1 Jewish and Islamic Ethical Perspectives on Human Stem Cell Research Bernard Epel, PhD, Professor Emeritus Tel Aviv University Abstract: Stem cell research promises to provide invaluable tools in basic research for studying differentiation and oncogenesis. From the medical viewpoint, stem cells provide new tools for drug discovery. They also hold out the hope of cell-based therapies for regenerative or reparative medicine, providing medical solutions to diseases such as leukemia, Type 1 diabetes, and Parkinson s, and the repair of spinal cord injury, damaged heart muscle tissue and more. In countries having a strong Christian background, such as the US, some express ethical concerns about using human embryonic stem cells. The main concern is that embryos must be destroyed. For many in these countries, an embryo, from the moment of fertilization, is considered a human being whose life must be protected. Jewish and Islamic cultures have different basic ethical values concerning the status of an embryo and strongly support on ethical grounds the use and development research and utilization technologies and basic research with embryonic stem cells. This difference in ethical values will be discussed. Discussion: The presentation began with a short background on human stem cell research, including the four types of stem cells: human embryonic stem cells (hesc), cloned embryonic stem cells (cesc), adult somatic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells (ipsc). Analysis of the pros and cons of each type of stem cell for medical research followed. Discussion covered the ethics of embryo destruction, the risks of induced pluripotent stem cells for human medical treatments and the possible exploitation of women oocyte donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (research cloning). Professor Epel emphasized that although science takes place in a secular society, it is still very much influenced by religion, specifically in the United States. A brief overview of different religious views and their ethical conceptions of when life begins were given. It was pointed out that historically, religious views evolve as a product of higher societal understanding while philosophically, living is associated with the concept of personhood, which includes views of the self and individual rights. In general, the Christian view holds that life starts at conception. An example of how this view influences US law and research regulation is the Dickey Wicker Amendment, which restricts research that harms or destroys embryos ( In Europe, some areas allow for hesc and others restrict it.
2 The Judaic view of hescs has three main premises. Simply put, the first is that embryos do not have the same status as human beings. The second is that motherhood is a mitzvah or a basic right and any medical means to achieve this is a medical imperative. The third premise says that saving life is the number one mitzvah that supersedes all other moral imperatives. The Islamic view holds that full human life only begins after a process of ensoulment. In this context, the major Islamic duty involves the prevention of human suffering and illness. The Islamic view allows for hesc but involves a higher focus on family-tie based restrictions. Epel concluded the talk by arguing for open research efforts using stem cells, including embryonic stem cells. He argued that those whose religious (or other) beliefs oppose stem cell research in whole or in part, need not avail themselves of treatments that arise as a result of this research. Discussion Questions: 1. How do we separate the notion of personhood from religion views of when life begins? 2. To what extent is it permissible to push stem cell research forward? Are there limitations to how far we should go? Example: The scientist who created the cloned sheep, Dolly, reported that he now regrets doing so. 3. When is it permissible to discard an embryo? Is there a moral difference between killing an embryo in the womb and killing a blastocyst in a petri dish? And if so, what is that moral difference? 4. How do we weigh the value of early human life (blastocysts, embryos) against the value of alleviating (or preventing) human disease and the suffering it brings? Or the value of possible treatments in the future? 5. The separation of ethics from biology and medicine under the Christian view: What implication does this have for research on hescs in the US? 6. The Judaic argument for permissibility of hesc research has little foundation in science or biology, is this good or bad? 7. How can hesc research and benefits be acceptably communicated to members of the public who oppose such research on religious grounds 8. What if any, are the biological and/or ethical advantages of working with non-embryonic forms of stem cells? 9. Issues: Justice, Fairness, Issues of Access, Conceptions of the Self, Technology and Science
3 Jewish and Islamic perspectives on human stem cell research Bernard L. Epel Professor Emeritus Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants Tel Aviv University Israel
4 Basics: What are stem cells? undifferentiated cells which can continue to divide maintain their pluripotent or multipotent characteristics and Under proper conditions can be induced to differentiate into multiple cell types, tissues, organs Totipotent- able to develop into a complete organism Pluripotent- able to differentiate into all tissue and cell types Multipotent are capable to differential into a limited number of cell types and tissues
5 SC Importance Valuable tool for studying differentiation, oncogenesis, drug discovery Can be used (hypothetically) in cell-based therapies for regenerative or reparative medicine. Leukemia type 1 diabetes Parkinson Spinal cord repair Restoring damaged heart muscle tissue
6 There are different classes of stem cells Embryonic stem cells (ESC) Adult (somatic) stem cells (ASC) Cloned embryonic stem cells Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Therapeutic cloning induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (ipsc )
7 Advantages and disadvantages of alternate sources of stem cell Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hesc) Advantages: Pluripotent Genetically unmodified Easily to obtain Easy to culture (reproduce) Disadvantages: Tissues produced may be immunologically incompatible with recipient Embryos must be destroyed (ethical issue for some).
8 Advantages and disadvantages of alternate sources of stem cell Adult (somatic) stem cells Advantages Isolated from adult tissue ( no need to destroy embyos). If isolated from patient, no problem of histo-incompatibility. Disadvantages Very rare, difficult to isolate and replicate Each type can only differentiate into a limited number of tissues Not clear if practical to isolate in reasonable time frame to aid a sick individual. Develop off the shelf cell lines
9 Advantages and disadvantages of alternate sources of stem cell Cloned embryonic stem cells by Somatic cell nuclear transfer Advantages Generate embryo from patient somatic cell; no problem of histo-incompatibility No need to destroy natural embryo (?) Disadvantages Embryo could be used to clone individual Somatic nucleus may have mutations Eggs would have to be provided; exploitation of women as egg source. Not yet proven safe
10 Advantages and disadvantages of alternate sources of stem cell induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (ipsc ) Advantages Generate pluripotent cell line from patient s somatic cell; no problem of histo-incompatibility. No need to destroy natural embryo (?) Disadvantages Not clear cell has undergone complete dedifferentiation Not yet proven safe
11 Human embryonic stem cells are the Biological Gold Standard Advantages Pluripotent, Fully embyonic, Easily cultured Off the shelf Disadvantages Problems of not self== rejection They are derived from human embryos
12 But by employing a human embryo we destroy the embryo (the potential baby!/?) Claimed by some: Morally wrong the embryo from conception is a human being entitled to rights and protection. Life Do no harm
13 Religion in a secular society should not be the determining factor in ethical questions of technology But is often does! Effect of religion on the ethical discussion Religious viewpoints politically powerful
14 Religious Ethical Views Christian Catholic and Orthodox views Protestants Buddhism and Hinduism Jewish Islam
15 Catholic/Greek Orthodox Life starts at conception Life is a continuum The embryo from the moment of conception is a living human We may not take the life of a human We must protect the weak Do no harm
16 If one accept this as axiomatic: Life starts at conception In vitro fertilization is unacceptable Destroying or discarding an embryo is unacceptable Abortion is unacceptable Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches have condemned hesc research as immoral and illegal
17 Protestants: varied opinions no explicit policy (multi denominational) American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A. one must be guided by one s own relationship with God and Scripture. National Council of Churches as a result of a lack of clear consensus, neither endorses nor condemns experimentation on human embryos. Many churches have not yet made decision for or against Opposed Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod National Association of Evangelicals Southern Baptist Convention Assemblies of God The Reformed Church in America: Favorable Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations United Church of Christ United Methodist Church Episcopal Church
18 Much of Christian world affected by belief: Life starts at conception Many countries have regulations/ laws against hsc research/use USA-research on hesc no longer outlawed by federal granting agencies BUT. More research efforts now put into research with adult SC ipsc Prudent? Right / Wrong??
19 Many states have laws against hsc research USA law Dickey-Wicker Amendment still causing problems Dickey-Wicker Amendment in 1995 prohibited any federal funding for the Department of Health and Human Services be used for research that resulted in the destruction of an embryo regardless of the source of that embryo.
20 European countries Allow hesc research* UK Spain Switzerland Sweden Greece Finland Czech Republic Bulgaria Portugal Restrict hesc reseach Germany Austria Italy Lithuania France (2013) France (until 2013) *Permit only use of surplus embryos from IVF treatment Subject to permission of donor *Creation of embryos expressively for research forbidden *Reproductive cloning forbidden
21 Hinduism and Buddhism Buddhism and Hinduism (no official stance) For : in accordance with the basic tenet of seeking knowledge and ending human suffering Against: it is a violation of the notion of not harming others. Life starts at conception But some groups life only starts only later then 3 months In Japan, South Korea and India, China Singapore active research in hesc
22 Judaism (all denominations) Basic premise 1: the embryo does not have the same moral status as human beings. Gametes and embryos outside the human body do not have any moral or legal status. Fetus is insignificant ( like water) until 40 days after implantation From 40 days until just before birth, it is a potential being and has great value The fetus does not have full value until the head emerges. Basic premise 2: motherhood is a basic right and any medical means to achieve this is a moral imperative, a Mitzva. In vitro fertilization is morally condoned to support this Mitzva (duty). Israel provides free, unlimited IVF procedures for up to two take-home babies until a woman is 45. Embryos created by IVF are property of parents if not used for implantation, it has no moral or legal status. Can be used for med-research if parents give permission.
23 In vitro fertilization is commendable where needed Even single religious women use in vitro fertilization, their efforts sanctioned by rabbis. In Israel all citizens (Arab, Jew, etc) have the same right to state-paid unlimited fertility treatments (up to 2 children and until 45 years of age). In Israel IVF available for all women regardless of their marital status or sexual orientation. 1,657 in vitro fertilization procedures per million people per year were performed in Israel, 899 in Iceland, the country with the second highest rate 126 in the United States
24 hesc research is commendable Basic Premise 3. It is an imperative (Duty/Mitzva) to save life. Saving life supersedes all other duties It is our duty to preserve our lives and health. It is out duty to help others and alleviate suffering. Great value is placed in medical research for alleviating pain and suffering (פיקוח נפש דוחה שבת ( imperatives Saving a life supersedes all other These views leads to strong support by Jews of all forms of stem cell research. Caveat: making a embryo for the sole purpose of research is forbidden. Only surplus embryos from reproductive IVF may be used.
25 Islam Basic premise :Full human life begins only after the ensoulment of the fetus. Generally believed to be 120 days after conception (or according to others, 40 days). Major Moral imperative: Prevent human suffering and illness.
26 Islam stance on IVF in vitro fertilization allowed: must be done with sperm and egg from a husband and wife only. the embryos must be transplanted only into the wife's uterus. surrogate motherhood forbidden Assisted reproductive technologies which blur marital and parental ties are forbidden: donor eggs or sperm from outside the marriage relationship forbidden, in-vitro fertilization after a spouse's death or divorce of the married couple is forbidden.
27 Most Islamic countries allow surplus IVF embryos to be used for stem cell research No central authority: differences in opinion For : Iran, Turkey, Singapore, Islam Law Council USA, Saudi Arabia Against: Egypt (?) Not clear: Qatar
28 USA research strongly influenced by claim embryos must be protected Try and avoid conflict and encourage alternative technologies. ipsc Adult SC The use of Somatic cell nuclear transfer has major ethical problems o Women will be exploited to obtain eggs o Human cloning becomes possible
29 Analysis of Ethical Dilemma Pluralism must be allowed Basic tenets demand different actions All technologies should be pursued except SCNT hesc technology has the least problems and should be strongly pursued It is and will be pursued abroad
30 PewResearch Religion and Public Life Project 2013 Regardless of their views about the legality of abortion, most Americans think that having an abortion is a moral issue. By contrast, the public is much less likely to see other issues involving human embryos such as stem cell research or in vitro fertilization as a matter of morality.
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