URBAN FORM ANALYSIS EMPLOYING LAND COVER AND SPATIAL METRICS THE CASE OF THE LISBON METROPOLITAN AREA


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1 URBAN FORM ANALYSIS EMPLOYING LAND COVER AND SPATIAL METRICS THE CASE OF THE LISBON METROPOLITAN AREA Eduarda Marques da Costa Assistat Professor Jorge Rocha Assistat Lecturer Michael Rodrigues Scholarship Researcher Ceter for Geographical Studies of the Uiversity of Lisbo Faculdade de Letras, Alameda da Uiversidade, Lisboa, Portugal Telephoe Fax Key words: Urba Form, Spatial Metrics, Corie Lad Cover Abstract I order to face the challeges of urba plaig, there is a icreasig eed to moitor ad quatify urba occupatio. This study, coducted withi the research project "FURBS: Sustaiable Urba Form  Methodological developmet for Portugal (PTDC/GEO/69109/2006), seeks to examie the urba form of the Lisbo Metropolita Area (LMA), ad its occupatio betwee 1990 ad 2000, usig spatial metrics. The LMA cogregates early 3 millio ihabitats, aroud 26% of the Portuguese total populatio. A relevat characteristic of the regio is that it has bee subject to a costat opeig of ew areas of urbaizatio, which had caused i this regio, a icrease of 18.6% of housig uits betwee 1991 ad 2001, while the total populatio grew oly 4.3%. I this study, we sought to apply the use of spatial metrics to CORINE Lad Cover urba classes, aalysig the evolutio of urba area with a wide rage of spatial metrics i order to quatify the urba evolutio i the regio. Spatial metrics have bee used i ecology studies where they are kow as ladscape metrics. These metrics represet the geometric characteristics of the ladscape uits ad the spatial relatioships betwee them. Oly recetly these metrics started to be used to aalyse ad classify the urba form i a more systematic way. The applicatios of quatitative idicators are oe of the methodologies showig greatest potetial i characterizig urba form, allowig researchers a tool to evaluate the urba form. I a utshell we aim to cotribute to the kowledge of the LMA ad to the developmet of oe of the most iovative approaches to the study of urba dyamics. 1. Itroductio I the last decade i Portugal, the discussio about urba form has bee growig importace, related with sustaiable urba developmet ad urba ad regioal policies. The process of territorial plaig is i ature complex ad requires tools to aalyse a comprehesive set of iformatio. I order to meet the challeges of regioal plaig, there is a icreasig demad to moitor ad quatify urba dyamics. 133
2 This study, coducted withi the research project "FURBS: Sustaiable Urba Form  Methodological Developmet for Portugal" (PTDC/GEO/69109/2006), aims to cotribute to the mai objective of the project, which is to develop a methodology to assess the evolutio of urba form i Portugal. I the case of this study, we resorted to spatial metrics to evaluate the urba occupatio i the Lisbo Metropolita Area (LMA). For this purpose, we iteded to apply a appropriate methodology for the characterizatio of urba form, which ca serve for subsequet applicatios i the aalysis of cities. The aalysis of urba form ca have differet dimesios depedig o the scale ad the objective of the work beig doe. However, regardless of scale ad objectives, the aalysis must be made o datasets, required for the aalysis of spatial structure. I this study, we used a specific set of Corie Lad Cover classes i order to represet built up areas. Thus, we iteded to test the applicatio of quatitative morphological idices i order to draw a geeral characterizatio of the occupatio of the LMA territory, ad, at the same time, to quatify the urba form. The calculated spatial metrics are a umber of idices, which represet the morphological characteristics of urba form ad the spatial relatioships amog patches that compose it. The applicatio of spatial metrics is oe of the methodologies that have greater potetial i the characterizatio of urba form. Betwee the last two atioal cesuses ( ), the populatio growth i mailad Portugal i about half millio people, was marked by a differetiated spatial distributio. O a atioal scale, ad roughly, it was foud that most of the populatio growth took place i a rage of 50 alog the coast ad i the remaiig of the mailad, uder the polarizig ability of cities. I the 90 s, while the two metropolita areas (Lisbo ad Oporto) ad the mai cities, experieced populatio growths that came to reach 171%, i fact most of the remaiig mailad registered a declie i populatio desity (figures 1 ad 2). I total, approximately 29% of mailad Portugal had a icrease i populatio desity i the decade betwee 1991 ad Also i 2001, oly 18% of mailad Portugal area had a desity higher tha the average (110 Hab/2). However, these 18% suffered a strog urba pressure that reflected i the fragmetatio of the urba fabric. Natioally, the regio of greatest populatio growth was the Metropolita Area of Lisbo, hece the choice for this study. Figure 1. Populatio desity growth rate i civil parishes, betwee 1991 ad 2001 North Bragaça 42 N Viaa do Cast elo Braga Port o Aveiro Vila Real Viseu Guarda Coimbra Cast elo Leiria Braco 40 N Satarém Portalegre Pop. des. growth rate (%) Lisboa Setúbal Évora < > 20 Beja 38 N LMA Regio W Faro 7 W Source: Natioal Istitute of Statistics  XII & XIV geeral cesus of Populatio 134
3 Figure 2. Left, variatio of populatio desity i civil parishes, betwee 1991 ad 2001 Right, civil parishes above ad below the 2001 mailad average North North 42 N Bragaça Bragaça Source: Natioal Istitute of Statistics  XII & XIV geeral cesus of Populatio Braga Braga Viaa do Viaa do Castelo Cast elo 42 N Vila Real Vila Real Port o Port o Aveiro Viseu Guarda Aveiro Viseu Guarda Coimbra Castelo Leiria Braco 40 N Coimbra Castelo Leiria Braco 40 N Portalegre Port alegre Satarém Satarém Lisboa Lisboa Populatio Desity 2001 < > 1991 Set úbal Évora Beja 38 N Mailad Average Pop. Des. i 2001 = 110 hab/2 Populatio Desity < Mailad Average (2001) > Mailad Average (2001) Setúbal Évora Beja 38 N LM A Regio LMA Regio W Faro 7 W W Faro 7 W Source: Natioal Istitute of Statistics  XII & XIV geeral cesus of Populatio 2. Study Area The LMA cosists of 18 muicipalities, orgaized ito two groups separated by the Tejo river. The river costitutes ot oly a physical divisio, but also a divisio betwee demographic behaviours. The muicipalities comprisig the Metropolita Area are: Alcochete, Almada, Amadora, Barreiro, Cascais, Lisboa, Loures, Mafra, Moita, Motijo, Odivelas, Oeiras, Palmela, Sesimbra, Setúbal, Seixal, Sitra ad Vila Fraca de Xira (figure 3). The LMA has the highest cocetratio of populatio ad ecoomic activity i Portugal. I its eightee muicipalities, which costitute 3.3% of atioal territory, there are almost 3 millio ihabitats, about ¼ of the Portuguese populatio. At the ecoomic level, it cocetrates about 25% of the workforce, 30% of total corporatios, 33% of jobs ad it cotributes with over 36% for the atioal GDP (INE, 2001). I distictio to the other Metropolita Area i the coutry (Oporto), the LMA presets a much more cocetrated lad occupatio. I 2001, the regio had a populatio desity eight times the average for the coutry (INE, 2001). Figure 3. LMA muicipalities 8 40'W Mafra Loures Vila Fraca de Xira Sit ra Odivelas Amadora Lisboa Cascais Oeiras Alcochete Motijo Almada Moita Barreiro Seixal Palmela Motijo Nort h Sesimbra Set úbal 8 40'W
4 The LMA mai emphasis relies i the fact that it represets about 26% of the atioal populatio, with early 3 millio ihabitats. I 1950, 5% of LMA area cocetrated 69% of its populatio; i 2001, these 5% of area cocetrated 45% of the populatio (Marques da Costa ad Marques da Costa, 2008). This was accompaied by a process of residetial decetralizatio ad relocatio of ecoomic uits. Although the city of Lisbo maitais its structural role i shapig the LMA, sice it holds ¼ of the total populatio that live i places with more tha 2000 ihabitats (INE, 2001), the cosolidatio of ew poles poit to a icreasigly polycetric orgaizatio. Followig the logic of a model of urba developmet based o the use of idividual trasport, which leads to the progressive icrease of the urba fabric (Marques da Costa ad Marques da Costa, 2008). A importat feature of the regio is that it has bee subject to a costat opeig of ew areas of urbaizatio, which has caused that i the regio, the total housig uits has icreased 18.6% betwee 1991 ad 2001, while the populatio grew oly 4.3% (Marques da Costa ad Salgueiro, 2008). I 2001, the populatio eterig the regio for reasos of work or study was more tha twice that who left (INE, 2001). The city of Lisbo attracts daily a amout equivalet to 75% of its populatio (INE, 2001). 3. Methodology 3.1 Data Processig There is o uiversal way to represet the urba area of a regio. Oe of the most commo ways resorts to remote sesig to extract builtup areas. For the purpose of this study, we resorted to a product derived from remote sesig, used i most of the studies of Europea regioal lad occupatio. The Corie Lad Cover (CLC) for 1990 (CLC 90) ad 2000 (CLC 00). CLC has a mappig uit of 25 ha, ad this must be take ito accout i a study of urba geography. Obviously, a miimum mappig uit of 25 ha yields isufficiet for a detailed study of urba dyamics, oetheless, CLC is curretly the oly lad occupatio spatial data coverig all of Portugal, with two time refereces shots (1990 ad 2000). I additio, give the free ature of CLC, it is a appealig source to test methodological applicatios. CLC'90 resorted to satellite images from 1985 to 1987, while CLC'00 resorted to images from 2000 (Caetao, et al., 2005). For the sake of geeralizatio, we will refer CLC 90 to the year 1990, ad CLC 00 to For the study carried out, we aggregated the followig Corie lad cover classes to represet the builtup area i the study territory. Cotiuous urba fabric (111 accordig to CLC code) o I this class, buildigs ad trasport etwork ifrastructures occupy most of the lad. The presece of oliear areas of vegetatio ad bare soil is atypical (Néry, 2007). Discotiuous urba fabric (112 accordig to CLC code) o Buildigs occupy most of the lad. The buildigs, roads, ad areas are associated with artificial areas with vegetatio ad bare soil, which occupy a sigificat but discotiuous area (Néry, 2007). Idustry, commerce ad geeral equipmet (121 accordig to CLC code) o Most of the class surface is occupied by artificial areas without vegetatio (cocrete, asphalt, tarmac, dirt, etc ); there are also buildigs preset ad/or vegetatio (Néry, 2007). Road ad rail etworks ad associated spaces (122 accordig to CLC code) o Roads ad railways, icludig associated equipmet (statios, platforms ), with miimum width of 100 m (Néry, 2007). Port areas (123 accordig to CLC code) o The ifrastructure of port areas, icludig piers, docks ad marias (Néry, 2007). Airports (124 accordig to CLC code) o The airports: ruways, buildigs ad associated areas (Néry, 2007). Areas uder costructio (133 accordig to CLC code) o The areas uder costructio, excavatio of soil or rock, movemets of lad (Néry, 2007). 136
5 Sports ad leisure equipmet (142 accordig to CLC code) o Campig, sports areas, recreatio parks, golf courses, etc (Néry, 2007). o Through a spatial aalysis operatio, the patches of this class where oly selected if they were cotiguous to the remaiig selectio of builtup area. The selected classes were combied ito oe sigle class to idetify the builtup area i each of the muicipalities of the study area. The each patch was awarded the respective muicipality, through its database attributes. Thus, after the calculatio of spatial metrics for the patches, it was possible to calculate measures of locatio (mea) ad dispersio (coefficiet of variatio) for each muicipality, takig ito accout the membership of each patch to a muicipality. Figure 4. CLC patches represetig builtup areas for the LMA Built Up Area (1990) Urba Growth (2000) LMA Regio 8 40'W North 8 40'W Urba Form through Spatial Metrics What is the best way to quatify ad aalyse the urba area of a territory, maily at larger scales where the populatio desity ad populatio growth rates have subtle differeces? Secodly, how to assess the urba form of cities where the use of admiistrative boudaries is o loger feasible? Ufortuately, traditioal approaches through the aalysis of populatio desity of admiistrative uits, ad moitorig of the builtup area based o the evolutio of lad occupatio, are isufficiet to quatify the morphological dimesio of the urba form. I this cotext, the spatial metrics appear as oe of the best alteratives, give the fact that they are quatitative idices calculated oly based o polygos describig the urba morphology. After obtaiig the dataset that cotais the elemets of urba form to cosider, we must fid a way to quatify the morphology. I the last two decades, a sigificat progress bee made, tryig to measure ad aalyse spatial patters that help to characterize the urba form. However, we must take ito accout that there is o defied set of specific idicators for use i urba geography, as the sigificace of spatial metrics varies with the objective of the study, ad the characteristics of the urba ladscape uder ivestigatio (Clifto, et al., 2008). For the aalyses carried out, we calculated the spatial metrics for CLC patches. These metrics cosist of quatitative idices that represet the geometric characteristics of the uits of ladscape. Spatial metrics have bee recurretly used i ecology studies where they are kow as ladscape metrics. Ladscape metrics were developed i the late 1980s ad icorporated measures from both iformatio theory ad fractal geometry based o a categorical, patchbased represetatio of a ladscape (Herold, et al., 2005). 137
6 Patches are defied as homogeous regios for a specific ladscape property of iterest, i the case of this study, the builtup area. Oly recetly, these idices were used to aalyze ad classify the urba form o a more systematic way (Huag, et al., 2007). There has bee a growig iterest i the applicatio of spatial metrics to urba eviromet aalysis. Parker, et al. (2001) deouced the spatial metrics for socioecoomic, urba ad rural itegrated models. He also ivestigated theoretical urba lad use patters resultig from spatial metrics applicatio. The authors also state that spatial metrics ca be used as a improved spatial represetatio of urba characteristics. Alberti ad Waddell (2000) proposed specific spatial metrics for urba lad use/cover models that icorporate huma ad ecological processes. Furthermore, empirical studies have substatiated the use of both spatial metrics ad remote sesig i urba eviromet, establishig them as a priority for future exploratio ad city evaluatio (Batty ad Logley, 1994; Alberti ad Waddell, 2000; Parker, et al., 2001; Clarke, et al., 2002). There has bee a icreasig iterest i applyig spatial metrics i urba eviromets, because these help i brigig out the spatial compoet i urba structure (both itra ad itercity) ad i the dyamics of chage ad growth processes (Herold, et al., 2005). The methodology that has bee developed uder the FURBS project implies that the calculatio of metrics is made o vector represetatios of urba patches relyig o Geographic Iformatio Systems (GIS), thus eablig the simultaeous calculatio for several territorial uits. These uits ca be admiistrative (muicipalities, regios, coutries) or result from ay kid of spatial aalysis (i.e. isochroes). This methodological framework is still i its early stages, but provig to be very worthy. The methodology beig developed is based o the work of Mcgarigal, et al., (2002). As it stads, it allows the calculatio of 15 metrics, from which we selected 4 for this study: Percetage of builtup area, earest eighbour idex, cetrality idex ad compactess idex. Choosig a methodology directed to the represetatio from vector patches apart from the more stadard methods relyig i raster datasets, allow us to simultaeously calculate several territorial uits at the same time, while providig a easy itegratio with other alphaumerical attributes of the territorial uits. A crucial feature, sice the FURBS project is iteded to icorporate morphological idicators of urba form with sustaiability idicators. Table 1 presets the selected idices applied i this study. Table 1. Spatial metrics applied Idex Formula Descriptio POcup POcup i1 area i = area of patch i AUT = muicipality area area (100) i AUT POcup quatifies the percetage of the muicipality area comprised by the selected CLC patches represetig builtup area Uit: Percet Rage: 0 < POcup 100 MVP MVP i1 dist dist i = distace from patch i to earest eighbourig patch, based o patch edgetoedge euclidia distace = total umber of patches i the muicipality i MVP idicates the average distace of the patches from a muicipality to the closest patch. MVP has a value of 0 whe all patches are cotiguous i the muicipality Uit: Meters Rage: MVP 0, without limit 138
7 CVVP MCENT CVCENT MCOMP CVCOMP VP CVVP 100 MVP σvp = Stadard deviatio of the muicipality earest eighbour idex MVP = Muicipality mea earest eighbour idex MCENT i1 Dist / R Dist i = The distace from the cetroid of patch i to the major muicipality tow R = Radius of a circle with area equal to the total muicipality area = total umber of patches i the muicipality CENT CVCENT 100 MCENT σcent = Stadard deviatio of the muicipality cetrality idex MCENT = Muicipality mea cetrality idex MCOMP i1 i COMP COMP i = patch i perimeter divided by the miimum perimeter possible for a maximally compact patch of the correspodig patch i area = total umber of patches i the muicipality COMP CVCOMP 100 MCOMP σcomp = Stadard deviatio of the muicipality compactess idex MCOMP = Muicipality mea compactess idex i CVVP is equal to the stadard deviatio of the muicipality earest eighbour idex divided by the muicipality mea earest eighbour idex the multiplied by 100 to be expressed i percetage Uit: Percet Rage: CVVP 0, without limit MCENT is the average distace amog the muicipality patches, to the major muicipality tow To miimize the bias of the urba scale, the average distace was divided by the radius of a circle with the total muicipality area Uit: Meters Rage: MCENT 0, without limit CVCENT is equal to the stadard deviatio of the muicipality cetrality idex, divided by the muicipality mea cetrality idex, the multiplied by 100 to be expressed i percetage Uit: Percetage Rage: CVCENT 0, without limit MCOMP equals patch perimeter divided by the miimum perimeter possible for a maximally compact patch of the correspodig patch area. MCOMP = 1 whe the patches are maximally compact ad icreases without limit as patch shape becomes more irregular Uit: Noe Rage: MCOMP 1, without limit CVCOMP is equal to the muicipality stadard deviatio compactess idex, divided by the mea muicipality compactess idex the multiplied by 100 to be expressed i percetage Uit: Percetage Rage: CVCOMP 0, without limit Source: Adapted after Mcgarigal, et al., (2002); Huag, et al., (2007) Thus, the spatial metrics were calculated for the patches from the aggregatio of CLC classes. 139
8 4. Results ad Discussio Sice our itetio was to evaluate the progress of urba occupatio i the LMA, we proceeded to the calculatio of rates of chage for each idex. Thus showig the tred i percetage chage i each of the muicipalities, betwee The measure of the differece i the spatial metrics betwee time (t +1) ad (t) ca be used to idicate the chage i lad developmet (Jha, et al., 2008). This ca be expressed as: S S( t1) S( t) I which S is the chage i the spatial metric (S) betwee time (t+1) ad (t). Sice we wated the spatial metric rate of chage, this ca be expressed as: St ( 1) St ( ) % S 100 St () The results are i table 2. We icluded the populatio growth rate, i order to compare the populatio growth with the spatial occupatio icrease. Table 2. LMA spatial metrics rates of chage betwee 1990 ad 2000 MUNICIPALITY POP POcup MVP CVVP MCENT CVCENT MCOMP CVCOMP Alcochete (ALC) Almada (ALM) Amadora (AMA) Barreiro (BAR) Cascais (CAS) Lisboa (LIS) Loures (LOU) Mafra (MAF) Moita (MOI) Motijo (MON) Odivelas (ODI) Oeiras (OEI) Plamela (PAL) Seixal (SEI) Sesimbra (SES) Setúbal (SET) Sitra (SIN) Vila Fraca de Xira (VFX) LMA Mea I figure 5 we ca assess the growth of builtup area, ad the populatio growth rate, i the LMA muicipalities. Betwee 1990 ad 2000, all the muicipalities saw their builtup area icreasig, however, the followig had a rate of chage above LMA average: Oeiras, Setúbal, Vila Fraca de Xira, Sitra, Moita, Mafra, Alcochete ad Palmela. These last three with rates of chage exceedig 100%. If we compare this with populatio growth, this growth rate was more moderate. Sitra stads out as oe of muicipalities of the periphery of Lisbo that had the higher et migratio rate, hece the highest growth rate. Moreover, there is a loss of populatio i Lisbo, a occurrece commo to historical cities, but that exteded i the last decade to the cotiguous muicipality of Amadora ad o the other side of the river i Barreiro. I Barreiro, this occurrece is liked to the tred of populatio loss of decliig idustrial areas. 140
9 Figure 5. Rate of chage i muicipality percetage of built up area (POcup) ad populatio growth (Pop), betwee 1990 ad (%) LIS ODI BAR MON SES LOU SEI ALM CAS AMA OEI SET VFX SIN MOI MAF ALC PAL POcup Pop Source: Table 2 Figure 6 represet the evolutio of the earest eighbour idex. Lisboa, Amadora ad Odivelas had o chage, sice these muicipalities are quite cosolidated i their urba fabric; hece, the patches are cotiguous, which result i a earest eighbour idex of zero. O the other muicipalities, we see that at the exceptio of Loures, all of them saw a egative rate of chage for the mea earest eighbour idex, which is easy to explai by the icrease i built up area resultig i the shortest distace amog the patches. Oce agai we see a tred i the muicipalities of the south side of the river (Moita, Alcochete, Seixal) leadig the declie i the mea earest eighbour idex, showig that there, the builtup was more cotiguous to existet areas. If we aalyze the behaviour of the rate of chage for the coefficiet of variatio for this idex, we see that Alcochete, Cascais ad Mafra saw a homogeisatio of values of the idex i their builtup area. O the other had, other muicipalities had a rate of chage of the coefficiet of variatio of the idex exceedig 100% (Seixal) Figure 6. Rate of chage i the mea (MVP) ad the coefficiet of variatio (CVVP) of the earest eighbour idex, betwee 1990 ad 2000 (%) MOI ALC SEI VFX CAS SET OEI PAL SES MAF SIN ALM MON BAR LIS ODI AMA LOU MVP CVVP Source: Table 2 Figure 7 shows the cetrality idex, this idex is the mea distace from the cetroid of each muicipality patch to the major muicipality tow. We ca assume the departure from the muicipality major tow idicatig a process of urba sprawl, as such we see that the south side highlights aother tred. As for the muicipalities that had a decrease of the cetrality idex, Odivelas ad Alcochete stad out. Almost all muicipalities had a decrease i the coefficiet of variatio of the idex showig that i geeral the values softe i the 1990s. 141
10 Figure 7. Rate of chage i the average (MCENT) ad coefficiet of variatio (CVCENT) of the cetrality idex, betwee 1990 ad (%) ODI ALC MON VFX ALM MAF CAS OEI MOI SIN SET SEI LOU LIS BAR PAL AMA SES MCENT CVCENT Source: Table 2 Fially, figure 8 graphically represets the rate of chage for the compactio idex. We see that the idex has ot chaged very sigificatly, still there was a tedecy for dispersio. With the majority of the muicipalities with positive rates of chage for the idex mea, otig a icrease i dispersio for their urba patches, oticeable Moita, Oeiras, Sitra ad Alcochete. 50 Figure 8. Rate of chage i the mea (MCOMP) ad coefficiet of variatio (CVCOMP) of the compactess idex, betwee 1990 ad (%) LIS LOU AMA SET CAS PAL BAR ALM VFX MON MAF ODI SES SEI MOI OEI SIN ALC MCOMP CVCOMP Source: Table 2 For the last step o this study, we used a techique of multidimesioal data aalysis: clusters aalysis. This aalysis was meat to classify the muicipalities uder aalysis agaist the calculated spatial metrics. I terms of geographical aalysis, the clusters defie regios with clustered similar characteristics. The techique adopted was the hierarchical clusterig. The startig poit of this techique is based o buildig a matrix of similarities or differeces betwee the muicipalities, with a iitial group, equal to the umber of uits i aalysis (18), which describes the degree of similarity, or differece, betwee ay two pairs of muicipalities. The selected method of aggregatio was the group average. I this method the distace betwee two classes, "a" ad "b" is the average of the distaces betwee all elemets of "a" ad all elemets of "b", oe process widely used i a umerical taxoomy because of the clearess of its meaig. The resultig clusters represet groups of muicipalities give the similarity of shared values with the spatial metrics of urba form. 142
11 The hierarchical cluster aalysis resorted to the four calculated metrics for 1990 ad 2000: percetage of the muicipality area comprised by builtup area; coefficiet of variatio of the muicipality earest eighbour idex; coefficiet of variatio of muicipality cetrality idex ad coefficiet of variatio of muicipality compactess idex. The results of applyig the algorithm of clusterig are represeted i the dedogram of figure 9 ad 10. Figure 9. Dedogram ad resultig map usig average likage for 1990 CLUSTER 'W 4 5 Mafra Loures Vila Fraca de Xira Sit ra Odivelas Amadora Lisboa Cascais Oeiras Alcochete Motijo Nort h Almada Moita Barreiro Seixal Palmela Sesimbra Setúbal 38 30' N 9 20' W 8 40' W 0 10 Figure 10. Dedogram ad resultig map usig average likage for 2000 CLUSTER Mafra Loures Vila Fraca de Xira 8 40' W Sit ra Odivelas Amadora Lisboa Cascais Oeiras Alcochete Motijo Nort h Almada Moita Barreiro Seixal Palmela Sesimbra Set úbal 8 40' W 0 10 From the clusterig results, we see that i the begiig of the 90 s the clusterig patter was clearly visible betwee orth ad south of the river. We see that i 2000 the group of muicipalities clusters is based ot so much i a North/South oppositio, but that they ow have a greater differetiatio. This patter of occupatio recorded i urba soil is explaied by factors based o the mobility of the regio. Util 1998, the oly way to make the river crossig betwee the two sides was through the 25 de Abril bridge, or by ferryboat. I 1991, the Portuguese govermet decides to build a secod crossig over the river. I 1995, the costructio started ad the bridge was iaugurated i The year 1998 also coicided with the opeig of the rail crossig o the 25 de Abril bridge. Thus, i 1998 the two sides wo a rail lik ad a ew road bridge. The result was the sudde icrease of the property market i the south, where the prices were a lot cheaper. A clear example o how spatially relevat decisios alter the spatial structure of a urba regio. 5. Coclusios The aalysis of spatiotemporal urba growth patter, i combiatio with spatial metrics, ca provide a uique source of iformatio o how various spatial characteristics of urba form chage over time. This allows importat isight ito urba spatial structure chages ad the evolvig urba growth dyamics. As such, the proposed approach applied here, leads to a improved uderstadig ad represetatio of urba dyamics ad helps to develop alterative coceptios of urba spatial structure ad chage patters. 143
12 I the case of the LMA the urba expasio has bee set up by the populatio growth withi the boudaries of the cities resultig from high migratio rates, ad a strog compoet of property speculatio. These two factors ultimately triggered a diverget movemet to peripheral areas. Small outlyig settlemets i the outskirts started to expad i a few years. Nevertheless, what we ca also see is that the fast urba lad expasio i the regio was ot a result of fast urba populatio growth. I fact, the builtup area had a icrease rate much higher tha the populatio growth. Oe should take ito accout that i recet decades there was a shift from a more compact developmet that favoured higher desities, to a more extesive use of lad. This was strogly depedet o trasport ifrastructures (Aguiléra ad Migot, 2003). I summary, the results of the methodology applied, meet the type of occupatio of the LMA territory, i.e., it was possible to quatify the urba form showig that the occupatio o the orth side of the river is preseted with a greater desity of agglomeratios more closer to each other, while the souther occupatio is more diffuse. I the orth side there are also may more urba patches ad they are smaller o average, i terms of area, with their couterparts i the south. I geeral, the desity decreases apart from the muicipality of Lisbo to the peripheral muicipalities i a cocetric way. The polarizig role of Lisbo i its metropolita area is much stroger o the orth side. The populatios of the south muicipalities are less attracted by the capital, due to costraits imposed by river crossig. The orgaizatio of the LMA also reflects the structural role of the mai axes of commuicatio access to Lisbo ad morphological differetiatio reveals a orthsouth clusterig patter, which i spite of beig prevalet, has lesse i relatio to the past, whe it was more oticeable. Overall, what we must emphasize i the methodology applied, is that it is particularly useful for evaluatio betwee differet periods, allowig to quatify the urba occupatio i differet time periods. For future developmet, give the limitatios of the spatial database used, we soo cout to develop the research with urba patches extracted with remote sesig usig images from differet time itervals, thus revealig the whole potetial of this methodology i the evaluatio of the urba form. Refereces Aguiléra, Ae., Migot, Domiique. Étalemet Urbai et Mobilité. RERU, 2003, 5, p Alberti, M., Waddell, P. A itegrated urba developmet ad ecological simulatio model. Itegrated Assessmet, 2000, 1, p Batty, M., Logley, P. A. Fractal Cities: a geometry of form ad fuctio. Lodo: Academic Press, Caetao, Mário., Carrão, Hugo., Paiho, Marco. Alterações da ocupação do solo em Portugal Cotietal Lisboa: Istituto do Ambiete, Clifto, Kelly., Ewig, Reid., Kaap, GerritJa., Sog, Ya. Quatitative Aalysis of Urba Form: a multidiscipliary review. Joral of Urbaism, 2008, vol. 1, úm. 1, p Herold, Marti.; Couclelis, Hele.; Clarke, Keith C. The role of spatial metrics i the aalysis ad modelig of urba lad use chage. Computers, Eviromet ad Urba Systems, 2005, 29, p Huag, Jiga., Lu, X. X., Sellers, Jefferey M. A Global Comparative Aalysis of Urba Form: applyig spatial metrics ad remote sesig. Ladscape ad Urba Plaig, 2007, 82, p INE  Istituto Nacioal de Estatística. Cesos 2001: resultados defiitivos: XIV receseameto geral da população: IV receseameto geral da habitação. Lisboa: Istituto Nacioal de Estatística, Jha, Ramakar., Sigh, Vijay P., Vatsa, V. Aalysis of Urba Developmet of Haridwar, Ídia, Usig Etropy Approach. KSCE Joural of Civil Egieerig, 2008, 12(4), p Marques da Costa, Eduarda., Marques da Costa, Nuo. Mobilidade e forma urbaa O caso da Área Metropolitaa de Lisboa, Sociedade e Território, 2008 (i press). Marques da Costa, Eduarda., Salgueiro, Teresa Barata. Características geográficas e trasformações recetes das Áreas Metropolitaas de Lisboa e Porto. Áreas Metropolitaas e Galicia, ed. J. Souto Gozalez, Juta de Galicia, S. C, 2008 (i press). Mcgarigal, K., Cushma, S. A., Neel, M. C., Ee, E. FRAGSTATS: Spatial Patter Aalysis Program for Categorical Maps. Computer software program produced by the authors at the Uiversity of Massachusetts, Amherst, Available at the followig web site: Néry, Ferada. Nomeclatura CORINE Lad Cover: versão portuguesa cometada. Lisboa: Istituto Geográfico Português, Parker, D. C., Evas, T. P., Meretsky, V. Measurig emerget properties of agetbased laduse/ ladcover models usig spatial metrics. I Seveth aual coferece of the iteratioal society for computatioal ecoomics,
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