Prof. Luiz Fernando Bittencourt MO809L. Tópicos em Sistemas Distribuídos 1 semestre, 2015

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1 MO809L Tópicos em Sistemas Distribuídos 1 semestre, 2015

2 Introduction to Cloud Computing

3 IT Challenges 70% of the budget to keep IT running, 30% available to create new value that needs to be inverted Weeks of planning, justification, and deployment and then we re stuck with it for 5 years even if our needs change in a month or we could just buy it as a service right now Most of our legacy applications are stable and predictable we need to incrementally improve efficiency without disruption but, new, more dynamic and fluid approaches to IT must also be leveraged for new applications and changing legacy applications new, revolutionary IT model is required

4 What is Cloud Computing? Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. [NIST 2009]

5 What is Cloud Computing? Clouds are a large pool of easily usable and accessible virtualized resources. These resources can be dynamically reconfigured to adjust to a variable load, allowing also for an optimum resource utilization. This pool of resources is typically exploited by a pay-peruse model in which guarantees are offered by the Infrastructure Provider by means of customized SLA. [Vaquero et al. 2009]

6 Cloud Services Salesforce.com, EMC Mozy, Atmos, Google App Engine, Amazon EC2 Trial on wide variety of pla1orm/ infrastructure I want secured backup of my files, so that I can retrieve data from anywhere, any:me My organiza:on needs to grow, but cannot spend much to buy new servers, storage My organiza:on wants to test a so>ware in different before inves:ng on it I need a word processing applica:on for a brief period to prepare my documents

7 Cloud Players

8 8 Cloud Computing Cloud computing market: $241 billion in 2020 Main focus is on Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) Source: Larry Dignan, Cloud computing market, ZDNet, 2011.

9 Related Technologies Technology Charactetistic Grid Computing Utility Computing Virtualization Form of distributed computing which applies the resources of numerous computers in a network to work on a single complex task at the same time Service provisioning model that offers computing resources as a metered service Provides improved utilization of resources Enables optimization of resources by over subscription Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) An architectural approach in whicha applications make use of services available in the network Each service provides a specific function, for example, business function (Payroll Tax calculation)

10 10 Grids and Clouds GRID Uniform distribution of resources Scientific focus Batch programming (Grid Security Infrastructure) Clouds Resources allocated on demand Commercial focus Service based Not specific security model

11 11 Virtualization App App App App App App OS OS OS Operating System Hypervisor Hardware Hardware Traditional Stack Virtualized Stack

12 SOA

13 Envision of Computing as Utility Compu:ng may someday be organized as a public u:lity, just as the electricity is organized as a public u:lity John McCarthy, speech at MIT in 1961 A of now, computer networks are still in their infancy, but as they grow up and become sophisticated, we will probably see the spread of computer utilities Leonard Kleinrock Father of the, Internet

14 Characteristics of Cloud Computing Resources provided as services Pay-per-use business model Elasticity Service guarantees Ubiquitous access to resources

15 Resources provided as services User can request, configure and access cloud resources using cloud-specific APIs Enables consumers to get computing resources as and when required, without any human intervention Facilitates consumer to leverage ready to use services or, enables to choose required services from the service catalog

16 16 Resources provided as services Private computational resources Resources provided by the Cloud

17 Pay-per-use business model Consumers only pay for resources actually used Resource usage is monitored and reported, which provides transparency for chargeback to both Cloud service provider and consumer about the utilized service Pricing/billing model is tied up with the required service levels

18 Pay-per-use business model

19 Elasticity Consumers can acquire or release resources on demand Ability to scale IT resources rapidly, as required, to fulfill the changing needs without interruption of service Resources can be both scaled up and scaled down dynamically To the consumer, the Cloud appears to be infinite Consumers can start with minimal computing power and can expand their environment to any size

20 20 Elasticity Pay by use instead of provisioning for peak Recall: DC costs >$150M and takes 24+ months to design and build

21 21 Elasticity Risk of over-provisioning: underutilization Huge sunk cost in infrastructure Capacity Unused resources Resources Demand Time Static data center

22 22 Elasticity Heavy penalty for under-provisioning Lost revenue Lost users

23 Service guarantees Cloud providers can offer guarantees on the use of certain services (e.g., 99.9% availability) in the form of service-level agreements (SLAs)

24 Ubiquitous access to resources Consumers can access resources using standard web protocols (REST or SOAP) from a variety of clients (web browsers, PDAs, cell phones) Eliminates the need for accessing a particular client platform to access the services Enables accessing the services from anywhere across the globe

25 25 Cloud Computing Benefit Data ownership Elastic performance Security & Privacy Elastic pricing Legal competence Reduced costs Backup services Location independence Quality of Service Flexibility and speed to market

26 Advantages Cloud Computing Reduced IT Cost Business agility support Flexible scaling High availability Less energy consumption Prevents the up-front capital expenditure ability to add new resources quickly Scales easily and instantly and on demand Ensures application availability at varying levels reduced power consumption

27 As a Service SaaS Software as a Service PaaS Platform as a Service Infrastructure as a Service Infrastructure as a Service

28 Clod Service Models Cloud Service can be classified into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)

29 Infrastructure-as-a-Service Provides capability to the consumer to hire infrastructure components such as servers, storage, and network Enables consumers to deploy and run software, including OS and applications. Clients have control of virtual resources Virtualization Ex.: AWS, VirtualBox, VMWare, OpenStack ApplicaBon Databases OS Compute Storage Network

30 Platform-as-a-Service Capability provided to the consumer to deploy consumercreated or acquired applications on the Cloud provider s infrastructure Consumer has control over Deployed applications Possible application hosting environment configurations Consumer is billed for platform software components Clients use language and proprietary tolls Ex.: Google App Engine (GAE), Azure, Facebook platform ApplicaBon Databases OS Compute Storage Network

31 Software-as-a-Service Capability provided to the consumer to use provider s applications running in a Cloud infrastructure Complete stack including application is provided as a service Application is accessible from various client devices, for example, via a thin client interface such as a Web browser Billing is based on the application usage No control over the cloud Ex.: Dropbox, Google Calendar, Yahoo Mail, Gmail, Salesforce.com, Sugar CRM,... ApplicaBon Databases OS Compute Storage Network

32 32 Cloud Service Layers in the Service Levels

33 Type of Clouds Private clouds Public clouds Hybrid clouds Community clouds

34 Private Clouds

35 Public Clouds

36 Hybrid Clouds

37 Hybrid Clouds

38 Community Clouds

39 Agents Client Client Client Client Client Developer Developer

40 Cloud Economics Capacity and cost estimation: ü When is it worth migrating to the cloud? ü How to estimate the necessary capacity to deploy, manage and reconfigure the application according to user demand? ü How to estimate the costs associated with different application configurations? ü Wouldn t it be cheaper to rent machines from a data center or even to buy new machines?

41 Cloud Economics Private Cloud Amazon EC2 Cloud Server Hardware Network Hardware Hardware Maintenance Operating System Instance Fees and Usage Data Transfer Power and Cooling Data Center Construction Administration Data Transfer

42 Cloud Economics Costs for a 44 1U compute blade rack with high usage (90%) and low electricity cost ($0.07 per kilowatt/h) Costs for a 44 1U compute blade rack with high usage (90%) and high electricity cost ($0.4 per kilowatt/h) Red: cloud computing Green: local data center local / no hardware update Blue: local data center / hardware update

43 43 A Summarizing Picture Fonte: The Future of Cloud Computing. Technical report. Information, Society and Media European Commission

44 What is preventing the adoption of cloud computing?

45 Acknowledgement Some material from slides provided by: Nelson Fonseca, Edmundo Madeira IC/UNICAMP Dzmitry Kliazovich, Djamel Sadok, Nabor Mendonça, EMC2, Frederico Lopes, Thais Batista, Thomas Erl, Christian Rothenberg

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