LE:NOTRE Landscape Forum 17th 20th April 2013 The Faculty of Architecture_Sapienza Università di Roma

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1 Chapter I_Roman landscapes and selected Portraits (DRAFT) J. J. Winckelmann, Goethe (XVII ) Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 1

2 Chapter I Table of Content Nature POSTCARDS FROM ROME HERITAGE_Tiber river (Photo credit: Maria Beatrice Andreucci,2013) NATURAL RESERVES_Insugherata (Photo credit: Maria Beatrice Andreucci,2013) HERITAGE_Ostia sand dunes (Photo credit: Filippo Calcerano,2013) NATURAL RESERVES_Monte Mario (Photo credit: Sonja Radovic-Jelovac,2013) History HERITAGE_Ostia antica (Photo credit: Viola Albino,2013) ARCHEOLOGY_Appia antica Park (Photo credit: Viola Albino,2013) CITY PARKS_ Laghetto dell EUR _De Vico Fallani (Photo credit: Viola Albino,2013) CITY PARKS_Botanical Garden (Photo credit: Maria Beatrice Andreucci,2013) IDENTITY_Isola Tiberina (Photo credit: Sonja Radovic-Jelovac,2013) IDENTITY_Pinus pinea at Villa Doria Pamphilj (Photo credit: Sonja Radovic- Jelovac,2013) IDENTITY_Trastevere (Photo credit: Sonja Radovic-Jelovac,2013) Contemporary NEW DEVELOPMENTS_EUR Nuvola _Fuksas (Photo credit: Viola Albino,2013) NEW DEVELOPMENTS_Ostia Waterfront Duilio (Photo credit: Filippo Calcerano,2013) CITY PARKS_Mole Adriana park (Photo credit: Sonja Radovic-Jelovac,2013) TOURIST SPOTS_Spanish steps (Photo credit: Sonja Rodovic-Jelovac,2013) Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 2

3 Chapter I Table of Content (cont.) (in progress) SELECTED PORTRAITS NATURE - Regional Parks Monte Mario Insugherata HISTORY VILLAS Villa Adriana Villa Borghese Villa Doria Pamphilj FOUNTAINS HISTORICAL SQUARES RELIGIOUS SQUARES DISTRICTS PUBLIC PROMENADES S. Peter s square Janicolum Hill Pincio CONTEMPORARY Ara Pacis EUR San Silvestro square SUGGESTED INTERNATIONAL READINGS AND MOVIES BIBLIOGRAPHY Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 3

4 POSTCARDS FROM ROME Nature HERITAGE_Tiber river NATURAL RESERVES_Insugherata Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 4

5 HERITAGE_Ostia sand dunes NATURAL RESERVES_Monte Mario Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 5

6 POSTCARDS FROM ROME History HERITAGE_Ostia antica ARCHEOLOGY_Appia antica Park Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 6

7 CITY PARKS_ Laghetto dell EUR _De Vico Fallani, 1960_2012 CITY PARKS_Botanical Garden Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 7

8 IDENTITY_Isola Tiberina IDENTITY_Pinus pinea at Villa Doria Pamphilj Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 8

9 IDENTITY_Trastevere Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 9

10 Contemporary NEW DEVELOPMENTS_EUR Nuvola _Fuksas NEW DEVELOPMENTS_Ostia Waterfront Duilio Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 10

11 CITY PARKS_Mole Adriana park TOURIST SPOTS_Spanish steps Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 11

12 SELECTED PORTRAITS NATURE Since its foundation, Rome has always been rich of woods and forests, which were mostly admired and respected by Romans. Being aware of the power of plants, they soon emanated special laws to protect nature and trees. Woods became temples and this tradition lasted for long times, even when Rome expanded both geographically and in terms of political power. As of today, 70% of the municipal territory is dedicated to natural environment, with a total of 88,000 hectares of green areas. For high percentage of agricultural lands - over 60,000 hectares - Rome is the first agricultural municipality in Italy. Roman countryside is not only around the city but also penetrates deeply in its hearth, with large green wedges often linked to gardens and public parks, thus creating ecological corridors, as key connections to preserve bio-diversity. 50% of Roman green areas are protected by law, to preserve and promote environmental, aesthetic and landscape values throughout the Region. In the Capital City, there are 20 protected parks, reserves and marine areas, counting for over 41,000 hectares, 15 of which are directly managed by the Regional Authority, RomaNatura. The system comprises: 9 Natural Reserves, created by Regional Law n. 29/97 Riserva Naturale della Marcigliana (hectares 4696) (1) Riserva Naturale della Valle dell Aniene (hectares 620) (3) Riserva Naturale di Decima-Malafede (hectares 6145) (4) Riserva Naturale del Laurentino Acqua Acetosa (hectares 152) (5) Riserva Naturale della Tenuta dei Massimi (hectares 774) (7) Riserva Naturale della Valle dei Casali (hectares 469) (6) Riserva Naturale dell Acquafredda (hectares 249) (8) Riserva Naturale di Monte Mario (hectares 204) (10) Riserva Naturale dell Insugherata (hectares 697) (11) 2 Regional Parks created before RomaNatura Parco Regionale Urbano di Aguzzano (created in 1989 hectares 60) (2) Parco Regionale Urbano del Pineto (created in 1987 hectares 243) (9) Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 12

13 3 Natural Monuments Monumento naturale di Mazzalupetto - Quarto degli Ebrei (hectares 180) (12) Monumento Naturale di Galeria Antica (hectares 40) (13) Monumento Naturale Parco della Cellulosa (hectares 100) (14) 1 Protected Marine Area, created by Decreto del Ministero dell Ambiente, 29 novembre 2000 Area Marina protetta delle Secche di Tor Paterno (hectares 1200) (15) Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 13

14 SELECTED PORTRAITS NATURE_Regional Parks 1. The area of the natural reserve of Monte Mario with its height of 139 meters is the highest hill of the Monti della Farnesina and represents for its environmental features a true mosaic of biological diversity now rare in Rome. A large presence of typical Mediterranean vegetation, in the lower zones (Ilex, Cork and Rockrose) is accompanied by the typical vegetation of sub-mountain conditions in the higher areas (hornbeam, Linden, Maple, Ash, Hazel, Privet and Dogwood). The development of the area has greatly disturbed the original fauna present today: rodents (Dormouse, Woodmouse) and birds (Robin, Blackbird, Long-tailed tit, Greenfinch, Goldfinch, Jackdaw and Starling). Already in Roman times the Hill housed the residential villas and noble poets and was crossed by the armies returning from military campaigns along the via Trionfale crossed also by the pilgrims on their way to Rome, becoming the last stretch of the via Francigena, the medieval route from Canterbury to Saint Peter and down to Jerusalem. The area includes historical villas, including Villa Mazzanti, RomaNatura, and Villa Mellini, home of the famous Astronomical Observatory. 2. The natural reserve of the Insugherata stretching between the districts arose in the East, along the Cassia, and the via Trionfale, in the West, represents an important natural corridor between urban boundaries to the North of the city and the great system Veio Cesano, included in the area of the drainage basin of the Acqua Traversa. Along these two boundary lines are numerous archaeological remains of Roman villas and tombs. The vegetation is very articulate. Slopes exposed to the South host the downy oak, Cork oak or holm oak on rocky hills, while those on the West side present a vegetation completely different, with mixed forests consisting mainly of hornbeam, manna-ash, oak and Maple. There is also the chestnut and Hazel in the lower parts. Along watercourses are the willow and poplar and notable is the presence of ferns. Rich is the area's fauna: among mammals, Hedgehogs, Moles, the Porcupine, the Dormouse; among the birds of the Kestrel, Pheasant, Turtledove and Cuckoo. Among reptiles the Slow worm, the Grass snake and among amphibians is the presence of the Spectacled, exclusive species of the Italian peninsula. Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 14

15 SELECTED PORTRAITS HISTORY_Villas The peaceful abodes of the gods, in this way Lucrezio colled the horti of Romans, where the they could find thermal baths, libraries, theaters, gimnasium, cared parks and gardens, close to the aesthetic nature of the English gardens design of the eighteenth century, there was always present a ambulation, a path for walking, enriched by a colonnade, of which the most famous example is the Villa Adriana Pecile, studied even by Giambattista Piranesi. The fall of Rome caused the slow surrender of his villas, such the Villa di Nerone, the villa Quintili, at the Villa di Orazio, the Villa di Livia and the Villa di Plinio: it was not until nearly ten centuries to see revive the culture of the villas. Perhaps the beginning of modern thought will be the early XVI century thanks to the Agostino Chigi, who will entrust to Raffaello Sanzio and Peruzzi the construction of his villa: the Villa Chigi, defined the first Villa Romana, with installation of Italian gardens and the riverport. Ended the wars of Italy, Rome sees the rise of the Villa Medici on the Pincio, a masterpiece of half the 500, Villa Giulia at Flaminio, spectacular design of Vignola and Ammannati, the casino Mattei on Celio, but it 's during the seventeenth century to be carried out many of the Roman villas still visible today: the most important is the Villa Pamphili, ordered by Pope Innocente X and headed by Alessandro Algardi, fortunately preserved by the speculation of war. So will be built the villas of families Spada, Farnese, Pallavicini, Corsini, Barberini and Sciarra, the Esquiline and the Pincio will be also interested by construction of new villas. If the sale of the land of Villa Ludovisi has deprived the city of one of its most beautiful villas, so it was not for Villa Borghese, sold to the City of Rome and preserved as a public park, within which stands the famous casino Borghese, now a museum. Before 1870, when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, few villas were built: at the beginning of the century Giuseppe Valadier built on the Pincio hill the famous Villa casina Valadier, then was built Villa Torlonia, a true masterpiece of architecture and decoration neoclassical recently reopened to the public. Unless some other rare exceptions, Villa Mazzanti, casina Vagnuzzi, villa Poniatowskj, three quarters of a century ends there. Will be the new zoning of Rome Capital to provide information about a new type, the cottage, which will affect large part of new development areas. 1. To give life to the gardens of Villa Adriana was the water: the villa as well as beingimmersed in the green was filled with fountains, waterfalls and pools. unlike the "drama" scenes of Villa d'este, here the water dominates gently, with peristilo gardens and terraced gardens, triclinium, all designed according to the Roman landscape tradition, in respect for the configuration of the land. After the death of Adriano the Villa suffered 10 centuries of neglect, exposed to weather and continuous pillages for the construction of Christian churches, and was finally covered with earth, on which grew olive trees. Only in the Renaissance was recognized the role of residence of Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 15

16 Hadrian, and in 1942 began the excavations. Villa Adriana was recognized UNESCO World Heritage in Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 16

17 2. Villa Borghese, the queen of Roman villas, is considered one of the few remaining untouched by extension, but almost entirely devoid of plant and archaeological characteristics, and furniture that made it famous. The introduction of random species unrelated to the original character, the lack of care of fields, and the opening of many roads, have distorted the reality of this beautiful villa but it is still possible to admire the monumental entrances, the picturesque Lake Garden, and the Secret Gardens, as well as the gardens of the Pincio, which still offer one of the most famous and characteristic views of the city. Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 17

18 3. Villa Doria Pamphilj with its 184 hectares is one of the most important and extensive historical Roman villas, which are well documented, and preserved in part, the arrangement seventeenth century and the subsequent transformations. The park of the villa, designed as a combination of different types of garden, became the protagonist from the beginning, and an element of mediation between architecture and landscape, justifying the name of the villa as a Bel respire (deep breath), an innovative arrangement that incorporates the grounds of Italian formal garden. In 1939 the City of Rome started the first expropriations, and the Italian State in 1957acquired the original nucleus, part of the current 184 hectares were acquired by the City of Rome in 1965 and 1971, making it finally possible since 1972 to open to the public this wonderful park. The opening of Via Leone XIII on the occasion of the 1960 Olympic Games, has divided the complex into two parts: the east sector more rich in monuments (buildings and historic gardens, fountains, furniture), west of the more "wild" and naturalistically more qualified. Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 18

19 SELECTED PORTRAITS HISTORY_Fountains Founts had always be a natural consequence of geological structure of the region and many natural springs characterized the area before the Romans colonization. The first fountains appeared with the need to collect and store water, and became parts of Ancient Roman landscape with the built of acqueducts that allowed to build fountains without springs in their surroundings. According to Sextus Julius Frontinus, the Roman consul who was named curator aquarum or guardian of the water of Rome in 98 AD, Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39 monumental fountains and 591 public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household, baths and owners of private villas 1. One of the first new fountains to be built in Rome during the Renaissance was the fountain in Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere (1472), which was probably a rebuilding of a pre-existing ancient roman fountain. During the 17th and the 18th century after the reconstruction of three acqueducts, new monumental fountains appeared in Rome as a caratheristic sign of Catholic power against Protestant Reformation. A brief selection of fountains of this period can t ignore the Fontana della Barcaccia ( ) located in Piazza di Spagna made by Pietro Bernini, the Fontana del Tritone (1642) in Piazza Barberini and the Fontana dei Quattro fiumi ( ) of Piazza Navona made by Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Fontana di Trevi by Nicola Salvi, one of the most recognizable symbol the city thanks even to the renowed scene of La Dolce Vita by Federico Fellini (1960). A traditional legends holds that if visitors trow a coin backwards into the fountain, they are ensured a return to Rome. About euro are thrown in the Fountains each day and are given by Comune di Roma to Caritas. The 19th of October in 2007 the Italian militant Graziano Cecchini inked in blood red the fountains as a protest against the global market. 1 Frontin, Les Aqueducs de la ville de Rome, translation and commentary by Pierre Grimal, Société d'édition Les Belles Lettres, Paris, Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 19

20 SELECTED PORTRAITS HISTORY_Other open spaces Squares The squares of downtown Rome once was the centri nevralgici of inhabitants activity, and represents today a node of life and history where the thoughts run through the superb buildings that rules the square as if it was a monumental atrium and an invite to admiration (G.Toselli Le piazza di Roma Fratelli Palombi Editori Roma 1967). The monumental characterization of squares like Piazza del Popolo, piazza Navona (where were once held naval battle, or Piazza di Spagna has little in common with the new squares of contemporary Rome where the historical and monumental value gives the pace to a more functional and usually traffic-jammed type. Religious Squares Rome s religious role was during the centuries consolidated by the Pope s presence and it s easy to comprehend how the city can be called the One thousand church City. Churches are not always the most important feature of the square that are not always characterized by mystical meanings as the relationship with the church would suggest. The most important example of mystical symbolism of religious square in Piazza San Pietro where the space configuration represents the hug of Christian church to their believer, and where the fideles can search his contact with god. Otherwise a square like Santa Maria Maggiore (known as the best rear square of Rome ) Represents a formidable way to deal with the slope of Esquilino hill enhanced by the volume of the church with a genial solution of different planes, from the top to the bottom. Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 20

21 Districts The first urban subdivision of Rome was made by Servio Tullio in the VI sec b.c. and was composed by four districts, that under Ottaviano Augusto became fourteen. During the medieval time they became 13, under the French occupation a new rationalization took the number down to 12, cut down again to eight. With the Italian unification a new subdivision created the current subdivision in fifteen different districts called Rioni, placed inside the ring of Mura Aureliane (except Borgo and Prati). Outside the ancient city wall ring there are other 35 districts called quartieri each one with great building density and typology difference, from the cultural and sporting peculiarity of Flaminio, from the high upper class housing scheme of Parioli, to the Garden City structure of Monte Sacro, to the popular characterization of Tiburtino, Prenestino and Tuscolano, to the ex-industrial vocation of Ostiense and Portuense, until the disctrict of Lido di Ostia Ponente, Levante e Castelfusano that borders the sea. There are then 6 territories exdistricts and up to fifty-three zones dividing the roman countryside (Agro Romano). Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 21

22 Public Promenades Were designed for the first time during Napoleon s rule, as samples of greenery in urban tissue and allocated for all citizens with recreational and commemorative usage. As symbols of rising democracy which advocated right to entertainment for all social classes, designed to resemble French public promenades and they immediately became qualifying element of new urban space. At the moment, the typology refers solely to Pincio and The Janiculum (it. Gianicolo), but we also need to recall magnificent unrealised project for Celio promenade or history of archaeological walkway, a system of vegetation made between 19th and 20th century to accentuate monuments such as Circo Massimo and Terme di Caracalla, and then opening of Kristopher Columbus street, which is background of one of the most important rapid traffic arteries. Walking today along Celio, between boulevards with tram rails and asphalt, watching perched and poor lawns with scattered monumental fragments, it is hard to recall project that was approved in the beginning of 19th century at the time of Napoleon s rule. That place abundant in historical memories was allocated for large public walkway, conceptualised as pedant, for the southern part of the town, from Pincio hill and located on a wonderful position that predominates the Coliseum, overlooking the Palatino hill. However, while the garden of Great Caesar, known as Pincio, became immediately privileged town meeting place, competed and enriched even after the return of the Pope s rule, Celio garden saw just a few interventions soon annulled by spreading of surrounding districts, until any trace of its initial image was destroyed. Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 22

23 1. Piazza San Pietro is all about perception. The solution used by Bernini is at the same time: a mean to balance the width of Maderno's facade of the church, considering the lack of two bell tower that were never made, a way to save the Michelangelo's dome concealed by the extraordinary length of the church, a space made to hold the blessing extended to the whole world <<urbi et orbi>> during Easter celebration 2. From a perceptive point of view, the piazza retta (the trapezoidal part) is a solution (already used by Michelangelo in Piazza del Campidoglio) to narrow the front facade and make it seem taller, while the piazza obliqua (the elliptical part) make it seem closer to the viewer. The effect is strengthened by the height of the side wall of the piazza retta, that become shorter approaching the church, so that the height of it, is measured in relation of smaller pillars than those at the beginning of the square. The system center, the obelix, was out of the axis of the church to south of about 4 meters. This irregularity is now impossible to detect in a conscious way because was balanced in a subliminal way by Bernini with a gap of height between the two exedras of the piazza obliqua of about half a meter towards north 3. The square is full of small optical illusion/solution (the details of the statues, the geometrical design of the paving, the relationship between different orders ) that grants to the observer the unity and the perceptive awareness of a space so huge. 1 Rudolf Wittkover, Art and Architecture in Italy: , Penguin Books Ltd, Harmondsworth, Uk Leonardo Benevolo Storia dell'architettura del rinascimento, Laterza, Roma Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 23

24 Another important feature of the square is that the piazza obliqua can be considered at the same time closed and open. The space is firmly defined, but the elliptical form creates an expansion towards the transverse axis even powered by the transparent arcade. The effect is of perfect integration between the square and the external reality. The space becomes the match point of the entire humanity 4. Piazza San Pietro is a supreme example of spatial composition, and demonstrate that a system of places, put in a particular relationship with the setting, can symbolize a content that embraces the most deep issues of human existence. 2. Gianicolo (or Janiculum) is famous for being one of the most charming corners of Rome -- a balcony with breath taking views over the expanse of churches, piazzas, and monuments below, with the meandering Tiber taking centre stage. Towards the east, the hill descends to another famous and ancient Roman quarter: Trastevere. The name Janiculum comes from the belief that in ancient times it was the place where the god Janus was worshipped. The Janiculum Hill (Monte Gianicolo) is a long ridge on the right bank of the Tiber, running almost due north from a point opposite the Aventine to what is now called Monte Mario, a distance of about 5 kilometres. This was in the Ager Vaticanus (q.v.), and was sometimes called Mons Vaticanus. It is separated from the plateau behind by a long depression, and is itself not entirely continuous, being partially broken on the south, west and north-west of the Vatican by natural and artificial valleys. 3 Maurizio e Marcello Fagiolo dell'arco, Bernini: una introduzione al gran teatro del barocco, Roma, Bulzoni, 1967 Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 24

25 3. Pincio Promenade, between Piazza del Popolo, Villa Medici and Muro Torto with direct link to villa Borghese through the street of Magnolias, is conceptualised during Napoleon's rule, and implemented in Rome in The park was designed and built under the auspices of a Roman architect and archaeologist Giuseppe Valadier in the context of broader reconstruction boundary and systematisation of Piazza del Popolo zone, which included, in addition to the garden, Pincio hill and Casina, monastery Agostiniani, reception streets Ripetta and streets Babuino and military base. Brought to the end between 1881 and 1823, the promenade was until middle of 20th century, a true town park, urban promenade, garden for roman people to enjoy many events and plays, pyrotechnical attractions, concerts at the end of the century, to musical events of today. There is Napoleon's square in the middle of the promenade overlooking the Pizza del Popolo which was Romans' and tourists' favourite gathering place with unique panorama and vistas. One of curiosities, no doubt, is mentioning of more than 200 busts of famous Italian persons from all ages. Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 25

26 SELECTED PORTRAITS CONTEMPORARY 1. Ara Pacis Museum commissioned in 2006, designed by international architect Richard Meier. The edifice was erected to house an ancient roman treasure, from the Hellenistic period Ara Pacis - Altar of Peace. The building really stands out in the ancient structure of the city with its white walls, very dynamic design, sophisticated relation between the particular forms and use of simple materials. As always in his works, architect mastered to perfection the art of combining the modern materials: stone, white painted thick walls, glass. Further elements were created using the steps and water, while the entire building stands on the pedestal. The area surrounding the building creates a friendly place for visitors and a perfect meeting point. 2. The EUR Lakes Park is located inside a residential and business disctrict in Rome, originally chosen to become the site for the 1942 world's fair under Benito Mussolini to celebrate twenty years of Fascism. EUR (Universal Exposition Rome) owes its fame to its "simplified" neoclassicism made of monumental marble architecture, the "Palazzo della Civiltà e del Lavoro" also called "Colosseo Quadrato" (squared colosseum) is one of the main and iconic project of the disctrict. The site hosts other masterpieces like Adalberto Libera's "Palazzo dei Congressi" and Pier Luigi Nervi and Marcello Piacentini's "Palazzo dello Sport" and the contemporary site of M.Fuksas "Centro dei Congressi" also called "cloud". The metaphysical essence of the neighborhood inspired directors like F.Fellini, B.Bertolucci and M.Antonioni. The Eur Lake Park is located around the reservoir near the Sporting Palace and hosts many Sakura (Japanese cherry tree) donated by the city Tokyo to complete the so-called "walk of Japan" inside the park. The lake is home of a rowing team and it is recetly being built the "Mediterraneum - Acquario di Roma" museum. The work, mostly underground the lake, aim to recover the history of Rome's central role in Mediterranean culture. Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 26

27 Franco Zagari Cythera, Floating Terrace, West bank, EUR lake, 2006 Photo credit_ Paola Ghirotti Franco Zagari Hashi, Floating Path on the cascade, Eur lake, 2006 Photo credit_ Paola Ghirotti Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 27

28 3. San Silvestro square is divided into two parts, the first is rectangular, aligned with church San Silvestro and the other is elliptical, that isolates it from the surrounding as a pedestrian zone. Round part of the square, town's special urban detail, is defined with four oval benches made of local travertine stone. Key design reconstruction principles developed by architect Portoghesi were: relocation of public transit, replacement of cobbling with basalt and absorbing asphalt, removal of architectural barriers, installation of tactile areas for the blind, restoration of lighting... "It reminds of a theatre, but not in the basic meaning of the word, a place where people come to meet, in line with the identity of Roman culture. Oval and rectangular part are defined and they divide the space, fitted with travertine benches, similar profile as those designed by Michelangelo for benches around the fountain on square Campidoglio" (P.Portoghesi) Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 28

29 SUGGESTED ESSENTIAL INTERNATIONAL READINGS AND MOVIES CLASSICS FILETICI Luigi (a cura), GIUNTI Andrea, Living in Contemporary Architecture, Actar Editorial, Roma, 2011 GRIMAL, P., Églises de Rome - Imprimerie national, Paris,1997 Preliminary report of the Rome team, Today's public urban space: the case of Rome, IFHP/FIHUAT working party Present-day urban public space, 43 international Congress of IFHP/FIHUAT - Habitation for the future, Sendai, October 1996, CUEN, Napoli, 1996 FAGIOLO Marcello, Roma delle delizie : i teatri dell'acqua: grotte, ninfei, fontane - English translation by Antony Shugaar, F. M. Ricci, Milano, 1990 GRIMAL P., Frontin, Les Aqueducs de la ville de Rome, translation and commentary by Pierre Grimal, Société d'édition Les Belles Lettres, Paris, 1944 MISCELLANEOUS ROME, THE SECOND TIME AROUND, by Dianne Bennett and William Graebner The eclectic selection of itineraries includes an exploration of Rome's Fascist architecture, its remaining aqueducts, and the middle-class neighborhoods of Nomentana and Pineto. The authors have included sidebars on such random topics as reading the inscriptions on momuments, ordering coffee, a brief history of the Jews in Rome and a glossary of Italian real estate terms. Paperback, pub. Curious Traveler Press, 244 pp Viola Albino, Maria Beatrice Andreucci (Coordinator), Filippo Calcerano, Sonja Radovic-Jelovac 29

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