Study of Entrepreneurship Characteristics among Physical Education Students and Effect of University s Courses on its Development

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1 International Journal of Sport Studies. Vol., 3 (1), 67-73, 2013 Available online at http: ISSN VictorQuest Publications Study of Entrepreneurship Characteristics among Physical Education Students and Effect of University s Courses on its Development Fateme Yavari 1, Dr. Sedighe Heydarinejad 2, Dr. Abdolhamid Habibi 3 1- Master of Sport Management, Physical Education and Sport Science Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran 2- Associate Professor of Sport Management, Physical Education and Sport Science Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran 3- Associate Professor of Sport Physiology, Physical Education and Sport Science Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran Corresponding Author, Abstract The purpose of this research was studying entrepreneurship characteristics among physical education students and effect of university courses on its development. Methodology of this research was descriptive survey, which was done in field study. Statistical population was all male and female bachelor and master students of sport management in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz. Sampling method was genius, and all of statistical population were considered as sample size (N=n=155). Tools of collecting data were researcher s made questionnaires including personal characteristics (8 questions) and specialized courses of bachelor degree of physical education characteristics (12 questions); also standard questionnaire for measuring entrepreneurship characteristic (38 questions). The construct validity of questionnaire was calculated using the exploratory factor analysis (KMO= 0.87) and reliability was calculated via alpha Cronbach (α=0.82), respectively. The descriptive statistics (average and standard deviation) was used to describe the variables of the research, while the inferential statistics ANOVA, follow-up Bonferroni and Pearson Correlation Coefficient was applied to test the hypotheses. Significant level p 0/05 was used. Finding of research showed there was a nificant difference between student s entrepreneurship characteristics. Furthermore, from student s point of view, specialized courses of bachelor of physical education don t have any effect on improvement of entrepreneurship abilities. According to research result, it is suggested that specialized courses should be reconsidered and a proper condition for development entrepreneurship activities in education and training plans should be provided. Keywords: University Courses, Entrepreneurship, Physical education Students Introduction Nowadays economical, industrial, social and cultural condition of countries is so that solving problems and restrictions, especially unemployed problems for university graduated, need new and different way. Today a society and organ can more fast, and in a development way that provide necessary fields, equip human sources to knowledge and generating entrepreneurship (Kordnaeech, 2005). Searches show that entrepreneurs have especial characteristics, knowledge and skills that can teach them through education (Azizi, 2003). McClelland (1961) says entrepreneurs characteristics are 67

2 motivation of development, inter controlling, accepting risk, creativity and indepentism, so training these characteristics can cause development of entrepreneurship ability. In other hand, because of serious changes and revolution in global economy field universities try for existence and effectiveness; in other side according to their role for training specialized people plan for their future roles with suitable and effective field. But it seems through proper planning and reconsider this organ through traditional form can t achieve this goal, so it s necessary to remake this organ with new and useful methods and make an organ that could achieve valuable result with representing its products and service (Badri, 2005). In recent years according to growth of young population unemployment rate in developing countries, especially Iran grow a lot so between graduated and university postgraduates, unemployment has had rising growth (Azizi, 2003). In this condition the most important and basic government s responsibility is establishing occupation and finding job for each individual in society (Badri, 2005). Shaje (2009) studied about physical education student s opinion to entrepreneurship barrier and problems to make their own business after graduation, Also he found percent of students consider disability in accepting financial risk is the most important restraint in entrepreneurship. In other research Heydari and his colleague (2007) compared physical education students preparing entrepreneurship profile with students in other academic discipline, found that accepting risk, improvement motivation, hard working characteristics are more; but creativity and ambiguity characteristics are less than other students. Badri s research (2005) about entrepreneurship ability of students showed ability in independent field, inter controlling, improvement motivation and creativity were more than average, but score of accepting risk were less than average score. Rostami (2007) in other study that was called best teaching and training spirit of entrepreneurship found that university teaching plan doesn t make training field for students. Arasteh (2012) in a search about entrepreneurship characteristics of university students found that except standing ambiguity, other characteristics were more than average. Zhou (2012) in his research about teaching entrepreneurship for students in China found growth of best teaching in china, has been to a critical problem, so it s necessary to plan for teaching entrepreneurship in china. Gerry's research (2008) about student s entrepreneurship abilities in one of the University of Portuguese found that sex, accepting risk, and university's education affects on student's motivation which start self employ. Finding of Teixeira's research (2007) showed most of young people could success entrepreneur, if their abilities would know and will train by studying process. Damigus (2007) in his research indicated teaching entrepreneurship in Greece should be through a part of university education plan. In this regards documents and evidences shows, some searches have done about effect of university courses on improvement of entrepreneurship ability in different discipline, but in humanity topic especially about physical education students didn t a lot of researches about effecting of courses and university's education on developing entrepreneurship abilities. So, present study intends first; identification of entrepreneurship characteristics among physical education students of Shahid Chamran University, then study effect of specialized courses and university's education on development this characteristics. Researcher hopes results of this study help principals of Shahid Chamran University and managers of ministry of science, according to economical, social and cultural changes of society, reconsidering and review headline of university courses, and teaching entrepreneurship related to education course can develop spirit of self-employ between universities education. Materials and Methods Methodology of this research was descriptive survey, which was done in field study. When questionnaires validity and reliability became distinct, questionnaires were distributed between all of students. Statistical population was all male and female bachelor and master students of physical education faculty in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz. Because of limited statistical population, sampling method was genius, and all them were considered as sample size (N =155). Instrument for gathering data was in three parts; A: individual characteristics questionnaire including 8 questions (age, gender, education level, championship background, liking especial major, having job, awareness of job opportunity, plans for after graduation), B: characteristics of specialized courses in bachelor degree of physical education including 20 questions, C: standard questionnaire for measuring entrepreneurship characteristic including 38 questions with four degrees of likert in five subset (being risky, inter controlling center, improvement motivation, standing ambiguity, challenging). Formal validity of questionnaire was confirmed by 12 professors of Physical Education faculty, 68

3 construct validity of questionnaire was calculated using the exploratory factor analysis (KMO= 0.87) and reliability was calculated via alpha Cronbach (α=0.82), respectively. The descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) was used to describe the variables of the research, while the inferential statistics (one way variance analysis, Bunfruni s and Pierson s Correlation) was applied to test the hypotheses. Significant level (p 0/05) was used. Results The results of this study are presented in descriptive and inferential sections. Table (1) shows distribution of student s frequency according to education level and gender. Table 1: Distribution frequency of students according to education level and gender Education level Gender Frequency percent Bachelor Master of Science Male Female Total Male Female Total As table 1 shows in bachelor level female students are maximum (68.6%), but in master level male students are maximum (60.9%). Rate of awareness of job opportunity according to education level has shown in table 2. Table 2: Distribution frequency of students according to awareness of job opportunity Education level Awareness of job opportunity Frequency Percent Yes Bachelor No A little Total Yes Master of science No A little Total As table 2 shows maximum of bachelor student (64%) have a little awareness of job opportunities, meanwhile maximum of master student (46.4%) know about job opportunity. Student s plan about after graduation has shown in table 3. 69

4 Table 3: Distribution frequency of students according to plans after graduation Education level plan after graduation Frequency Percent Bachelor Master of science Employing in public sector Employing in private sector Follow up education Self business Whole Employing in public sector Employing in private sector Follow up education Self business Whole As table 3 shows maximum of bachelor students (41.9%) and maximum of master students (43.5%) intend to employ in public sector. For indentifying characteristics of entrepreneurship among physical education students one way variance analysis was used. Table 4: Result of one way variance analysis about entrepreneurship characteristics among P E students Statistics standard Square roots df Square roots average F P sources Element *0.001 Accepting risk Inter controlling center As table 4 shows according to (P=0.001, F= ) there is difference between student s entrepreneurship characteristics, for finding difference location, Bonfroni s test was used. Improvement motivation Standing ambiguity Table 5: Result of Bonfroni s test about difference location of entrepreneurship characteristics among physical education students Accepting risk Inter controlling center Improvement motivation Standing ambiguity Challenging * * * * * * * *0.001 challenging As table 5 shows there is difference between accepting risk and standing ambiguity with other entrepreneurship characteristics, it means standing ambiguity of physical education students is less than other characteristics, while accepting risk is less than improvement motivation, inter controlling center and challenging. 70

5 Table 6: Result of Pearson s correlation about relationship between specialized courses with student s entrepreneurship Predictive Variables Statistics Index Criterion Variable r P Whole specialized courses Entrepreneurship Theoretical specialized courses Entrepreneurship Practical specialized courses Entrepreneurship As table 6 shows generally there isn t nificant relation between specialized courses with student s entrepreneurship (r=0.112, p= 0.305). Also there isn t nificant relation between theoretical specialized courses (r=0.012, p=0.914), and practical specialized courses (r=0.14, p=0.197) with student s entrepreneurship. 71 Discussion and conclusion One of the clear characteristics of nowadays world economy is fast change. In this economical situation the countries can be successful, if can adapt to these changes. Countries which have more entrepreneurship activities, can achieve better situation in economy of world, because nature of entrepreneurship is adaption with changes (Mirhosseini, 2008). Today education system has especial duties such as people s liberation and freedom from disability, which consider teaching and guiding them to job market. One purpose of establishment of higher education centers is preparing student with personal and specialized skills. University should be a place to train these skills (Badri, 2005). Entrepreneurs have especial characteristics, knowledge and skills that can teach them to other people, training these characteristic can cause development of these abilities, and finally can lead to entrepreneurship (Azizi, 2003). Researchers discoveries showed that there is a meaningful difference between the five characteristics of students in physical education college this discovery agrees with Araste s (2012) search that found students personal characteristics except standing ambiguity are higher than average and result of purkianie s research (2008) that showed entrepreneurship characteristics are higher than average in a way that most measure entrepreneurship spirit is related to improvement motivation standard and less measure was related to accepting risk. So disagrees with result of Ebrahimzadeh s search and his colleagues (2007) that believes there isn t meaningful difference between average mark and the five entrepreneurship characteristics (needing independence, tendency to creativity, needing achievement, accepting risk condition and will and volition condition). Probable reason can be related to subjects of research that were computer students. It seems one of the reason of higher value of being inter controlling center characteristics in physical education students is related to nature of courses in physical education discipline. It means, among physical education students who are successful which have high perseverance for doing exercise and try more to do theoretical and practical courses, and rely on themselves instead other. In other hand, they believe that being successful at studying and job depends on their attempt no chance. Maybe one of the reason of less of standing ambiguity is that human is impatient and wants to know all the facts before every decision or work and doesn t like accepting ambiguity and ignorance. Also having no spirit of entrepreneurship can be related to being less of these characteristics. Result of search showed that in student s opinion there isn t meaningful relation between specialized lessons of physical education course and spirit of student s entrepreneurship. This discovery agrees with zhou s (2012) search that showed chiness students entrepreneurship training plans are on first levels and is further back of global entrepreneurship standard average in entrepreneurship teaching field and result of Rostami s (2007) search that believes university plans haven t provided entrepreneurship training field and result of Ahmadi s (2006) search showed lessons of bachelor course couldn t train knowledge and necessary skills and Badrie s (2005) discovery that showed university teachings weren t effective about training entrepreneurship characteristics and Azizi (2003)

6 that points entrepreneurship training field isn t provided and education and training plans don t have effect on student s entrepreneurship. So disagree with result of Gerry s (2008) research that believes university teaching affect student s motivation and favorites to start self employing. Generally today teaching and popularization of entrepreneurship is one of the most important plans of universities, these universities try to engage in trade knowledge guide students to use their knowledge to achieve salary also develop financial university sources. So in this situation it s necessary that mission, goals, plans and university activity have entrepreneurship attitude. A bout reason of not successful universities training to train entrepreneurship characteristics and training entrepreneur people can point to cases below: When take a look at country university function we realize that universities afford their teaching mission and don t pay attention to society problems very much and consider their plans according to society requirement because as we see ministry of science without paying attention to need of job market attract a lot of students even some times they are more than predicted plenty. Also education plans in university best teaching system isn t write to train student entrepreneurship characteristics. In our universities and higher education institutes there is no any platform for promotion of entrepreneurship ideas. Finally, according to finding of this research and background theory, it can be said potentially there is entrepreneurship characteristics in physical education students, but it s necessary to train entrepreneurship spirit and their abilities. In this regard these students need to learn entrepreneurial knowledge and expand these skills. So they can be guardian to promote sport in country, and cause development of their society and economical development. References Ahmadi M, "Needs assessment of entrepreneurship training for bachelor students of Tehran electronic engineering students", Master thesis of education science and psychology faculty, Tehran university. Araste H, Enayati T, "Entrepreneurial personality characteristics of University students: A case study". Social and Behavioral Sciences Journal (46), pp: Azizi B, "Study of effective factors for development spirit and skills of entrepreneurship among senior students in Tehran agriculture faculty". Agriculture journal, No (2), pp: Azizi B, "Study of effective factors on expanding spirit and skills of entrepreneurship among students of agriculture faculty in Tehran University". Journal of Iran agriculture science. No (2), pp: Azizi M, "Comparative study of outbreak field and training entrepreneurship in students of Shahid Beheshti University". Master thesis of psychology faculty, Shahid Beheshti University. Badri E, "Study of entrepreneurship abilities in students of Esfahan University". Master of thesis of education and psychology faculty in Esfahan University. Damigos L, "Entrepreneurship education in Greece: Experience and challenges for a Technical University". Paper prepared for the DIME-LIEE/NTUA Athens Conference. Ebrahimzade F, "Study of condition of entrepreneurship characteristics among computer students of Islamic Azad University for development entrepreneurship". National conference of Higher education and entrepreneurship, Semnan University. Gerry CH, "Tracking student entrepreneurial potential: personal attributes and the propensity for business start-ups after graduation in a Portuguese, University". Problem and Perspectives in Management, Vol (6), Issue 4. Heydari M, Gholamian J, "Comparing profile of physical education student s entrepreneurship with other students of Ferdosi Mashhad University". Master thesis of physical education faculty in Ferdosi Mashhad University. Kordnaeech A, "Planning organization structure of centers and entrepreneurship institute in country", Modares quarterly human science, Vol 9, No. 2. Lee S.M, "Influences on students attitudes toward Entrepreneurship: A multi-country study". International Entrepreneurship and management journal, (2), pp: McClelland D, "The Achieving Society", Princeton publication. Mirhosseini F, "Comparative study of effective factors on rate of preparation entrepreneurship between physical education students and other human science students in Shahid Chamran University". Master thesis of physical education and sport science faculty of Shahid Chamran University 0f Ahwaz, Iran. Purkiani M, Abdoli B, "Study of relation between organizational climate of physical education department and entrepreneurship spirit in physical education boy students". Quarterly Journal of Sport Management, No (23), pp:

7 Rostami F, "Higher education and training spirit of entrepreneurship among student of Mazandaran University". National conference of Higher education and entrepreneurship, Semnan University. Shajee R, "Study of physical education student s opinion to entrepreneurship barrier and problems to start a business after graduating". Quarterly Journal of Sport Management. No (2), pp: Teixeira A, "Beyond economics and engineering: the hidden entrepreneurial potential". Mimeo, Faculdade de Economia, Universidad do Porto. Zhou M, "A Review of Entrepreneurship Education for College Students in China". National Center for Education development Research, Ministry of Education, No. (37). 73

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