Why and how Students Complain: a Study of the Intentions and Implications of Undergraduates Complaints

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1 PMKT Brazilian Journal of Marketing, Opinion, and Media Research ISSN: (Print) ISSN: (Online) Editor: Fauze Najib Mattar Valuation system: Triple Blind Review Languages: Portuguese and English Publication: ABEP Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa Why and how Students Complain: a Study of the Intentions and Implications of Undergraduates Complaints Por que e como os Alunos Reclamam: Um Estudo sobre as Intenções e Implicações das Reclamações de Universitários Submission: 12 jul Approval: 28 mar Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira PhD in Marketing and Strategy, Cardiff University. She holds a Master and a Bachelor Degree in Business Administration, FEA-USP. Lecturer in the Master and PhD Program in Business Administration, EAESP-FGV. Address: FGV - Departamento de Marketing - Rua Itapeva, 474-9º andar São Paulo/SP - Brasil. Antonio Benedito de Oliveira Jr. PhD candidate in Business Administration, FEI. Master in Business Administration, EBAPE-FGV. He holds a MBA in Corporative Finance, IBMEC-RJ, and a post-degree specialization in Business Management and Enterprises, Escola Politécnica da USP. Bachelor in Civil Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, USP. Business consultant. Rogerio Scabim Morano PhD candidate and Master in Business Administration, FEI. He holds a MBA in E-Management, EPGE-FGV, and a Bachelor Degree in Production Engineering, Escola Politécnica da USP. Higher Education lecturer and business consultant. Paulo Cesar Calábria PhD candidate in Business Administration, FEI. Master in Electric Engineering, Escola Politécnica da USP. He holds a post-degree specialization in Business Administration, EAESP-FGV. Senior Program Manager at IBM Brazil. Omar Magalhães Dias PhD candidate and Master in Business Administration, FEI. He holds a MBA in Business Logistics, EBAPE-FGV, a post-degree specialization in International Commerce, Universidade Mackenzie, and a post-degree specialization in Economic Engineering, UERJ. Bachelor in Business Administration, UFF. Lecturer at UNIFIEO.

2 ABSTRACT Students behaviour when they complain has received more attention in recent years. The number of research projects dedicated to investigating the marketing practices of Higher Education Institutions - HEI in their relationship with their public, including students, has been increasing. This study sought to investigate students intentions to complain about HEI to friends and others, whether in person or over the internet, the degree of student dissatisfaction and the response of HEI to the complaints received. This quantitative research project collected data from 80 students attending different HEI and analyzed them by factorial analysis and multiple linear regression, in accordance with Lala and Priluck (2011). The results indicate that the HEI should adopt more effective strategies in their management of students complaints to create a more fruitful student- HEI relationship. KEYWORDS: Complaint, students, higher education management, satisfaction, intention. RESUMO O tema que versa sobre o comportamento de reclamação de estudantes tem recebido mais atenção nos últimos anos. É crescente o número de pesquisas que tem se dedicado a investigar a adoção de práticas de marketing pelas Instituições de Ensino Superior - IES em seu relacionamento com seus públicos, incluindo os alunos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a intenção dos estudantes de reclamarem à IES, aos amigos e outros, tanto pessoalmente quanto pela internet; o grau de insatisfação dos alunos e a resposta da IES à reclamação. Para atingir esse objetivo, realizou-se uma pesquisa quantitativa, por meio de coleta de dados com 80 estudantes de diferentes IES, que foram analisados por meio de análise fatorial e regressão linear múltipla, tendo como base o trabalho de Lala e Priluck (2011). Os resultados indicam que as IES devem adotar estratégias mais eficazes na gestão da reclamação do aluno para desenvolver uma relação estudante-ies profícua. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Reclamação, estudantes, gestão no ensino superior, satisfação, intenção. 13, pp. 1-14, October,

3 1. INTRODUCTION The enrolment and retention of students in Institutions of Higher Education (IHE) is an important aspect of educational management (LALA; PRILUCK, 2011). According to the Ministry of Education (MEC) (2012), the number of students enrolled in graduation courses of Brazilian IHE grew by 112.6% in the period between 2001 and 2010 (inclusive). However, the relationship between enrolment and graduation was of only 22%, which is certainly a worrying figure for both IHE managers and for society as a whole. The IHE have sought to use marketing concepts and techniques to promote and improve their services (SU; BAO, 2001). As a reflection, they seek to identify their students needs and satisfy them (MUKHERJEE; PINTO; MALHOTRA, 2009), recognizing them as important stakeholders (KATILIUTE, 2011; BOWDEN, 2011). Marketing approaches, principally those which deal with defects and the recovery of services, bearing the differences in mind, can serve as references for the educational universe (IYER; MUNCY, 2008). If complaints are not adequately dealt with, a double failure can occur in the service: first, in the way the complaint is dealt with, and secondly, in the way the problem is solved to recover the balance in the relationship with the unsatisfied public (IYER; MUNCY, 2008). If such experiences are managed correctly, there can be a reversion of the situation of dissatisfaction to one of satisfaction. The same can be true for the IHE, even though the educational system may have specific peculiarities which involve the long term and its relationship with the development of society. Thus, the importance of monitoring and adjusting the relationship between the IHE and the student needs to be emphasized (SCARPIN; SCHARF; FERNANDES, 2011). Complaints can be transformed into negative comments spread either by word of mouth or by the Web, damaging the marketing efforts made to influence the decisions of potential students to matriculate in the school or neutralizing the efforts made to keep existing students (ANTONIELI, 2012; LALA; PRILUCK, 2011). For the purpose of making an empirical contribution to the literature on the behaviour of students when complaining, and the related practice of the management of the IHE, this article investigated the intention of students to complain to the IHE, to their friends and others, whether in person or by Internet; the degree of dissatisfaction of the students and the replies of the IHE to the complaints received, taking as its basis the work of Lala & Priluck (2011). 2. THEORETICAL REVIEW In the face of a competitive market, for the purpose of increasing the rate of matriculation of new students, many IHE have created mechanisms which make access to the school easier, permitting an increase in the number of students per lecture room (SCARPIN; SCHARF; FERNANDES, 2011). Other IHE have invested in the retention of their existing students, permitting that they express themselves in the solution of occasional dissatisfaction which might otherwise lead them to abandon the institution (STALLIVIERI, 2006). Students of higher education attend their lectures regularly and it is natural that, over the years, there should be an accumulation of occasions of friction with the IHE. 13, pp. 1-14, October,

4 The study of Bowden (2011) on the determining factors of loyalty and their influence on the student-ihe relationship shows that the satisfaction and the affective commitment of the students has a significant effect on their loyalty, suggesting that a relational marketing orientation might help in the management of higher education. In accordance with the emotional-cognitive therapy model, complaining behaviour is the result of a cognitive assessment of any situation which makes demands which exceed the individual s psychological resources. This assessment depends on both personal characteristics and situational factors, such as the perception of power (STEPHENS; GWINNER, 1998). In the case of higher education, Mukherjee, Pinto & Malhotra (2009) show that the students possess less power than their professors due, in part, to the academic freedom which the IHE normally allow their lecturers. Because they are a special kind of client, students are, not rarely, excluded from the decisionmaking process within the educational system (MUKHERJEE; PINTO; MALHOTRA, 2009). The results of Enache s (2011) study indicate that the most important aspects for the students satisfaction, in order of importance are: educational programme, ability of the professor, learning conditions, fee and opportunities of leisure. On the other hand, the article by Hart & Coates (2010) shows that students in eastern Asia are hesitant about being classed as clients of the IHE and that their preferred form of complaining is by in contrast to the traditional channels of complaint. Research into complaining behaviour suggests that people do not exhibit a single specific form of behaviour, such as either complaining or not complaining. Rather, unsatisfied people express their complaints in different ways. According to Mukherjee, Pinto & Malhotra (2009) there is a consensus in the marketing literature as to the modes of complaining behaviour which are basically four: 1. Voice. 2. Negative mouth to mouth commentary. 3. Complaints to third parties. 4. Abandonment of the relationship. The majority of clients use more than one of these types of behaviour when they experience a bad situation. Empirical studies show that more than 50% of clients do not give vent to their dissatisfaction. (MUKHERJEE; PINTO; MALHOTRA, 2009). Generally speaking, people who complain differ from those who do not, not only in terms of individual characteristics but also in the way they behave in different situations. Those who complain tend to be more impulsive and less self-controlled and the tendency to complain is greater in situations of great dissatisfaction. Individuals are more inclined to complain when their level of involvement with the organization is high, even in situations of little dissatisfaction, and to respond in different ways in situations of dissatisfaction involving different sectors (SHARMA et al., 2010). 13, pp. 1-14, October,

5 Burke (2004) suggests that the most conscious and confident students, with great desire to succeed, are more inclined to complain regularly. The main complaints of students about, for example, what most displeases them as regards the marks (grades) given them by their teachers relate to two main points: a lack of fairness (a sense of injustice) and a lack of feedback. Therefore, the elaboration of clear criteria whereby the students may know beforehand how they will be assessed and what the positive and negative points calling for improvement are, are ways of dealing with students negative vision of the attribution of marks (grades) (HOLMES; SMITH, 2003). From the point of view of the teacher, taking knowledge of an unsatisfactory experience of the student is important for two reasons. First, if he does not take knowledge of it, the teacher can be harmed by the negative mouth-tomouth comments which arise from his not having been able to solve the problem which caused the dissatisfaction. Secondly, if he does not take knowledge of it, the teacher will be depriving himself of important knowledge about his own performance, impeding actions for improvement or the exercise of verifying what is working or not in the lecture room. The feedback focusing on specific teaching questions demonstrably results in improvements in the teaching-learning process (SWANSON, 2001). The assessment of teachers performance is a difficult subjective process which leads to questioning. Assessments of performance are necessary in all organizations, but perhaps it is in the IHE that the consequences of these assessments have exponential effects. Satisfaction regarding the course is a critical component of the improvement and success of learning both in the class-room and in on-line teaching (MARCELI; FOGLIASSO; BAACK, 2011). Katiliute (2011) recommends that IHE should undertake biannual assessments to ensure the satisfaction of students and compare them over the years. Timmerman s (2008) research shows that the assessments made by means of the site RateMyProfessor.com - RMP should not be ignored, but rather that the RMP should be considered with care as it can provide the IHE, especially those which do not possess any official assessment of their teaching staff, with some clues as to their teachers performance. Or, further, the RMP can serve as a complementary assessment for those institutions which already possess their own assessment tools. Lala & Priluck s (2011) study shows that the predictors of the intention to complain vary in accordance with the channel of complaint (IES, friends or others) and the mode of the complaint (personally or by the internet). Specifically, the greater the degree of the students dissatisfaction the more they will complain to the IHE and to their friends, either personally or by the Web. The students will complain directly to the IHE only if it calls for minimal effort and if they feel that the institution will reply to their complaint. Students who have a propensity to complain transmit their negative experience through the internet, whereas the mindful ones only tell their friends personally and the frequent users of the social media inform their friends through the Web. The three most common causes of dissatisfaction given by these authors are: 1. Management of the classes. 2. Inadequate instruction. 13, pp. 1-14, October,

6 3. The teachers attitudes to their students. Davis & Swanson s (2001) study shows that, although professors are more effective in teaching small classes, in which they can use different techniques that contribute to critical thinking and to learning, satisfactory incidents are not related to small classes. The satisfaction of the student is associated with his learning and vice-versa. In the light of the above, this article seeks to reply to the following questions: after a bad experience with a teacher, what is the students intention when they complain to the school, to their friends and to others, whether in person or by internet? What is the degree of the students dissatisfaction in the light of the cause of the complaint? What is the response of the IHE to the complaint? 3. METHODOLOGY The collection of data was undertaken by means of electronic questionnaire filled out on the Web, using the Google docs tools. This address on the Web was distributed to the students by , together with the coordinates, lecture rooms, and by Facebook. The questionnaire was elaborated on the basis of Lala & Priluck s research (2011), using the same scales proposed by those authors, and consisted of closed questions as to the intention and kind of complaint used by the HEI students. The dimensions were measured by means of the Likert scale, varying from 1 to 5, on which the respondent indicated his degree of agreement or disagreement with the question (ranging from I totally disagree to I agree totally ). In some cases the respondent indicated the probability that the affirmation proposed would have to occur, also on a scale ranging from 1 to 5 (from highly improbable to highly probable ). One used the critical incident, in which the students were asked to describe a bad, unforgettable experience with a teacher during their academic life in the college, and all the closed questions that were put related to this episode. Further, two open questions were added to the end of the questionnaire: one on the actions that were taken to solve the student s problem and the other on how they felt about what had been done in response. A summary of the critical incidents and of the actions taken by the IHE is given in Table 1. TABLE 1 Critical incidents and actions taken by the IHE. MAIN CRITICAL INCIDENTS WITH TEACHERS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Discourtesy of teacher and humiliation of students Weak lessons and poor preparation on the part of the teachers Dissatisfaction with grade given Others ACTIONS TAKEN BY THE IHE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE None Solved Underway Others , pp. 1-14, October,

7 A total of 80 graduation students of four private colleges of administration, marketing and technology in São Paulo (SP) and two public universities in São Luís (MA), replied to the research during the period April and May Four other schools were approached but did not authorize their students participation in the project precisely because the theme students complaints is an embarrassing one for the IHE. The sample size was shown to be sufficient for the undertaking of the analyses proposed (see item 4 Analysis of Results). The profile of the students is presented in Table 2. TABLE 2 Profile of the students who participated in the research. TYPE OF UNIVERSITY FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Private Public GENDER OF STUDENT FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Feminine Masculine AGE GROUP (years) FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Less than and and to Above TIME SPENT WORKING (hours per week) FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE None More than LENGTH OF COURSE (years) FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE More than YEAR IN WHICH STUDYING FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 1 st year nd year rd year th year Course concluded TIME SPENT ON VOLUNTARY SERVICE (PER WEEK) FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE None hours hours , pp. 1-14, October,

8 4. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS The factorial weight of each of the affirmations proposed was analyzed for the verification of their significances and of the representativeness of the sample used. According to Hair et al. (1998), factorial weights above 0.65 guarantee the significance of samples greater than 75 registers. As Table 3 shows, all the weights found for the replies are greater than that minimum value, which validates the sample size of 80 students. As for the measurements of the adequacy of the factorial analysis, the KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) test gave a value of 0.70, considered acceptable. Barlett s sphericity test showed significance (p < 0.001), indicating that the factorial analysis is adequate (HAIR et al., 1998). Table 3 showed, further, that the variables resulting from the factorial analysis present adequate levels of reliability, giving Cronbach alphas of approximately or superior to 0.70 (HAIR et al., 1998). The names attributed to the factors resulting from the factorial analysis of this research differed from those of Lala & Priluck s research (2011), because as the items grouped themselves in slightly different variables, it was necessary to label them differently, consistently with the new results. When the results of the factorial analysis of this research project are compared with the variables originally proposed by Lala & Priluck (2011) it may be seen that, after the calculation of the factorial weights, the statement it was a terrible experience came to belong to the variable degree of student dissatisfaction (DSD). Apart from that, a new variable was created: intention to complain directly to the teacher (I2). The variable competence in the use of the Web was withdrawn from the analysis as it was found that there was no correspondence at all between it and the other variables studied. As may be observed from Table 4, more than 80% of the students access social networks through the Web daily, and that 40% of them spend more than an hour per day surfing on the net. Table 3 shows all the independent and dependent variables of this study. Statistically significant correlations were found between the independent variables DSD and SRDC, as also between SRVC and SRDC (Table 5). Such correlations reveal that the inadequate ability of the HEI to respond after a direct complaint from students is related to the students dissatisfaction regarding the HEI (negative correlation). Further, there is a positive correlation between the response of the school after the direct complaint from the student and the response after the negative repercussion of a personal argument. 13, pp. 1-14, October,

9 TABLE 3 Values of the factorial weights, Cronbach s alpha, KMO and Barlett s tests. TYPE OF VARIABLE ABBREV. VARIABLE IV* DSD Degree of student dissatisfaction SRDC SRVC ECW School s reply to it after a direct complaint from the student School s reply to complaint after repercussion of a verbal complaint Effort to complain via Web DV* I1 Intention to complain to the school personally I2 Intention to complain directly to the STATEMENT FACTORIAL WEIGHT ALPHA 1. I felt I d been treated unfairly I was unhappy about the experience The experience was frustrating It was a terrible experience If you had complained to the course coordinator or the director, what probability is there that the school would have: 1. Done something to deal with your problem (1) 2. Solved your problem (1) Looked into the question (1) Presume you commented on your experience to your family and friends. Presume further that you posted your experience on the Web, at sites like Blogs, Facebook etc., what probability is there that the school would: 1. Do something to deal with your problem (2) Solve your problem (2) Look into the question (2) Sending an to the teacher takes too much time 2. Sending an to the director demands a great effort 3. Sending an to the coordinator takes a long time Now imagine that the episode that you described at the beginning has happened again. In this situation, you: 1. Will speak personally with the coordinator Will speak personally with the director I3 I4 teacher Intention to complain to friends personally Intention to complain to friends on the Web Intention to I5 complain to others personally KMO: 0.70 BARLETT S TEST Chi-squared: 752,190 df: 120 p: Obs.: IV* - Independent Variables; DV* - Dependent Variables. 1. Will complain personally to the teacher Will send an to the teacher on the question 1. Will talk to friends on the phone about the experience 2. Will look friends out especially to tell them of your experience 1. Will post a message on Facebook (or other social network) about what happened 2. Will leave a message about what happened in the status of your Facebook, MSN etc. 3. Will post comments in Facebook (or other social network) about what happened 4. Will give a mark to your teacher at a specialized site, like ratemyprofessors.com 1. Will write to your school paper about what happened 2. Will put posters on the school s bulletin boards about what happened , pp. 1-14, October,

10 TABLE 4 Time spent daily on social networks. FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE None Less than 1 hour Between 1 and 3 hours Between 3 and 5 hours More than 5 hours TABLE 5 Pearson s correlation between the variables studied. DSD DSD SRDC SRVC ECW I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 SRDC ** ı ı SRVC ** ı ECW ı I ı I * 0.224* 0.313** ı I * ı I ** ı I * ** ı Obs.: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01 The dependent variable I1 did not present any correlation with the independent variables (DSD, SRDC, SRVC and ECW), however, correlations were discovered between that variable and dependent variables I2 and I5. These correlations indicate that the intention to complain personally to the IHE is related to that to complain directly to the teacher and to other people. Further, variable I4 presents correlations with variables I3 and I5, which indicates that the intention to complain to friends on the internet is related to the intention to complain to friends personally and to other people. Variable I3 correlates with independent variable GIA, indicating that the intention to complain personally to the IHE is related to dissatisfaction of the student (positive correlation). Variable I2 correlates with independent variables ECW and SRVC, indicating that the intention to complain directly to the teacher is related to the effort needed to complain via Web (positive correlation) and to the reply of the school due to the negative repercussion of the verbal complaint (positive correlation). The independent variables DSD, SRDC, SRVC and ECW, were related to the variables I1, I2, I3, I4 and I5, dependent variables, by means of the execution of multiple linear regressions using the statistical software SPSS, version , pp. 1-14, October,

11 The sample of 80 registers used proved sufficient for the use of the regression model. Hair et al. (1998) suggest that the level necessary is of between 15 and 20 observations for each independent variable. Taking 80 questionnaires and four independent variables, one gets the proportion of 20, sufficient for the undertaking of multiple linear regression. Table 6 presents the coefficients Beta, F (ANOVA) and R 2 adjusted and their respective coefficients of significance of multiple linear regressions for the five variables of intention of complaint on the part of the students. The kind of execution used was stepwise and, only in the case in which all the independent variables presented as possessing no significance, was the execution altered to the type enter. TABLE 6 Result of the multiple linear regression of each dependent variable. I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 BETA SIG. BETA SIG. BETA SIG. BETA SIG. BETA SIG. DSD * SRDC SRVC * ECW Coef. ANOVA F(4;75)= F(1;78)= F(1;78)= F(4.75)= F(4.75)= R 2 Adjusted * p < 0.05 Only the variables I2 and I3 presented statistical significance, the first presenting a positive relationship with the variable SRVC and the second with the variable DSD. These two significant relationships corroborate the analyses of correlation already presented. Thus, it may be reaffirmed that the intention to complain directly to the teacher, in a situation similar to that which has already occurred, increases proportionately with the greater ability of the institution to reply, after the repercussion of the presentation of the verbal complaint. Beyond that, the intention to complain personally to friends increases in accordance with the degree of dissatisfaction of the student. As has been ascertained by Mukherjee, Pinto & Malhotra s research (2009), students complain to third parties when they realize that this leads to a reply to their problem on the part of the school. However, when they are aware of the power of the teacher, they tend to use their voice or negative verbal commentary. The positive correlation found between variables I3 and DSD confirms, in a way, what was reported by Sharma et al. (2010), that high levels of dissatisfaction, involvement and impulsiveness tend to lead to the forms of behaviour typical of complaint. 5. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS This research project has confirmed some of the results of earlier research (LALA; PRILUCK, 2011; SHARMA et al., 2010; MUKHERJEE et al., 2009) that the degree of dissatisfaction acts as a trigger for students intentions to complain to teachers and friends. Consistent with the multidimensional vision of the behaviour of complaint (LALA; PRILUCK, 2011; MUKHERJEE; PINTO; MALHOTRA, 2009), this project has shown that the predictors of the intention to complain vary both as to the channels of complaint examined (school, teacher, 13, pp. 1-14, October,

12 friends or others) and the means used to complain (personally or via the Web). In accordance with the results, the greater the degree of students dissatisfaction, the greater the probability that they will complain to friends personally. The results also show that students will complain directly to their teacher if they realize that something will be done to investigate their problem or solve it. In the light of the results of this research, it seems that students limit their complaints to those with whom they have a closer relationship such as friends and acquaintances and even teachers, avoiding making complaints to third parties. Thus, as was commented on by Lala & Priluck (2011), this may happen because students prefer to hide the reasons for their dissatisfaction from people they do not know in order to preserve the reputation of the school. As the students have an interest in maintaining the good public image of their school, the IHE has a singular opportunity to manage the complaining behaviour of its students. Generally speaking, the results of this study strengthen the need for more efficient strategies regarding the management of student complaints, seeing that 41.3% of the students declare that no action was taken on the part of the IHE, as against only 11.3% who considered their problem solved (see Table 1). The analysis of the critical incidents described by the participants of this research project revealed that the main complaints of the students with regard to the unpleasant episodes which occurred in their relation to a teacher arose because: Teaching practice in the lecture room (discourtesy on the part of the teacher and humiliation of the students, with 32 mentions). Weak lectures and inadequate preparation on the part of the teachers (17 mentions). Dissatisfaction with grades (9 mentions). In practical terms, supporting Bowden (2011), the adoption of a relationship marketing approach in higher education is beneficial. The adoption of efficacious channels of direct communication with the students via portals, special s, social networks, tutoring and less intimidating channels of complaint, could well bring students into closer contact with their IHE. Further, it is essential that the channel of communication between teacher and student should be of easy access so that the dialog between them may flow easily in both directions. If, on one hand, the IHE should provide its teachers with didactic training, it is, on the other, necessary to manage students expectations as to what is considered pertinent in a complaint so as to foment a respectful professional relationship between these two actors. Beyond that, it is important that the IHE should perfect its assessment tools so that they may be permanently monitored, which goes beyond the relationships established within the class room and involves other actors, such as library staff, secretaries, the personnel of IT laboratories and others, who also have their part in the academic environment. 13, pp. 1-14, October,

13 Theoretical, practical and empirical evidence shows that a student s complaint should be regarded by the IHE as an opportunity to solve the problem concerned and take advantage of it. The satisfaction of the student, beyond constituting a potential contribution in the sense of increasing the levels of retention of the student population, can also contribute with positive personal comment to students relationships with the IHE, transforming a negative into a positive image. Thus a proactive management of the student-ihe relationship is essential, seeing that the students can act both as detractors and advocates of the IHE. The analysis of the factors which influence the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of students can provide important information as to how they think and the areas which should be treated as priorities for the improvement of the IHE s role. Some reservations as regards this study should be noted. First, some important antecedents of the students behaviour regarding their intention to complain, such as the question of the social influence of their peers, which can affect the posture of the student in making his complaints, were not taken into consideration. Secondly, it is possible that there exists some subjective bias in the students replies, due especially to the social desirability which can have influenced them to give replies considered socially acceptable. And, finally, thirdly, the results and the analyses of the study are based on the replies of a sample of first-degree students of some specific institutions, the majority of them private. There was only minor participation of students of public schools. It is suggested that future research should use better balanced sample populations, including multiple segments of the various regions of Brazil, courses and educational levels. 6. REFERENCES ANTONIELI, L. To Be Guarani. To Be Guarani. Disponível em: <http://tobeguarany.com/internet_no_brasil.php>. Acessado em: 12 maio BOWDEN, J. L. Engaging the Student as a Customer: A Relationship Marketing Approach. Marketing Education Review, v. 21, p , BURKE, L. A. High Maintenance Students: A Conceptual Exploration and Implications. Journal of Management Education, v. 28, n. 6, p , DAVIS, J. C.; SWANSON, S. T. Navigating Satisfactory and Dissatisfactory Classroom Incidents. Journal of Education for Business, v. 76, n. 5, p , ENACHE, I. Customer Behaviour and Student Satisfaction. Bulletin of the Transilvânia University of Brasov, v. 4, n. 2, p , HAIR, J.; ANDERSON, R.; TATHAM, R.; BLACK, W. Análise multivariada de dados. Porto Alegre: Bookman, 5. ed., , pp. 1-14, October,

14 HART, D. J.; COATES, N. F. International Student Complaint Behaviour: How do East Asian Students Complaint to their University? Journal of Further and Higher Education, v. 34, n. 3, p , HOLMES, L. E.; SMITH, L. J. Student Evaluations of Faculty Grading Methods. Journal of Education for Business, v. 78, n. 6, p , KATILIUTE, E. Longitudinal Study of Student Satisfaction with Their Studies: The Case of Kaunas University of Technology. Economics and Management, v. 16, n. 1, p , LALA, V.; PRILUCK, R. When Students Complain: An Antecedent Model of Students Intention to Complain. Journal of Marketing Education, v. 33, n. 3, p , MARCELI, K. M.; FOGLIASSO, C. E.; BAACK, D. Differences of Students Satisfaction with College Professors: The Impact of Students Gender on Satisfaction. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, v. 15, n. 4, p , MEC. Relatório do primeiro encontro nacional do censo da educação superior Brasil Secretaria de Regulação e Supervisão do Ensino Superior Ministério da Educação e Cultura INEP. Belo Horizonte, p , MUKHERJEE, A.; PINTO, M. B.; MALHOTRA, N. Power Perception and Modes of Complaining in Higher Education. The Service Industries Journal, v. 29, n. 11, p , SCARPIN, M. R. S.; SCHARF, E. R.; FERNANDES, J. O valor da marca na escolha do curso de Pós-Graduação Lato Sensu de uma IES do Vale. In: SEMINÁRIOS DE ADMINISTRAÇÃO - XIV SEMEAD, 2011, São Paulo. Anais... São Paulo: SEMEAD, SHARMA, P.; MARSHALL, R.; REDAY, P. A.; WOONBONG, N. A. Complainers versus Noncomplainers: A Multi-national Investigation of Individual and Situational Influences on Customer Complaint Behavior. Journal of Marketing Management, v. 26, n. 1-2, p , STEPHENS, N.; GWINNER, K. P. Why Don t Some People Complain? A Cognitive Emotive Process Model of Consumer Complaint Behaviour. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, v. 26, n. 3, p , STALLIVIERI, L. O sistema de ensino superior do Brasil: características, tendências e perspectivas. Universidade de Caxias do Sul. Caxias do Sul, p. 22, SU, C.; BAO, Y. Student Complaint Behavior Based on Power Perception: A Taxonomy. Services Marketing Quartely, v. 22, n. 3, p , TIMMERMAN, T. On the Validity of RateMyProfessors.com. Journal of Education for Business, v. 84, n. 1, p , IYER, R.; MUNCY, J. A. Service Recovery in Marketing Education: It s What We Do That Counts. Journal of Marketing Education, v. 30, n. 1, p , , pp. 1-14, October,

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