2 Agenda Network Security Network Security Policy Management Protocols The Security Wheel IDS Terminology IDS Technology HIDS and NIDS IDS Communication Overview
3 Network Security
4 Threat Capabilities More Dangerous and Easier to Use High Self replicating code Password guessing Exploiting known vulnerabilities Password cracking Back doors Stealth diagnostics Sweepers Disabling audits Hijacking sessions Packet forging/ spoofing Sniffers Sophistication of hacker tools Technical knowledge required Low
5 Changing the Role of Security The need for security is becoming more important because of the following reasons: Required for e-business Required for communicating and doing business safely in potentially unsafe environments Networks require development and implementation of a corporate-wide security policy
6 The E-Business Challenge Internet business value E-commerce Supply chain Customer care Workforce optimization E-learning Internet access Corporate intranet Internet presence Business security requirements Defense-in-depth Multiple components Integration into e-business infrastructure Comprehensive blueprint Expanded access heightened security risks
7 Legal and Governmental Policy Issues Organizations that operate vulnerable networks will face increasing and substantial liability. US Federal legislation mandating security includes the following: GLB financial services legislation Government Information Security Reform Act HIPAA
8 Variety of Attacks Internet External Dial-in exploitation Internal exploitation exploitation Network attacks can be as varied as the systems that they attempt to penetrate. Compromised host
9 Network Security Threats There are four general categories of security threats to the network : Unstructured threats Structured threats External threats Internal threats
10 Specific Attack Types All of the following can be used to compromise your system: Packet sniffers IP weaknesses Password attacks DoS or DDoS Man-in-the-middle attacks Application layer attacks Trust exploitation Port redirection Virus Trojan horse Operator error
11 Network Security Policy
12 What Is a Security Policy? A security policy is a formal statement of the rules by which people who are given access to an organization s technology and information assets must abide. (RFC 2196, Site Security Handbook)
13 Why Create a Security Policy? To create a baseline of your current security posture To set the framework for security implementation To define allowed and not allowed behaviors To help determine necessary tools and procedures To communicate consensus and define roles To define how to handle security incidents
14 What Should the Security Policy Contain? Statement of authority and scope Acceptable use policy Identification and authentication policy Internet use policy Campus access policy Remote access policy Incident handling procedure
15 Management Protocols and Functions
16 Configuration Management Configuration management protocols include SSH, SSL, and Telnet. Telnet issues include the following: The data within a Telnet session is sent as clear text, and may be intercepted by anyone with a packet sniffer located along the data path between the device and the management server. The data may include sensitive information, such as the configuration of the device itself, passwords, and so on.
17 Configuration Management Recommendations When possible, the following practices are advised: Use IPSec, SSH, SSL, or any other encrypted and authenticated transport. ACLs should be configured to allow only management servers to connect to the device. All attempts from other IP addresses should be denied and logged. RFC 2827 filtering at the perimeter router should be used to mitigate the chance of an outside attacker spoofing the addresses of the management hosts.
18 SNMP SNMP is a network management protocol that can be used to retrieve information from a network device. The TCP and UDP ports SNMP uses are 161 and 162. The following are SNMP issues: SNMP uses passwords, called community strings, within each message as a very simple form of security. Most implementations of SNMP on networking devices today send the community string in clear text. SNMP messages may be intercepted by anyone with a packet sniffer located along the data path between the device and the management server, and the community string may be compromised. An attacker could reconfigure the device if read-write access via SNMP is allowed. The following are SNMP recommendations: Configure SNMP with only read-only community strings. Set up access control on the device you wish to manage via SNMP to allow only the appropriate management hosts access.
19 Logging Logging issues include the following: Syslog is sent as clear text between the managed device and the management host on UDP port 514. Syslog has no packet-level integrity checking to ensure that the packet contents have not been altered in transit. There is a potential for the Syslog data to be falsified by an attacker. An attacker can send large amounts of false Syslog data to a management server in order to confuse the network administrator during an attack.
20 Logging Recommendations When possible, the following practices are advised: Encrypt Syslog traffic within an IPSec tunnel. When allowing Syslog access from devices on the outside of a firewall, you should implement RFC 2827 filtering at the perimeter router. ACLs should also be implemented on the firewall in order to allow Syslog data from only the managed devices themselves to reach the management hosts.
21 TFTP Many network devices use TFTP for transferring configuration or system files across the network. TFTP uses port 69 for both TCP and UDP. The following are TFTP issues: TFTP uses UDP for the data stream between the device and the TFTP server. TFTP sends data in clear text. The network administrator should recognize that the data within a TFTP session may be intercepted by anyone with a packet sniffer located along the data path between the requesting host and the TFTP server. When possible, TFTP traffic should be encrypted within an IPSec tunnel in order to mitigate the chance of its being intercepted.
22 NTP NTP is used to synchronize the clocks of various devices across a network. It is critical for digital certificates, and for correct interpretation of events within Syslog data. NTP uses port 123 for both UDP and TCP connections. The following are NTP issues: An attacker could attempt a DoS attack on a network by sending bogus NTP data across the Internet in an attempt to change the clocks on network devices in such a manner that digital certificates are considered invalid. An attacker could attempt to confuse a network administrator during an attack by disrupting the clocks on network devices. Many NTP servers on the Internet do not require any authentication of peers. The following are NTP recommendations: Implement your own master clock for the private network synchronization. Use NTP Version 3 or above as these versions support a cryptographic authentication mechanism between peers. Use ACLs that specify which network devices are allowed to synchronize with other network devices.
23 The Cisco Security Wheel
24 Network Security as a Continuous Process Network security is a continuous process built around a security policy. Step 1: Secure Improve Secure Security Policy Monitor Step 2: Monitor Step 3: Test Step 4: Improve Test
25 Secure the Network Implement security solutions to stop or prevent unauthorized access or activities, and to protect information: Improve Secure Security Policy Monitor Authentication Encryption Test Firewalls Vulnerability patching
26 Monitor Security Detects violations to the security policy Secure Involves system auditing and real-time intrusion detection Improve Security Policy Monitor Validates the security implementation in Step 1 Test
27 Test Security Validates effectiveness of the security policy through system auditing and vulnerability scanning Improve Secure Security Policy Test Monitor
28 Improve Security Use information from the monitor and test phases to make improvements to the security implementation. Improve Secure Security Policy Monitor Adjust the security policy as security vulnerabilities and risks are identified. Test
29 Intrusion Detection Terminology
30 Intrusion Detection Ability to detect attacks against networks, including network devices and hosts. Types of network attacks are: Reconnaissance Access Denial of service
31 Reconnaissance Unauthorized discovery and mapping of systems, services, or vulnerabilities
33 Vulnerabilities and Exploits A vulnerability is a weakness that compromises either the security or the functionality of a system. Poor passwords Improper input handling Insecure communication An exploit is the mechanism used to leverage a vulnerability. Password guessing tool Shell scripts Executable code
34 Access Unauthorized data manipulation, system access, or privilege escalation
35 Access Methods Exploit easily guessed passwords Default Brute force Exploit mis-administered services IP services Trust relationships File sharing
36 Access Methods (cont.) Exploit application holes Mishandled input data Access outside application domain, buffer overflows, race conditions Protocol weaknesses Fragmentation, TCP session hijack Trojan horses Programs that introduce an inconspicuous backdoor into a host
37 Denial of Service Disable or corrupt networks, systems, or services
38 Denial of Service Methods Resource Overload Disk space, bandwidth, buffers Ping floods, SYN flood, UDP bombs Unsolicited Commercial (UCE) Fragmentation or Impossible Packets Large ICMP packets IP fragment overlay Same Source and Destination IP packet
39 False Alarms False positive A situation in which normal traffic or a benign action causes the signature to fire. False negative A situation in which a signature is not fired when offending traffic is detected. An actual attack is not detected.
40 True Alarms True positive A situation in which a signature is fired properly when the offending traffic is detected. An attack is detected as expected. True negative A situation in which a signature is not fired when non-offending traffic is detected. Normal traffic or a benign action does not cause an alarm.
41 Intrusion Detection Technologies
42 Profile-Based Intrusion Detection Also known as Anomaly Detection Activity deviates from the profile of normal activity Requires creation of statistical user and network profiles Prone to high number of false positives Difficult to define normal activity
43 Signature-Based Intrusion Detection Also known as Misuse Detection or Pattern Matching Matches pattern of malicious activity Requires creation of signatures Less prone to false positives Based on the signature s ability to match malicious activity
44 Protocol Analysis Intrusion detection analysis is performed on the protocol specified in the data stream. Examines the protocol to determine the validity of the packet Checks the content of the payload (pattern matching)
45 Responsive Reactive IDSs can respond to an attack. Terminate session (TCP resets) Block offending traffic (ACL) Create session log files (IP logging) Restrict access to protected resources
46 Host-Based Intrusion Protection
47 HIPS Features Agent software is installed on each host. Provides individual host detection and protection. Detects attacks before encryption and after decryption occurs. Does not require special hardware.
48 Host-Based Intrusion Protection Corporate network Agent Agent Application server Firewall Untrusted network Agent Agent Agent Agent SMTP server Console Agent WWW server Agent DNS server
49 Network-Based Intrusion Detection Systems
50 NIDS Features Sensors are connected to network segments. A single Sensor can monitor many hosts. Growth of a network is easily protected. New hosts and devices can be added to the network without additional Sensors. The Sensors are network appliances tuned for intrusion detection analysis. The operating system is hardened. The hardware is dedicated to intrusion detection analysis.
51 NIDS Corporate network Sensor Sensor Firewall Untrusted network Management server WWW server Sensor DNS server
52 Intrusion Detection Evasive Techniques
53 Evasive Techniques Attempting to elude intrusion detection is accomplished using intrusion detection evasive techniques. Common intrusion detection evasive techniques are: Flooding Fragmentation Encryption Obfuscation
54 Flooding Saturating the network with noise traffic while also trying to launch an attack against the target is referred to as flooding.
55 Fragmentation Splitting malicious packets into smaller packets to avoid detection is known as fragmentation.
56 Encryption Launching an attack via an encrypted session can avoid network-based intrusion detection. This type of evasive technique assumes the attacker has already established a secure session with the target network or host. IPSec tunnel
57 Obfuscation Disguising an attack using special characters to conceal an attack from an IDS is commonly referred to as obfuscation. Control characters Hex representation Unicode representation
58 Intrusion Protection
59 Intrusion Protection Benefits Intrusion protection provides: Enhanced security over classic technologies Advanced technology to address the changing threat Increased resiliency of e-business systems and applications Effective mitigation of malicious activity and insider threats Broad visibility into the corporate datastream Greater protection against known and unknown threats
60 Active Defense System A complete intrusion protection solution focuses on the following: Detection Identify malicious attacks on network and host resources Prevention Stop the detected attack from executing Reaction Immunize the system from future attacks from a malicious source
61 Cisco IDS Solution Active Defense System Network Sensors Overlaid network protection Switch Sensors Integrated switch protection Router Sensors Integrated router protection Firewall Sensors Integrated firewall protection Host Agents Server and desktop protection Comprehensive management Robust system management and monitoring
62 Defense-In-Depth A Layer Solution Host-focused technology Application-level encryption protection Policy enforcement (resource control) Web application protection Buffer overflow Network attack and reconnaissance detection Denial-of-service detection Network-focused technology
63 Cisco IDS Communication Overview
64 Cisco IDS Overview Sensor IDS manager Monitoring Command and control Untrusted network Targets Operator Hacker
65 IDS 3.X Communications PostOffice Protocol Command and control communications UDP Network Monitoring Command and Control Sensor IDS manager
66 PostOffice Host Addressing Numeric Host ID Host ID = 10 Host Name = director Organization ID Alpha Numeric Org ID = 200 Org Name = acme-noc Host Name Organization Name Combination of host ID and Org ID must be unique Host, Organization, and Application ID are used together to route PostOffice traffic Host ID = 10 Host Name = director Org ID = 100 Org Name = cisco Host ID = 20 Host Name = sensor2 Org ID = 100 Org Name = cisco Host ID = 30 Host Name = sensor3 Org ID = 100 Org Name = cisco
67 IDS 4.0 Communications RDEP Replaces PostOffice protocol Uses HTTP/HTTPS to communicate XML documents between the Sensor and external systems Uses a pull communication model Allows management console to pull alarms at own pace Alarms remain on Sensor until 4-Gb limit is reached and alarms are overwritten
68 PIX 506E/515E Intro 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 68
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