1 Griffith BUSINESS 2015 Introduction to Sport Management
2 Today s Overview 1. The Value of Sport 2. The Australian Sport System 3. Careers in Sport 4. Tutorial / Workshop 5. Course assessment
3 Learning outcomes 1. Understand the values of sport and how sport organisations can help to deliver these values 2. Identify and describe the Australian sport system 3. Critically evaluate the issues facing the future of sport
4 The value of sport & sport legitimations Sport has an unmatched ability to mobilise and excite people in their millions. Sport matters to most people, but fewer of us play sport or are physically active on a regular basis. Sport England
5 Why invest in sport? Governments throughout the world devote substantial time and resources to sport. Although the nature and amount of investment vary widely, contemporary governments particularly those of OECD nations are increasingly committed to sport development Any investment in sport must compete with other demands for public resources. The claim for public investment must be legitimised in terms of the public benefits that can be claimed to be generated Chalip 2000
6 The value of sport throughout the world, five key benefits are commonly asserted by those seeking to justify investment in sport Chalip 2000 What could these be? Some thought starters Why do we value sport? Why do governments invest in high profile sport events (e.g., Olympic Games)? Why do volunteers in local sport clubs work so hard to make sport participation possible?
7 The value of sport Health Socialisation or social well-being Economic benefit Community development Environmental protection National identity or national pride
8 Health Many forms of physical activity (eg walking, cycling, gardening) can produce positive physical, mental (psychological health) and social (social well being) health outcomes UEFA:
9 Health What is it about SPORT that produces these benefits? The physical and social infrastructures associated with sport clubs and sport programs can be leveraged to encourage and enable ongoing physical activity Is all sport beneficial for health? No -> injuries in sport are frequent (eg concussion), deselection and burnout can have negative psychological consequences for athletes
10 Socialisation Sport can contribute to social well-being by enhancing education and life-long learning (enhancing educational aspirations and attainment), and building social capital, capacity, and cohesion ( salubrious socialisation ). What is it about SPORT that produces these benefits? United States study found that fans of a local baseball team had lower levels of alienation. New Zealand study found that people who relocated to a new area and joined local sport clubs were better adjusted and more socially integrated. Sport volunteering also fosters cultures of community.
11 Socialisation Is all sport beneficial for socialisation? Sport clubs do not always market themselves to those at risk of alienation. Sport is not always inclusive (eg high cost, focused on mainstream and traditional sports) particularly when the club is focused on production of elite athletes. How sport is shaped, managed, and promoted can influence these outcomes. For example, sport clubs could consider linking with non-sport social services to deliver more completely on this value (eg Red Cross, Salvation Army).
12 Economic benefit Sport is a key piece of our economy and the sport industry is estimated to be worth $620 billion annually. The economic value of sport and recreation can be realised through: Major sporting events that generate economic development, regeneration of local communities and community infrastructure, tourist visits and spending Improved health, fitness and well being which can result in a gross health cost savings of $1.5 billion p.a. This equates to net savings of up to $0.7 billion p.a and a 4% increase in productivity = 1% increase in GDP
13 Economic benefit The economic value of sport and recreation is also realised through the contribution of volunteers 10% of the adult Australian population (about 1.7 million adult Australians) volunteer in sport or recreation. The sport sector accounts for up to 33% of all volunteers & 26% of volunteer hours. Assuming a FT wage rate $832.6/wk and 40 hour work week = million hours of work (worth $3.9billion) Externalities (e.g., Surf Lifesaving Clubs worth $14 billion p.a (Allen, 2005)
14 Economic benefit The economic value of sport and recreation is also realised through employment created by sport, sales of sport equipment and services But does sport always generate economic benefit? No => Some hallmark sport events lose money and the value of sporting goods sales are questionable given the import/export balance. There is often a lack of leveraging of major events so the long term opportunities to capitalise from that event is not realised (eg maximising sport tourism dollar spend and encouraging revisits)
15 Community development Sport can enhance community development. Sport organisations that enhance their facilities and programs (through redevelopment programs) have an impact on reducing residential turnover in the local population. These initiatives have been shown to improve the quality of community feeling, reduce crime and increase community safety. Sport can also enhance the life of communities through volunteering which promotes and shared sense of community feeling, and a social discourse (ie something to talk about )
16 Community development Being a member of a sport team or a fan of a team can enhance mental health, pro-social behaviour, and promote a sense of attachment to a team s community. But we need to participate and not only spectate to achieve these benefits. Sport programs can also: 1. Divert individuals from crime 2. Deter criminality 3. Enable self development 4. Direct individuals towards pro-social values - Street soccer video clip
17 Community development But does sport always generate community development? No => sport can inflame social tensions and has created organisations that are best characterised as cliques where insiders can differentiate themselves from outsiders. Sport can divide communities, accentuate inequalities in ethnic relations, symbolise class differences, and serve as a pretext for violence The important message is that we need to consider how sport is designed and implemented in order to achieve positive outcomes
18 Environmental protection Environmental protection is an emergent legitimation. As environmental agendas become more salient, sport organisations have to become more environmentally conscious. Environmental protection is now the 3 rd pillar of the Olympic Movement, there are reference works on environmental management in sport (Chernushenko, 2001) and evaluations of environmental management in sport (Greenpeace, 2000).
19 National identity Sport is thought to contribute to generating international kudos and prestige through the success of elite athletes, and defending the nation s sovereignty. Sport is often used as a vehicle to enhance national pride. Does sport always enhance national pride? No => although people sometimes share some enthusiasm for the success of their national team, that does not always translate into a reduction of internal nationalisms.
20 National identity Does sport always enhance national pride? Examples: International soccer competition can cause British and Norwegian fans to downplay their national identity in favour of the city in which they reside. Sport events are competitive and the Team a fan favours can create an in-group and an out-group. Sport can exacerbate ethnic or cross-national tensions Key message: although sport can be a useful tool for nation building, its utility clearly depends on how sport is linked to other initiatives. How can we incorporate sport into broader strategies for building national identity.
21 Why is all of this important? Sport plays a major role in shaping Australia s identity and culture. It helps to maintain the health and wellbeing of individuals and communities and it builds personal and national pride. It contributes to the economy through employment and tourism. Sport helps to bind us together. It teaches us important life skills such as leadership, friendship, teamwork, respect, fairness, responsibility, resilience and how to engage with people from all walks of life. Through sport, we learn to win and lose with grace and dignity Source: Australian Sports Commission statement Corporate Brochure
22 The Sport Industry The sport industry is a mixed-economy which includes public (state), private and voluntary organisations Public Non-profit Professional
23 The Sport Industry Public or State The state or public sector includes national, state, regional, and local governments, and specialist agencies that develop sport policy, provide funding to other sectors and support specialist roles such as elite athlete development or drug control (Hoye et al, 2012)
24 The Sport Industry Non-profit or Voluntary The non-profit or voluntary sector, made up of community-based clubs, governing associations and international sport organisations that provide competition and participation opportunities, regulate and manage sporting codes, coordinate volunteers at club level, manage facilities, develop players officials and coaches, organises major events, and essentially sustains the system (Hoye et al,2012)
25 The Sport Industry Professional or Commercial The professional or commercial sector is comprised of professional leagues and their member teams, as well as allied organisations such as sporting apparel and equipment manufacturers, media companies, major stadia operators, and event managers. They essentially focus on performance - profit and premierships dependent on their respective fields (Hoye et al,2012)
26 The Sport Industry - Interconnected The three sectors of the sport industry do not work in isolation The state provides funding to non-profit sport organisations for sport development and elite athlete programs The non-profit sector then provides the general community with sporting opportunities as well as developing athletes, coaches, officials, and administrators to sustain sporting participation The state also supports professional sport, specifically backing the construction of stadiums and other venues, providing a regulatory and legal framework for professional sport to take place, and further, supporting manufacturing and event organisations involved in the industry The non-profit sector also supports and overlaps with professional sport essentially providing a breeding ground for athletes, coaches, officials, and administrators The professional sector creates a product and provide experiences for the wider community and in particular, spectators and participants
27 How do the 3-sectors of sport get involved? Which value of sport is being addressed in these examples? Private: works in partnership with government to ban alcohol and cigarette sponsorship Private: promote pro-social behaviour, and reward athletes working with community groups Public: regulate and monitor sport, introduce policies on fair play, recognise and promote diversity and social inclusion Public: funds infrastructure development to promote safe sport, provides training and accreditation avenues for coaches and officials, promotes health campaigns Non profit: facilitates positive experiences at all levels (eg NRL eat well, play well, stay well campaign) Non profit: develop support for and promote pro-social behaviours at all levels of sport (eg ARL Good Guy of the Month campaign
28 The Sport Industry Megatrends Video The six megatrends identified by 'The Future of Australian Sport' study, conducted by the Australian Sports Commission in partnership with CSIRO Can you list the Megatrends? What impact will these have on the future of sport? CLICK TO VIEW VIDEO Link:
29 So. What is Sport Management?
30 So. What is Sport Management? Planning and organising sport in all of its facets; a multidisciplinary field that integrates the sport industry and management (Fielding & Miller, 1994) The field of study offering the specialized training and education necessary for individuals seeking careers in any of the many segments of the industry (Pitts & Stotlar, 2002) Sport managers engage in strategic planning, manage large numbers of human resources, deal with broadcasting contracts worth billions of dollars, manage the welfare of elite athletes, and work within highly integrated global networks of international sports federations, national sport organisations, government agencies, media corporations, sponsors, and community organisations (Hoye et al, 2012)
31 You and your career in sport: Future opportunities What type of jobs are needed to develop and deliver the 2018 Commonwealth Games on the Gold Coast?
32 Careers and opportunities Commonwealth Games: Sports Liaison Officer Netball Queensland: Marketing coordinator Brisbane Broncos: Accounting Baseball Australia: Project Officer Softball Queensland: Partnerships and Programs Officer AFL Queensland: Community Development Officer Special Olympics Queensland: Partnerships and Fundraising Manager What are you going to do?
33 Thank you! Questions?