1 Tax Strategies From a Financial Planning Perspective
2 Spectrum Advisors Don Goerner offers securities through Purshe Kaplan Sterling Investments Member FINRA/ SIPC Headquartered at 18 Corporate Woods Blvd., Albany, NY Mike Reppert offers securities through Kalos Capital, Inc Mansell Rd., Suite 150, Alpharetta, GA 30022(678) Spectrum Advisors is not an affiliate or subsidiary of Kalos Capital, Inc. Investment Advisory Services offered through Spectrum Advisors, Inc., Spectrum Dr., Suite 115, Addison, TX Spectrum Advisors is not an affiliate or subsidiary of Kalos Capital, Inc. or Purshe Kaplan Sterling Investments
3 Tax-saving strategies Converting to a Roth IRA Tax favored oil/gas investments Stretching the benefits of IRAs to beneficiaries Minimizing taxes through Net Unrealized Appreciation (NUA) 72(t) distributions Tax-free treatment of IRA distributions to charity
4 ROTH -IRA Conversion
5 Advantages of Roth IRA conversion Federal income tax-free distributions Distributions from a Roth IRA are tax free, provided the Roth IRA has met the five-year aging period and the holder is aged at least 59½, disabled, or deceased Potentially greater value- 100% of growth is tax-exempt Depending on certain factors, a Roth IRA may provide more income after taxes than a Traditional IRA No required minimum distributions at age 70 1/2 RMDs on inherited Roth IRAs apply Roth conversion eligibility requirements: For an individual or a married couple filing jointly, their modified adjusted gross income cannot exceed $100,000 in the year of conversion, excluding the amount being converted, and any required minimum distributions. Married individuals filing separately are not eligible to convert to a Roth IRA unless they lived apart for the entire year.
6 Roth IRA conversion Starting in 2010, the $100,000 Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) limitation no longer applies The taxable income recognized on a Roth IRA conversion in 2010 may be spread over the following two tax years (i.e and 2012) Married Filing Separately taxpayers can convert to a Roth IRA 6
7 Roth IRA conversion Types of Roth IRA conversions Rollover from a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA. The 60-day deadline applies. A direct transfer from the traditional IRA to the Roth IRA Trustee-to-trustee transfer A re-characterization of an existing traditional IRA as a Roth IRA 7
8 Roth IRA conversion The 5-year period for all of a participant s Roth IRAs begins on January 1 of the first year for which a contribution was made to any Roth IRA owned by that participant. A surviving spouse gets to treat an inherited Roth IRA as one of her own for purposes of the 5-year rule. The 5-year period continues to run with the participant dies. If a participant dies within the 5-year period, distributions to a beneficiary are taxable until the 5- year period ends. 8
9 Roth IRA conversion Why Convert to a Roth IRA?? -To take advantage of charitable deduction carryforward, investment tax credits or partnership losses -No RMDs at age 70 ½ unlike traditional IRAs; provides for greater tax-free growth potential -Take advantage of market volatility/ account decline and covert prior to rebound to enjoy tax free gains and qualified distributions 9
10 Roth IRA conversion Why Covert to a Roth IRA?? - A taxpayer who can utilize non-ira funds to pay the income tax due as a result of the conversion can enjoy greater tax-free returns. -In the event that IRA assets will be used to fund a Credit Shelter Trust, a conversion to the Roth has many advantages 10
11 Converting Traditional IRA to Roth HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLE Client is 38 years old and married She has $100,000 (pretax) in a traditional IRA and $25,000 in a taxable account She is eligible to make a Roth conversion
12 Converting Traditional IRA to Roth IRA HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLE Potential Tax Savings This hypothetical example compares an individual who starts with a $100,000 (pretax) IRA and a $25,000 (after-tax) taxable account. In one example, the person does not make any changes to the accounts and lets them grow at an assumed 7% annual rate of return. In the other example, the person qualifies and converts the IRA to a Roth IRA, using all the assets in the taxable account to pay the income taxes on the conversion. $800,000 $600,000 $400,000 IRA (after-tax Traditional) Taxable Account (after taxes) Roth Conversion IRA $364,566 $386,968 $74,339 $761,226 $699,110 $128,191 $570,919 $200,000 $190,646 $43,110 $147,536 $196,715 $290,226 $0 10 years 20 years 30 years
13 Roth IRA conversion Why Covert to a Roth IRA?? -Roth IRA distributions will not result in bracket creep or suffer under the higher tax rates usually incurred by a surviving spouse as distributions are tax-free. -By converting to a Roth IRA during one s lifetime, the overall estate can be reduced, lowering the impact of higher estate taxes 13
14 Roth IRA conversion IRA vs. Roth IRA- Which is right for me? - IF growth rates are the same AND tax rates in conversion and withdrawal years are the same THEN after-tax result of both will be EQUAL!! -Things to consider -Tax rate differential (anyone think tax rates are about to rise??) -Are there other funds available to pay the tax? 14
15 IRA vs. Roth IRA- Equal tax rates at conversion and distribution Equal tax rates at conversion and distribution Traditional Traditional IRA IRA Roth IRA Roth IRA 2003 Account Balance $ 100,000 $ 100,000 $100,00 Less: Beginning Income account Taxes 40% $100,000 - (40,000) 0 Net Balance $ 100,000 $ 60,000 Minus income taxes $0 -$40,000 Growth After tax Until balance Death % $100, % $60,000 Account Growth over Balance 30 Death until death $ 300, % $ 180, % Less: Income 40% (120,000) - Net Account Balance to Family $ 180,000 $ 180,000 $180,00 Account death $300,000 0 Minus income taxes (40%) -$120,000 $0 Net amount to heirs $180, $180,00 0
16 IRA vs. Roth IRA- Higher tax rate at distribution Traditional IRA IRA Roth IRA Roth IRA 2003 Account Balance $ 100,000 $ 100,000 Beginning account balance $100,000 $100,000 Less: Income 40% - (40,000) Net Minus Balance income taxes $ 100,000 $0$ 60,000 -$40,000 After tax balance Growth Until Death $100, % $60, % Account Growth over Balance 30 Death until death $ 300, % $ 180,000300% Less: Income 40% (120,000) - Net Account Balance to Family $ 180,000 $ 180,000 Account death $300,000 $180,000 Minus income taxes (50%) $-150,000 $0 Net amount to heirs $150,000 $180,000 16
17 Oil & Gas Investments
18 Tax advantages of Oil & Gas Partnership Investments Typical 85% write-off of investment in 1 st year Ordinary income if GP investor Passive income if LP investor Remaining 15% written off over 7 years as depreciation Depletion allowance partially shelters cash flow for the life of the partnership Can also help to reduce the Self Employment Tax; GP s share of income is constituted as net earnings from self-employment
19 Oil/ Gas Partnership- Who Can Benefit? Must be an accredited investor Net worth greater than $1M excluding residence Income greater than $200K previous 2 years and expected in the current year Looking for non-market correlated diversification High income earners/ one time taxable events Sale of a business Stock options exercised Bonus IRA conversion
20 Stretching Your IRA
21 Stretching out an IRA HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLE Client has a $200,000 pretax IRA retirement account Two Scenarios 1. Names 45-year-old son as beneficiary 2. Names 25-year-old granddaughter as beneficiary Client dies before being required to take RMDs Transfers to grandchildren are subject to generation-skipping tax (GST).
22 Stretching out distributions This hypothetical example compares the after-tax amount potentiality of an IRA inherited by a 25-year-old granddaughter and a 45-year-old son. Assumptions are (1) the IRA had a pretax balance of $200,000 on 12/31 of the year of the owner's death, (2) owner was under age 70½ at death, (3) owner had designated a nonspouse beneficiary as the sole beneficiary of his account, (4) a 7% annual rate of return, (5) distributions from the inherited IRA taxed at a 25% federal ordinary income tax rate at the time of distribution, (6) an imputed constant annual federal income tax rate of 20% on taxable account earnings (based on a mix of long-term capital gains, dividends, and interest), (7) required minimum distributions from the IRA were on the single life expectancy of a nonspouse beneficiary 26 years old in the year after the IRA owner died (57.2 years), and 46 years old in the year after the IRA owner died (37.9 years), (8) the net distribution proceeds from the IRA were invested in a taxable account at the end of each year, (9) all monies were left invested for the entire period except for those used to pay the taxes indicated above, and (10) IRA after-tax value at end of period assumed lump sum distribution at that time. Estate, generation-skipping taxes, state and local taxes, if any, and inflation are not taken into account. This hypothetical is not intended to predict or project the investment performance of any security. Your own results will vary. Hypothetical after-tax values of a $200,000 (pretax) inherited IRA stretched for 30 years by a 25-year-old granddaughter and a 45-year-old son $1,046,313 $475,946 $570, year-old granddaughter $996,344 $731,796 $264, year-old son Taxable account Tax-deferred account
23 Early Retirement Premature Withdrawals from an IRA or 401k
24 NUA strategy NUA is a tax-saving strategy that may benefit those with appreciated company stock in an employer-sponsored retirement plan Participant must: Be eligible to take distributions Usually take lump-sum distribution of entire account balance* Take in-kind distribution of company stock directly from the plan* Under the NUA rules: Federal ordinary income tax and any 10% early withdrawal penalty is incurred on the cost basis** of the company stock at the time it is distributed in-kind. Long-term capital gains tax is incurred on the net unrealized appreciation at the time you actually liquidate the stock. Sale of company stock may result in commissions or additional expenses. Talk to your stock plan administrator or custodian to understand the costs of selling stock. *If a lump-sum distribution is not taken, then only the NUA attributable to employer stock purchased with after-tax (non-roth) employee deferrals should be eligible for this special tax treatment. Any assets that are not eligible for NUA treatment, or on which clients do not wish to elect such treatment, can be rolled over to an IRA or to another qualified plan to preserve their tax-deferred status. **Cost basis is generally what you paid for the stock.
25 NUA strategy HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLE Client is 55 and retiring early Client has $100,000 in company stock with a cost basis of $20,000 (all pretax) Uses NUA strategy to pay ordinary federal income tax on cost basis and moves stock into a brokerage account
26 Tax comparison HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLE WITHOUT NUA Cost basis of company stock $20,000 Appreciated value at liquidation $80,000 Market value at liquidation $100,000 Total federal income 25% $25,000 WITH NUA Cost basis of company stock $20,000 x 25% $5,000 Net unrealized appreciation at liquidation $80,000 x 15% $12,000 Total federal taxes $17,000 Tax saving with NUA rules $8,000 Sale of company stock may result in commissions or additional expenses. Talk to your stock plan administrator or custodian to understand the costs of selling stock. This hypothetical example is for illustrative purposes only. It is not indicative of the performance of any specific investment. Assumptions: a flat 25% federal ordinary income tax rate; 15% long-term capital gains tax rate; company stock was distributed in-kind as part of a lump-sum distribution; all noncompany stock assets were rolled over to an IRA to retain tax-deferred status; no further stock appreciation or depreciation and participant not subject to a 10% early withdrawal penalty. State and local taxes are not taken into account.
27 72(t) distributions (SEPP)*: early withdrawals without penalties Internal Revenue Code Section 72(t) (2)(A)(iv) (SEPP) allows penalty-free access to assets in IRAs and employersponsored retirement plans under certain conditions. To take advantage of this option, you must: Take a series of substantially equal periodic payments (at least annually) Continue taking the distributions even if you no longer need them for the longer of five years or until age 59½ Pay all applicable taxes on the distributions in the year they are withdrawn Be separated from service in order to take distributions from a qualified plan *Substantially Equal Periodic Payment (SEPP)
28 72(t) distributions (SEPP) HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLE A 52-year-old owns a 401(k) worth $800,000 (pretax). He has left his employer and needs approximately $38,000 (after taxes) a year in supplementary income until age 60, when he will receive a pension. His 401(k) does not allow 72(t) distributions, so he rolls over his assets to an IRA to take them. Using the annuity method, this early retiree will need to withdraw about $53,816 pretax or $40,362 after tax, assuming a 25% federal tax rate.
29 72(t) distributions (SEPP): case study The Potential Advantage of 72(t) Distributions vs. Premature Distributions $1,000,000 Premature Distributions from an IRA* 72(t) Distributions from an IRA $800,000 $822,403 Penalties Taxes $600,000 $745,736 $43,467 Net Distribution Pretax IRA Value $400,000 $122,122 $107,633 $200,000 $322,899 $322,899 $0 Pretax IRA Value in 8 Years Premature Distributions over 8 Years (10% Penalty) Pretax IRA Value in 8 Years 72(t) Distributions over 8 Years
30 Tax-Efficient Income Distribution
31 Donating IRA Distributions to Charity A taxpayer may exclude from gross income so much of the aggregate amount of his qualified charitable distributions not exceeding $100,000 in a tax year. Must be made directly by the IRA trustee to a charitable organization (no donor-advised fund) IRA owner must have attained age 70 ½ Original law only applied to distributions made in 2006 and 2007; now extended to tax years 2008 and 2009
32 Tax-efficient income distribution Taxation of distributions during income generation phase can impact your rate of drawdown A fully taxable distribution will require that you earn a greater return to avoid significant erosion of principal Utilizing multiple buckets incorporating different tax treatment can enhance overall tax efficiency of distributions. Additional factors relating to taxation of Social Security benefits and top marginal tax bracket need to be considered
33 Tax-efficient income distribution Two investors- Martha and Maria Both take $7500 annually from an account Martha s withdrawal is fully taxable Maria has structured her withdrawal to be only partially taxed Martha Maria Gross withdrawal $ 7,500 $ 7,500 Taxable portion $ 7,500 $ 3,920 Net payment $ 5,400 $ 6,402 Martha would need to withdraw $8,892 to equal Maria s payment
35 72(t) distributions (SEPP): case study The Potential Advantage of 72(t) Distributions vs. Premature Distributions $1,000,000 Premature Distributions from an IRA* 72(t) Distributions from an IRA $800,000 $600,000 $745,736 $43,467 $822,403 Penalties Taxes Net Distribution Pretax IRA Value $400,000 $122,122 $107,633 $200,000 $322,899 $322,899 $0 Pretax IRA Value in 8 Years Premature Distributions over 8 Years (10% Penalty) Pretax IRA Value in 8 Years 72(t) Distributions over 8 Years The hypothetical example compares the effect of a series of substantially equal periodic payments (72(t) distributions) from an IRA, which are not subject to a 10% early distribution penalty, and annual premature distributions from an IRA, which are subject to the 10% penalty. It assumes the following: The IRAs each had a pretax value of $800,000 on 1/1 of the first distribution year. The annual rate of return for each IRA was 7%. All distributions were taken annually starting in the year the investor was 52 years old. The annuity method was used to calculate the 72(t) distributions for the second IRA. Based on IRS Ruling , an annuity factor of was calculated based on an annual interest rate of 5.70% compounded annually (120% of the federal mid-term rate of 4.73% as of 12/06). The annuity method resulted in annual pretax distribution of $53,816, which would be $40,362 after taxes assuming a 25% federal income tax rate. In order to reach the same after-tax amount, assuming the same 25% tax rate, annual premature distributions from the first IRA were $62,096 pretax because of the 10% penalty and additional tax on penalty amount withdrawn.* The distribution schedule for the 72(t) distributions was not modified at any time. No additional contributions were made to either IRA, and no other distributions were taken from them. If the 72(t) distribution schedule was modified after establishment, other than a one-time switch to the required minimum distribution method, each 72(t) distribution would be subject to the 10% penalty on a retroactive basis. This hypothetical illustration is not intended to predict or project performance. Your own results will vary. * In the eighth year, the premature distribution was only $53,816 because the investor was assumed to be 59½ and not subject to the 10% penalty.
36 Converting Traditional to Roth HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLE Potential Tax Savings $800,000 $600,000 $400,000 IRA (after-tax Traditional) Taxable Account (after taxes) Roth Conversion IRA $364,566 $386,968 $74,339 $761,226 $699,110 $128,191 $570,919 $200,000 $190,646 $43,110 $147,536 $196,715 $290,226 $0 10 years 20 years 30 years This hypothetical example compares after-tax amount potentiality of leaving $100,000 (pretax) in a Traditional IRA along with $25,000 (after-tax) in a taxable account versus using the entire taxable account to pay the income taxes on a conversion of the Traditional IRA to a Roth IRA. Assumptions are (1) a 7% annual rate of return, (2) Traditional IRA assets converted to Roth IRA are taxed at a 25% federal ordinary income tax rate, (3) an imputed constant annual federal income tax rate of 20% on taxable account earnings (based on a mix of long-term capital gains, dividends, and interest), (4) lump-sum distribution after age 59½ of Traditional IRA assets at the end of the specified periods less 25% for taxes, and (5) Roth IRA assets all qualify for federal income tax-free distribution. State and local taxes, account fees, and expenses are not taken into account. If they were deducted, performance would be lower. The hypothetical is not intended to predict or project the investment performance of any security. Your own results will vary. Qualified distributions from Roth IRAs are federal income tax free only if the Roth IRA meets the 5-year aging requirement and its owner is at least 59½, deceased, or disabled. Distributions up to $10,000 for a first-time home purchase may also be tax free provided the 5-year aging requirement is met. If the IRA owner is under age 59½ at the time distributions are taken and no exception applies, income taxes and a 10% early withdrawal penalty may apply.
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More than $4 trillion has accumulated in the individual retirement accounts (IRAs) of Americans, even with the downturn in the stock market after 2007. IRAs clearly play an important role in the financial