server { ac ip-address ip-addr } port port-num command to configure the destination IP address and port number for the AP to report channel scan information. By default, an AP reports channel scan information to the AC and uses the port number 6411 to report the information. 14. Run the location ac report-server ip-address ip-addr port port-num command to configure the destination IP address and port number for the AC to report channel scan information. The destination IP address and port number used by the AC to report information are configured only when an AP is configured to report channel scan information to the AC. 15. Run the commit { all ap ap-id } command to deliver the configuration to APs. 16. Run the display current-configuration command to view terminal positioning configurations. 13

18 4 Typical Application Scenarios 2. Location-based navigation Wireless positioning provides the following navigation services: (1) In shopping malls, consumers can use the wireless positioning system to obtain location information about surrounding shops and select their preferred shops for shopping. (2) The shop vendors can push advertisements based on consumer locations. (3) In scenic spots, tourists can use the wireless positioning system to obtain location information about surrounding tourist attractions and go to visit their preferred site. (4) In large parking lots, car drivers can quickly find parking positions. Figure 4-2 Location-based navigation The wireless positioning system uses an API and third-party system to obtain user locations and offer users navigation services based on the locations. WLAN configuration in this scenario is similar to that in the first scenario. 3. Value-added service analysis based on user's historical locations Value-added services that are developed based on historical location data include the following: (1) The shopping mall analyzes the time duration when users stay in a shop based on historical location data, and offers users shopping guide based on the analysis results. (2) The shopping mall can analyze consumer traffic of different shops based on the consumers' stay time in each shop and charges for rental based on the analysis. 14

19 4 Typical Application Scenarios Figure 4-3 Value-added service analysis Movement traces in a specified time The wireless positioning system can store users' historical location data and offer a third-party API to obtain historical movement traces of users for further analysis. WLAN configuration in this scenario is similar to that in the first scenario. 4. Asset and personnel tracking Healthcare, oil, gas, mining, and education industries need to monitor assets and personnel to ensure their safety. Wireless positioning technology provides enterprises with an increased level of security assurance and improved efficiency. Figure 4-4 Asset and personnel tracking 15

20 4 Typical Application Scenarios This scenario uses tags produced by AeroScout or Ekahau. Configure the WLAN network in the following way (in this example, AeroScout tags are used). 1. Run the system-view command to enter the system view. 2. Run the wlan command to enter the WLAN view. 3. Run the ap id ap-id command to enter the AP view. 4. Run the lbs aeroscout enable command to enable AeroScout tag positioning. By default, AeroScout tag positioning is disabled. 5. Run the quit command to return to the WLAN view. 6. Runt the lbs aeroscout ap { to-ac to-ae } port port-num command to configure the destination IP address and port number used by the AP to report the received AeroScout tag information. By default, the destination IP address and port number used by an AP to report tag information is not configured. 7. (Optional) Run the lbs aeroscout ae-port port-num command to configure the port number used for communications between the AC and the AeroScout positioning server. By default, the port number used by an AC to listen for messages sent from the AeroScout positioning server is not configured. 8. (Optional) Run the lbs source ip-addr ip-address command to configure the source IP address of packets sent from the AC to the positioning server. By default, the source IP address of packets sent from the AC to the positioning server is not configured. If an AP is configured to report tag information to the AC, the port number used by the AC to communicate with the AeroScout positioning server must be configured. If an AP is configured to report tag information to the AC, the port number configured on the AeroScout positioning server must be the same as that used by the AC to communicate with the server. If an AP is configured to directly report tag information to the AeroScout positioning server, the port number used by the AP to report tag information must be the same as that configured on the server. The port number used by the AP to report tag information must be different from that used by the AC to communicate with the positioning server. If the positioning server runs the Linux system and is enabled with reverse route check, the positioning server must be able to ping the source IP address of the packets sent from the AC to the positioning server. 9. (Optional) Run the lbs aeroscout compound-time time-value command to configure the aggregation time of AeroScout tag packets. The default aggregation time of AeroScout tag packets on an AC is seconds. 10. Run the commit { all ap ap-id } command to deliver the configuration to APs. 16

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