Unix/Linux. Dariusz Żbik

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1 Unix/Linux Dariusz Żbik

2 Plan Reprezentacja urządzeń taśmy dyski, partycje Urządzenia SCSI LVM

3 Wszystko jest plikiem rodzaj pliku c znakowe (character) b blokowe uprawnienia właściciel grupa numer major numer minor nazwa crw rw rw 1 root root 1, 3 Feb /dev/null crw rw rw 1 root root 1, 5 Feb /dev/zero crw 1 zbik root 14, 4 Feb /dev/audio crw w 1 zbik tty 136, 0 Oct 18 21:19 /dev/pts/0 brw rw 1 root disk 3, 1 Feb /dev/hda1 brw rw 1 root disk 1, 1 Feb /dev/ram1 crw w w 1 root tty 0 0x Oct 2 11:31 /dev/console crw rw rw 1 bin mail 3 0x Oct 19 07:27 /dev/null crw rw rw 1 bin bin 159 0x Mar /dev/ps2mouse crw w 1 darin tty 157 0x Oct 18 18:15 /dev/pts/0 crw w 1 zbik tty 157 0x Oct 19 07:27 /dev/pts/1 brw r 1 bin sys 31 0x Mar /dev/dsk/c1t4d0 brw r 1 bin sys 31 0x Mar /dev/dsk/c1t5d0 brw r 1 bin sys 31 0x Mar /dev/dsk/c2t2d0

4 Jak plik się czyta i jak plik się zapisuje wersja prymitywna cat /dev/audio gzip c 4 > /dev/hda9 # zapisanie wykladu bezp. na dysk cat /dev/audio gzip c 4 > /dev/null # mniej ciekawy wykład cat /dev/hda9 gunzip c > /dev/audio # odsluchanie wykladu cat /dev/urandom > /dev/audio # wspaniala kompozycja cat /dev/hda > /dev/ttys1 # odczyt z dysku i zapis do port szeregowego cat /dev/ttys1 > /dev/hda # j.w. w druga strone cat /dev/fb > /tmp/obrazek # ekran do pliku cat /tmp/obrazek > /dev/fb # plik na ekran wersja bardziej wyrafinowana dd if=/dev/hda of=/dev/hdb bs=64m # kopia systemu 1:1 dd if=/dev/hda1 skip=10 of=/dev/hdc1 ibs=1m obs=16m # z pominieciem poczatku dd if=/dev/hda ibs=16m of=/dev/nst0 obs=32k # kopia systemu na tasme dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/duzyplik bs=1m count=16 # utworzenie duzego pliku zer

5 Inne operacje - ioctl() request MTIOCTOP argp struct mtop* /* Structure for MTIOCTOP mag tape op command: */ struct mtop { short mt_op; /* operations defined below */ int mt_count; /* how many of them */ }; mt_op: MTBSF MTBSFM int ioctl(int fd, int request, void *argp); Backward space over mt_count filemarks. Backward space over mt_count filemarks. Repositionthe tape to the EOT side of the last filemark. MTBSR Backward space over mt_count records (tape blocks). MTBSS Backward space over mt_count setmarks. MTCOMPRESSION Enable compression of tape data within the drive if mt_count is non zero and disable compression if mt_count is zero. int fd; long disksize; fd=open( /dev/hda2, O_RDONLY); ioctl(fd, BLKGETSIZE, &disksize);

6 Tworzenie plików urządzeń ręcznie polecenie mknod root]# mknod /dev/nst0 c root]# chown root:disk /dev/nst0 root]# chmod 660 /dev/nst0 półautomatycznie polecenie MAKEDEV root]# cd /dev;./makedev n st0 create st0 c 9 0 root:disk 660 create st0l c 9 32 root:disk 660 create st0m c 9 64 root:disk 660 create st0a c 9 96 root:disk 660 automatycznie system plików devfs

7 Urządzenia znakowe crw rw rw 1 root root 1, 3 Feb /dev/null crw rw rw 1 root root 1, 5 Feb /dev/zero crw 1 zbik root 14, 4 Feb /dev/audio crw 1 zbik root 14, 3 Jun 7 21:56 /dev/dsp crw rw 1 root uucp 4, 64 Feb /dev/ttys0 crw rw 1 root uucp 4, 65 Feb /dev/ttys1 crw rw 1 root disk 9, 128 Feb /dev/nst0 crw rw 1 root disk 9, 129 Feb /dev/nst1 crw rw 1 root disk 9, 0 Feb /dev/st0 crw rw 1 root disk 9, 1 Feb /dev/st1 crw w 1 zbik tty 136, 0 Oct 18 21:19 /dev/pts/0 crw w 1 zbik tty 136, 1 Oct 18 16:40 /dev/pts/1 Linux HP-UX crw rw rw 1 bin mail 3 0x Oct 19 07:36 /dev/null crw rw rw 2 bin bin 205 0x Mar /dev/rmt/0m crw rw rw 2 bin bin 205 0x Mar /dev/rmt/0mb crw rw rw 2 bin bin 205 0x Mar /dev/rmt/0mn crw rw rw 2 bin bin 205 0x0200c0 Mar /dev/rmt/0mnb crw w 1 darin tty 157 0x Oct 18 18:15 /dev/pts/0 crw w 1 zbik tty 157 0x Oct 19 07:41 /dev/pts/1 crw rw rw 1 root root 157 0x Oct 18 19:32 /dev/pts/2 crw w 1 darin tty 157 0x Oct 19 07:40 /dev/pts/3 crw rw rw 1 root root 157 0x Oct 18 19:00 /dev/pts/4

8 Urządzenia blokowe brw rw 1 root disk 3, 0 Feb /dev/hda brw rw 1 root disk 3, 1 Feb /dev/hda1 brw 31 0x /dev/dsk/c1t4d0 brw rw 1 root disk 3, 2 Feb /dev/hda2 brw 31 0x /dev/dsk/c1t5d0 brw rw 1 root disk 3, 5 Feb /dev/hda5 brw 31 0x /dev/dsk/c1t6d0 brw rw 1 root disk 3, 6 Feb /dev/hda6 brw 31 0x /dev/dsk/c2t2d0 brw rw 1 root disk 3, 64 Feb /dev/hdb crw 188 0x /dev/rdsk/c1t4d0 brw rw 1 root disk 3, 65 Feb /dev/hdb1 crw 188 0x /dev/rdsk/c1t5d0 brw rw 1 root disk 8, 0 Feb /dev/sda crw 188 0x /dev/rdsk/c1t6d0 brw rw 1 root disk 8, 1 Feb /dev/sda1 crw 188 0x /dev/rdsk/c2t2d0 brw rw 1 root disk 8, 2 Feb /dev/sda2 brw rw 1 root disk 8, 16 Feb /dev/sdb brw rw 1 root disk 8, 17 Feb /dev/sdb1 brw rw 1 root disk 43, 0 Feb /dev/nb0 brw rw 1 root disk 43, 1 Feb /dev/nb1 brw rw 1 root disk 9, 0 Feb /dev/md0 brw rw 1 root disk 9, 1 Feb /dev/md1 brw rw 1 root disk 80, 0 Feb /dev/i2o/hda brw rw 1 root disk 80, 1 Feb /dev/i2o/hda1 brw rw 1 root disk 80, 2 Feb /dev/i2o/hda2 brw rw 1 root disk 80, 16 Feb /dev/i2o/hdb brw rw 1 root disk 80, 17 Feb /dev/i2o/hdb1 brw rw 1 root disk 72, 0 Feb /dev/ida/c0d0 brw rw 1 root disk 72, 1 Feb /dev/ida/c0d0p1 brw rw 1 root disk 72, 2 Feb /dev/ida/c0d0p2

9 Lista urządzeń ]$ cat /proc/devices Character devices: 1 mem 4 /dev/vc/0 4 tty 4 ttys 5 /dev/tty 5 /dev/console 6 lp 7 vcs 9 st 10 misc 21 sg 29 fb 136 pts Block devices: 1 ramdisk 3 ide0 7 loop 8 sd 9 md 11 sr 253 device mapper ]$ cat /proc/misc 184 microcode 63 device mapper 1 psaux 144 nvram 135 rtc 134 apm_bios

10 Lista dysków/partycji ]$ cat /proc/partitions major minor #blocks name loop hda hda hda hda hda dm dm dm dm dm dm dm dm dm dm sda sda1

11 Urządzenia SCSI ]$ cat /proc/scsi/scsi Attached devices: Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 01 Lun: 00 Vendor: SEAGATE Model: ST318404LW Rev: 0006 Type: Direct Access ANSI SCSI revision: 03 Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 03 Lun: 00 Vendor: COMPAQ Model: BD036745A4 Rev: B008 Type: Direct Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02 Host: scsi1 Channel: 00 Id: 03 Lun: 00 Vendor: TANDBERG Model: MLR3 Rev: 0404 Type: Sequential Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02 Host: scsi2 Channel: 00 Id: 04 Lun: 00 Vendor: ADAPTEC Model: RAID 5 Rev: 370F Type: Direct Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02 Host: scsi4 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00 Vendor: LG Model: CD ROM CRD 8521B Rev: 1.02 Type: CD ROM ANSI SCSI revision: 02 Host: scsi8 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00 Vendor: SWISSBIT Model: Victorinox Rev: 1.89 Type: Direct Access ANSI SCSI revision: 02

12 Modyfikacja listy urządzeń SCSI ]$ echo "scsi remove single device " > /proc/scsi/scsi ]$ echo "scsi remove single device " > /proc/scsi/scsi ]$ echo "scsi add single device " > /proc/scsi/scsi

13 LVM - lvdisplay root]# lvdisplay m /dev/vg00/tmp Logical volume LV Name /dev/vg00/tmp VG Name vg00 LV UUID 1VasLj g0wa oav0 XAQ5 s9ne ew73 n1lor8 LV Write Access read/write LV Status available # open 1 LV Size MB Current LE 129 Segments 2 Allocation next free (default) Read ahead sectors 0 Block device 253:3 Segments Logical extent 0 to 127: Type linear Physical volume /dev/hda4 Physical extents 1984 to 2111 Logical extent 128 to 128: Type linear Physical volume /dev/hda4 Physical extents 6887 to 6887

14 podkatalog /dev/vgxx root]# ls l /dev/vg00/ total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 21 Oct 6 17:41 home > /dev/mapper/vg00 home lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 20 Oct 6 17:41 opt > /dev/mapper/vg00 opt lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 21 Oct 18 23:23 swap > /dev/mapper/vg00 swap lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 20 Oct 18 23:24 tmp > /dev/mapper/vg00 tmp lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 20 Oct 6 17:41 usr > /dev/mapper/vg00 usr lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 20 Oct 6 17:41 var > /dev/mapper/vg00 var root]# ls l /dev/mapper/ total 0 crw 1 root root 10, 63 Oct 6 17:41 control brw 1 root root 253, 4 May 20 23:51 vg00 home brw 1 root root 253, 2 May 20 23:51 vg00 opt brw 1 root root 253, 9 May 20 23:51 vg00 swap brw 1 root root 253, 3 May 20 23:51 vg00 tmp brw 1 root root 253, 0 May 20 23:51 vg00 usr brw 1 root root 253, 1 May 20 23:51 vg00 var

15 Device mapper - tablice root]# dmsetup table vg00 home: linear 3: vg00 tmp: linear 3: vg00 tmp: linear 3: vg00 usr: linear 3:4 384 vg00 swap: linear 3: vg00 var: linear 3: vg00 opt: linear 3: Segments Logical extent 0 to 127: Type linear Physical volume /dev/hda4 Physical extents 1984 to 2111 Logical extent 128 to 128: Type linear Physical volume /dev/hda4 Physical extents 6887 to 6887

16 loopback HP character HP wszystko jest plikiem HP block Artemis scsi/scsi

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