THE LAWYER S ENGLISH LANGUAGE COURSEBOOK

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1 THE LAWYER S ENGLISH LANGUAGE COURSEBOOK Ctrin Mson G L O B A L L E G A L E N G L I S H L T D

2 CONTENTS Pulis in Enln y Glol Ll Enlis Lt. T Pin Tr Cntr Durm Ro Birtly County Durm DH3 2TD Enln Emil: ISBN: Ctrin Mson Ctrin Mson is intii s t utor o tis work in orn wit t Copyrit, Dsins n Ptnts At 1988 All rits rsrv. No prt o tis pulition my rprou, stor in rtrivl systm, or trnsmitt in ny orm or y ny mns, ltroni or mnil, inluin potoopyin, rorin or otrwis, witout itr t prior writtn prmission o t pulisr or lin prmittin rstrit opyin in t Unit Kinom issu y t Copyrit Linsin Any Lt, o 90 Tottnm Court Ro, Lonon, W1T 4LP Britis Lirry Ctlouin-in-Pulition Dt A tlou ror or tis ook is vill rom t Britis Lirry Print in Enln 1A T Ll Prossion 9 Workin in lw 9 Mkin lim in t ivil ourt 10 Ars o lw 13 Voulry k 19 Tols Fountion xm prti 20 1B T Ll Prossion 23 T importn o ollotions 23 T importn o prpositions 24 Soliitors n rristrs 25 Ars o lw 29 T ristr o lttr writin 31 Usin your knowl 34 TOLES Hir xm prti 36 2A T Lnu o Bnkin 41 A nw nk ount 41 Workin in nk 46 Lons 48 Voulry k 51 TOLES Fountion xm prti 52 2B T Lnu o Bnkin 55 A nk ount 55 An mil rom t nk 58 T lnu o ontrt 60 T ristr o lttr writin 63 Usin your knowl 65 TOLES Hir xm prti 67 3A T Lnu o Contrt Lw 73 A ontrt s 73 Mor out prnt 75 T lmnts o ontrt 78 T n o n or 80 Wt is onsirtion? 81 Contrt n sttut 82 Rin ontrt lw 85 Goin to ourt 87 Voulry k 89 TOLES Fountion xm prti 90 3B T Lnu o Contrt Lw 93 Wr os ontrt lw om rom? 93 Rin sttut 96 T lmnts o ontrt 99 Rin ontrt s 100 Or n ptn 102 Consirtion 104 Contrt lw in prti 107 Strtin lim or r o ontrt 110 Usin your knowl 112 TOLES Hir xm prti 114 4A T Lnu o Employmnt Lw 119 Bin n mployr 119 An mploymnt ontrt 122 How n n mploymnt ontrt n? 126 Atin or n mploy 128 Atin or n mployr 130 An mploymnt s 132 Voulry k 133 TOLES Fountion xm prti 134 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis

3 4B T Lnu o Employmnt Lw 137 6B Unrstnin Contrts (1) Morn Lttr Writin A Unrstnin Contrts (2) 371 Finin jo 137 T irnt prts o writtn ontrt 215 T lyout o lttr 293 Som mor typil ontrt luss 371 Workin in mploymnt lw 140 Prtis n ritls 216 Dts 294 Som importnt ommril voulry 373 Som luss rom n mploymnt ontrt 144 An mploymnt triunl 147 An mploymnt lim 151 Usin your knowl 155 TOLES Hir xm prti 157 5A T Lnu o t Lw o Tort 161 Wt is t lw o tort? 161 Typs o tort 163 T uty o r 165 Mor out nlin 167 A mous s in Enlis lw 168 Voulry k 170 TOLES Fountion xm prti 171 5B T Lnu o t Lw o Tort 175 An introution to t lw o tort 175 Wt is tortious liility? 177 Som toris o tort 180 T tort o nlin 182 T most mous tort s 184 Usin your knowl 186 TOLES Hir xm prti 188 Din trms 219 T ky olitions 223 Dlivry o oos n srvis 230 Usin your knowl 235 TOLES Hir xm prti 237 7A T Lnu o Businss Lw 239 Sol trrs 239 Prtnrsips 242 A prtnrsip rmnt 246 Limit liility prtnrsips 248 Compnis 249 Puli n privt limit ompnis 253 Inorportin ompny 256 Voulry k 259 TOLES Fountion xm prti 260 7B T Lnu o Businss Lw 263 Inorport n uninorport usinsss 263 Sol trrs 265 Prtnrsips 266 T lnu o rtin 268 T ristr o lttr writin 272 Compnis 274 Sluttions 296 Complimntry los 298 Rrns 299 Sujt lins 300 T oy o lttr 302 Puttin lttr totr 303 T ristr o lttr writin 304 T ontnt o t lttr 308 Typil sntns in ll lttrs 309 Lttr writin lini 311 Corrtin ommon mistks in lttr writin 315 TOLES Hir xm prti 323 9A T Lnu o Compny Lw 327 Wo runs ompny? 327 Ars o ompny lw 329 Dirtors 331 Compny mtins 333 Compny inn s stuy 337 Closin ompny 339 Insolvnt ompnis 342 Voulry k 344 TOLES Fountion Exm Prti 345 Trmintion luss 375 Intlltul proprty luss 377 Rtntion o titl luss 379 Wrrnty, inmnity n or mjur luss 380 Mor out or mjur luss 382 Voulry k 385 TOLES Fountion xm prti B Unrstnin Contrts (2) 389 Risk n titl 389 Intlltul proprty n onintil inormtion 394 Wrrntis n inmnitis 399 Trm n trmintion 404 For mjur 408 Usin your knowl 410 TOLES Hir xm prti 412 Answr Ky 415 Answrs 415 Auio trnsripts 443 6A Unrstnin Contrts (1) 193 T styl o writtn ontrts 193 Unrstnin orml xprssions 195 Unrstnin tnil wors 199 Unrstnin ri trms 201 Unrstnin som ommon wors 204 T strutur o ontrt 207 Voulry k 210 TOLES Fountion xm prti 212 Inorportin ompny 276 Pprwork 278 Srs n sr pitl 282 Limit liility prtnrsips 283 T lnu o rtin 284 Usin your knowl 286 TOLES Hir xm prti 288 9B T Lnu o Compny Lw 349 Popl onnt wit ompny 349 Workin in ompny lw 350 Dirtors 352 Compny mtins 356 Insolvny 359 Wo ts t ssts? Usin your knowl 364 TOLES Hir xm prti 366 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis

4 PREFACE W know tt s ll prossionl toy, you n up-to-t n urt ll Enlis in orr to mt t llns o work. Tis is us: l you v to l wit Enlis-spkin lints n lwyrs mor tn ny prvious nrtion o lwyrs Aknowlmnts T pulisrs n utors woul lik to tnk t Employmnt Triunls Srvi or prmission to rprou t Clims Pross Summry. Pulisr s not T ollowin orms r Crown opyrit: Form 10: First irtors n srtry n intn sitution o ristr oi N1 Clim orm (CPR Prt7) Contrts (Rits o Tir Prtis) At 1999 T Unir Contrt Trms At 1977 Blour v Blour (1919) Court o Appl All ims Gtty Ims Covr im Mrtin Brru/ /Gtty Ims Intrior ims Ptr Srrr/AB23988/Gtty Ims Potois/E000159/Gtty Ims Simon Bttnsy/ /Gtty Ims Suznn & Nik Gry/BC /Gtty Ims Jon Foxx/ /Gtty Ims Jon Foxx/ /Gtty Ims Antonio M Rosrio/ /Gtty Ims Rort Clr/ /Gtty Ims Lmrt/Ariv Potos/JK /Gtty Ims /Gtty Ims Wil vry r s n tkn to stlis n knowl opyrit n to ontt t opyrit ownrs, t pulisr tnrs its polois or ny intl inrinmnt. Tis ook is n Enlis lnu tin n stuyin rsour. It is not intn to us s sour o ll inormtion or vi. l you r otn xpt to intrprt or mn lon ommril ontrts rt in Enlis l you riv lttrs n mils writtn in Enlis on ily sis Ll Enlis is irnt lnu rom nrl Enlis. Just s lwyrs in your own ountry writ in irnt lnu rom otr popl, so o Enlis-spkin lwyrs. Sntns r otn strutur irntly in ll Enlis. T wors lwyrs us r otn nturis ol n no lonr ommonly us in nrl Enlis. Nw prpositions n to lrn. Wn you r ommril ontrt or r lttr tr is nw, tnil voulry to unrstn on vry p. T Lwyr s Enlis Lnu Coursook ws writtn or ll prossionls su s you, wit your ns t t rt o t ook, n it ivs you t mtril you n to stuy in n iint n tiv wy. It is s upon our mny yrs xprin o tin n workin wit lwyrs, lw stunts n ll trnsltors rom roun t worl. W r onvin tt tis ook is t st stuy mtril vill to you i you wnt to prossionl n urt in ll you o in Enlis t work. Tis oursook is intn to omplt ours o prprtion or t TOLES Fountion n Hir xms in ll Enlis. W rommn tt nyon plnnin to tk t TOLES Avn xm soul us tis ook too, s t mtril in it is unmntl to ny lwyrs Enlis lnu skills. Evn i you o not intn to tk ll Enlis xm, you n us tis ook s omplt ours o sl-stuy or ll Enlis n it is rommn to nyon wo ns to us ll Enlis t work. E o t tn units is ivi into stion A (Fountion) n stion B (Hir). W rommn tt vryon soul omplt stion A o unit, to sur rom t strt tt you r milir wit t ll voulry it ontins n r urt in wt you r oin. Wn you r onint tt you know t mtril ontin in stion A o unit, you n pro to uil on your skills y ompltin t mor omplx xriss in stion B. E unit lso ontins som prti xriss or t TOLES xms. You will s tt t ook ontins oxs, lrly mrk wit symol m. Ts oxs or nks o inormtion ontin lnu tt you will n to mmoris. Pls o not tmpt to inor ts oxs. W ssur you tt i you mmoris tis inormtion you will s sptulr improvmnt in your ll Enlis. W liv tt no prtiulr ook or omputr prormm n vr sustitut or ol-sion r work. W op tt you njoy usin tis ook n w r onint tt it will qulity n ury to your ll Enlis skills. Ctrin Mson Cmri 2011 Pls not tt T Compnis At, 2006 siniintly n t lw n t oumnttion rltin to ompnis. Howvr, workin ll prossionls n to milir wit t lnu o t ol oumnttion s wll s t nw. For tis rson, tis ook ontins xmpls o ot. Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 7

5 THE LEGAL PROFESSION WORKING IN LAW Exris 1 Look t tis list o ll ouptions. All o ts popl work in lw. W ll ll o t popl wo work in ts jos t ll prossion. Mt t jos wit on o t sriptions. Unit 1A / Fountion Soliitor Attorny Brristr Lwyr Tis prson is lwyr wo ivs ll vi n opinions to soliitors. H or s pss t xms o T Br Counil t t n o is or r stuis. Tis prson is lwyr wo ivs ll vi to iniviuls n ompnis. H or s pss is or r xms in t USA t t n o is or r stuis n is usully mmr o t Amrin Br Assoition. Tis prson is lwyr wo ivs ll vi to iniviuls n ompnis. H or s pss t xms o T Lw Soity o Enln & Wls t t n o is or r stuis. Tis is t nrl jo titl tt w us or popl wo work s soliitor, rristr or ttorny. T Ll Prossion Unit 1A/ Fountion Exris 2 R tis txt out workin in lw. T most importnt wors r in t ky voulry low. Di i t sttmnts on t nxt p r tru or ls. Ky voulry l lwyr l prtis l rristrs l lw irm l ttorny l ju l trinin ontrt l tin or l qulii l ll prti l prtnrsip l rprsnt l litition l voy l plin s l spilis l rit o uin l ppr l soliitors l lints Tr r two typs o lwyr wo prtis in Enln. Ty r ll rristrs n soliitors. In t USA n most otr ountris, lwyrs on t mk tis istintion lwyr is simply known s n ttorny-t-lw, or n ttorny. In ot Enln n t USA, it is not possil to tk spil xm to ju. I you i tt you wnt to ju, you must t lot o xprin s lwyr irst, tn pply to ju n wit to s i you r osn. Most lw stunts in Enln om soliitors. Wn ty inis tir univrsity stuis ty o on-yr ll prti ours n tn two-yr trinin ontrt wit lw irm. Atr tt, ty r qulii soliitors. Mny soliitors work or ll prti, wi is usully prtnrsip o soliitors wo work totr. Soliitors prtis in mny rs o lw, ltou soliitor usully ooss to spilis in on prtiulr r. Ty rprsnt tir lints ot in n out o ourt. W otn sri tis s tin or lint. T pross o mkin lim in t ivil ourt is ll litition. Brristrs r usully sl-mploy lwyrs ut n work in prtnrsips in t wy tt soliitors o. Ty r spilists in voy, wi is t skill o spkin or somon in ourt. W ll tis plin s. Ty lso iv opinions on rs o lw to soliitors n t soliitors lints. It is not just rristrs wo v t rit o uin in ourt. Soliitors r lso llow to rprsnt tir lints in ourt n mny soliitors ppr in ourt vry y. It is not tru to sy tt lint lwys ns rristr in ourt. Glol Ll Enlis 9

6 Unit 1A / Fountion Tr r two typs o lwyr prtisin in Enln. Tru Fls Lst yr I inis my trinin ontrt n I strt workin or Tru Fls lr intrntionl lw irm. I m now qulii soliitor. Only rristrs n spk on l o lints in ourt. Tru Fls Bot soliitors n rristrs n work totr in prtnrsips. Tru Fls In t USA n Enln lwyrs n tk spil xm to ju. Tru Fls MAKING A CLAIM IN THE CIVIL COURT In t Enlis n Amrin ll systms w ivi t lw into two min rs. Ts r riminl lw n ivil lw. Tis mns tt vrytin tt is not riminl mttr is ivil mttr. Exris 1 Look t ts situtions n i i t prson ns riminl lwyr or ivil lwyr. In otr wors, is it riminl mttr or ivil mttr? Mr Bllry is opnin nw tory. H ns to visit lwyr to t ontrt or ll o is mploys to sin. riminl ivil Mrs Roson is tinkin out wt s wnts to ppn to r ous n possssions tr r t. S ns to visit lwyr to t t orrt oumnt, wi is ll will. riminl ivil T poli r tkin Mr Dn to t poli sttion us ty sy stol r. H ns lwyr to om n visit im tr to tll im wt to o. riminl ivil Mr Flynn owns rsturnt. H s ontrt wit ompny to livr ruit n vtls to is rsturnt. T ompny in t livr tm on t r t, so Mr Flynn lost mony us oul not opn is rsturnt tt y. Mr Flynn ns to s lwyr out skin t livry ompny to iv im t mony lost. riminl ivil Mr Alln is nk mnr. T nk is syin tt som mony is missin. Mr Alln s nw r n xpnsiv lots. T poli r omin to sk Mr Alln som qustions. H ns lwyr immitly. riminl ivil Exris 2 R t inormtion low. It is out strtin lim in t ivil ourt. Di i t sttmnts tt ollow r tru or ls. Strtin lim in t ivil ourt Wn you r in isput wit notr prson somtims it is nssry to strt lim in t ivil ourt. W somtims ll tis pross ilin lim or issuin lim. Lwyrs lso sy strtin proins. W o not us t vr to prosut in ivil lw us tt vr is only us in riminl lw. In Enln most ivil lims r il in t County Court. Tr r ovr 200 County Courts in Enln n Wls. Most itis n lr towns v County Court. T prson wo strts t lim is ll t limnt in t UK. Tis prson ws ll t plinti until 1999, wn tr wr nw ourt ruls in Enln to mk vrytin sir or popl to unrstn. Howvr, in t USA t limnt is still ll t plinti. In ot Enln n t USA t otr prty is ll t nnt. A lim orm is t oumnt tt limnt uss to strt ll tion inst t nnt. Wy mit limnt strt lim? Tr r lot o rsons, or xmpl: l somon russ to py you mony tt ty ow to you l somon os jo or you, ut ty o it ly. W ll tis workmnsip l somtin tt you pi or is not suppli to you l somtin tt you out is not workin proprly. T limnt s to py sum o mony, ll ourt, or t ourt to issu proins. In t lim orm, t limnt must stt t mount o is or r lim n rqust t nnt to py ll o t ll osts o t s. Somtims popl tlk out t smll lims ourt. Ty rlly mn t spil prour tt xists t t County Court or smll lims. A smll lim is lim or lss tn Tis mount will proly inrs in t utur. Strtin lim mns t sm s strtin proins. Tru Fls You n prosut somon in t ivil ourt. Tru Fls Tr r mor tn 200 County Courts in Enln n Wls. Tru Fls T wor plinti is not us in Enln ny mor ut it is us Tru Fls in t USA. It is r to strt lim in t County Court. Tru Fls Tr is spil ourt in sprt uilin or mkin smll lims. Tru Fls Unit 1A / Fountion Hlp sk Hlp sk Wt o ts wors mn? Wt o ts wors mn? riminl lw t lw tt puniss ts inst prson or inst proprty tt popl onsir to rmul to t wol ommunity. T stt prosuts riminls. ivil lw t lw onrnin t rits n utis o privt iniviuls n ompnis otr tn riminl mttrs. mttr sujt or sitution,.. riminl mttr, ivil mttr. will ll oumnt in wi prson ivs tils o wt ty wnt to ppn to tir proprty tr tir t. to stl (stol) to tk somtin tt lons to somon ls wit t intntion o kpin it. to in isput to v srious isrmnt wit notr prson. prty to ourt s t limnt or t nnt. to ow mony to somon to v to py somon or somtin tt ty v on or you or ivn to you. ll osts t ourt s n pymnt or t lwyrs wo r tin or t prtis. prour i wy o oin somtin. to prosut to tk ll tion inst somon in t riminl ourt. 10 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 11

7 Unit 1A / Fountion Exris 3 Hr r som importnt xprssions wi lwyrs us wn ty tlk out strtin lim in t ivil ourt. Complt t sntns y mtin t irst l o sntn wit t orrt nin. (*) To issu lim mns to To py mns to To srv lim upon somon mns to To rspon to lim mns to To r s mns to To in in vour o somon mns to To iv jumnt mns to To mk n orr mns to A ili is prson wo onirm tt you v riv t lim n to sy wt you will o nxt. (1) strt lim in t ivil ourt. listn to t tils o t lim n listn to wt t limnt n t nnt sy out tir isput. (2) py t ourt n mount o mony or issuin t lim. (3) n llly tk prson s proprty wn tt prson os not py mony tt or s ows. (4) oiilly nnoun t rsult o t s. T ju my iv t rsons or t ision. (5) sn t lim to t nnt s rss n mk sur tt or s rivs it. (6) i tt tis prson s won t s. (7) oiilly stt wt somon s to o, n ow n wn or s must o it. (8) Exris 4 Hr r t stps in wi lim os trou t County Court. Fill t ps wit wor rom Exris 3. T limnt lim in t County Court. T limnt will v to py. T mount pns on t mount o mony tt t limnt is limin. T ourt or t limnt s soliitor t lim upon t nnt. Tis mns tt ty sn it to t nnt s rss n mk sur tt t nnt rivs it. T nnt s 14 ys rom t y or s rivs t lim to to it. T nnt n mit t lim, wi mns to r tt t lim is rit, n py t mony tt t limnt wnts, or t nnt n n t lim. AREAS OF LAW Exris 1 In Enln n t USA tr is n r o lw ll t lw o tort. It is t lw o ivil rsponsiility. It is n r o ivil lw. R tis txt out t lw o tort. T most importnt wors r in t ky voulry low. Answr t qustions tt ollow usin ull sntn. Ky voulry l lw o tort l rlssnss l tort l ms l uty o r l ommitt l to su l rouns l lltions l nlin l no win no l r T lw o tort sys tt vryon s ivil uty to rul n not to urt or rm notr prson. Lwyrs ll tis ivil uty t uty o r. Somtims popl r tis uty o r. To r mns to rk. Vry otn ty r t uty o r y int ut somtims ty o it lirtly. I somon urts or rms notr prson us o r, w ll tis rmul tion tort. Tis mns tt som tins tt mit riminl in your ll systm r tort in Enln n t USA. Look t t list o rmul tions low. In Enln n t USA ty r usully torts. l Lvin t loor o sop in nrous onition so tt ustomr lls n urts r l. l Syin somtin tt is out somon, wi isn t tru. l Writin ntiv story in nwsppr out somon, wi isn t tru. l Plyin lou musi lt vry nit, wi isturs your niours. Tis r o lw is sir to unrstn y tinkin o tort s in typ o ivil wron. E o t torts list ov s spil nm. T tort tt ppns most otn is ll nlin. Nlin is wn somon is not rul nou n tis prson s rlssnss urts notr prson s rsult. T prson wo is urt is ll t injur prson. Wn somon urts you s rsult o is or r tions, you n to onsult lwyr wo spiliss in t rit r o tort. T lwyr will try to t you mony rom t rlss prson. Tis mony is ll ompnstion or, mor orrtly, ms. Somtims t lwyrs n t r on t mount o ms. Wn tis ppns, t injur prson my i to su t prson wo s urt tm. Suin somon is mor inorml wy o syin strtin proins inst somon in ivil ourt. T lim orm will stt t limnt s lltions inst t nnt. An lltion is lik n ustion. T limnt is sttin tt somtin ppn, ut t nnt s t opportunity to sy tt tis is not tru. T rsons or oin to ourt r ll t rouns. T rouns or n tion in tort r tt t nnt ommitt tort. Somtims lwyr wo spiliss in t tort o nlin mks n rmnt wit lint. T rmnt is tt i t lint os not win t s tn or s os not v to py or t lwyr s srvis. Tis is ll no win no rrnmnt. It is llow in t UK n t USA. Exmpl qustion: Wt is t uty o r? Exmpl nswr: T uty o r is t olition to rul n not to urt nyon. Unit 1A / Fountion I t nnt is to n t lim, ju will t s in t County Court. How o lwyrs sy to rk uty o r? T ju will iv is or r jumnt. T ju will in vour o t limnt or t nnt. Answr: In Enln n t USA, is t lw o tort n r o riminl or ivil lw? T prtis must ollow t trms o t tt t ju mks n ty must mk sur tt ty oy ny instrutions out tim limits. Answr: I t orr sys tt t nnt must py mony to t limnt, tn t limnt n us t srvis o to ollt tt mony i t nnt os not py. Tr r irnt typs o tort. In nrl, wt is tort? Answr: 12 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 13

8 Unit 1A / Fountion Wt is t nm o t tort tt prson ommits us or s is rlss n urts somon ls s rsult o tis rlssnss? Answr: Wt os suin mn? Dvi Tom I work in Nw York. I l wit lints rom otr ountris wo wnt to om n liv r. I lp tm to t prmission rom t ovrnmnt to mk tir rm o livin in t USA rlity. I m wit lw irm in Mnstr. I m now in t son yr o my trinin ontrt. At t momnt I l wit lints wo r uyin or sllin tir ous. It is my jo to mk sur vrytin is orrt n tt t sl is vli. Unit 1A / Fountion Answr: Wt is t orrt nm or t mony tt n injur prson ts rom t nnt in sussul tion in tort? Answr: Wt is t orrt nm or n rrnmnt wr lint os not v to py is or r lwyr i t lint loss is or r tion in tort? Answr: Jnnir Alistir Sunitt I work in vry xitin r o lw r in Los Anls. I mt lot o writrs n musiins n somtims vn popl rom movi stuios! I prott tir rits n mk sur tt no on n opy tir work n mk mony rom it witout tir prmission. Wn I writ t story o my li I will ll my ook, "Rors, Murrrs n Otr Frins o Min!" I work in Nwstl, wi is in t nort o Enln. I n popl wo r in troul wit t poli. Ty my vn o to prison! It is my jo to lp tm. I work in Syny, Austrli. I iv vi to popl wo r unppy livin totr n ty wnt ivor. Somtims popl ru out mony or t r o t ilrn. It s iiult r o lw n I l vry symptti towrs my lints. Exris 2 Put wor rom t ky voulry in Exris 1 into t ollowin sntns. I m t ownr o t sop us tr ws wtr on t loor n I ll n urt my k. I m lwyr wo spiliss in t tort o. Popl r just not rul nou! At t momnt I m tin or t injur prson in mor tn 20 irnt ss. Cory I work in Cio. I m quit mous on TV r in t USA. Tt s us Cnnl 10 sow my vrtismnt iv tims vry y! I sk popl to ll m i ty wr urt or wr in n int us somoy ls wsn t rul nou. I popl r not rul, tn I m ri ty will v to py ms! Kyli I work in Cristur, Nw Zln. Most o my lints v prolms t work. I sw ly tis mornin wo is oin to v y. Wn s tol r oss tt s ws prnnt, ir r rom r jo. Tt is not ll in Nw Zln n I will lp r to o somtin out it. Mil I work or vry i Lonon lw irm. Our lints r nks n otr i usinsss. Toy I m workin on mrr rmnt, wi mns tt two ompnis r joinin totr to om on. Ystry I vis nw lint wo wnts to strt n intrnt ompny on t irnt wys n o it. T mins in t lotin tory wr ol n nrous n on o t mploys injur is n. T mploy su t tory ownrs n ot 5000 in. Mry I m s in Dulin, t pitl ity o Irln. I s popl or ompnis wo wnt to mk ll rmnt wit notr prson or ompny. Toy I m lin wit n rmnt to livr oos rom Irln to t USA. I v to k vry wor vry rully! In your lim orm you us us o rin our uty o r. W o not pt tt your r tru n w will n your lim in ourt. Do you v oo rson or suin t ownr o t otl? Wt xtly r your or strtin ll tion? Polly I work in vry ol n intrstin r o lw. Toy I mt lint wo is 70 yrs ol n s no mily. Wn s is, s wnts to put ll o r mony into spil un. Hr two rins will us tis mony to lp py or trinin sool or tors n trsss rom r om ity r in Livrpool. I xplin to r ow to o tt n I will rt t nssry ll oumnts or r. Exris 3 Hr is list o som importnt rs o lw. R wt t lwyrs sy on t nxt p. Ty r tlkin out t work ty o. Mt t lwyr wit t orrt r o lw. lw o ontrt ompny lw ln lw lw o tort lw o quity n trusts i j mploymnt lw mily lw immirtion lw intlltul proprty lw riminl lw Hlp sk Wt o ts wors mn? to l wit somon or somtin to o usinss wit somon or to tk t orrt tion in n r o work. ll llow y t lw. vli llly orrt n ptl. to rt oumnt to writ oumnt. to v rit (in intlltul proprty lw) to v ll intrst in somtin; it is yours. ror prson wo stls mony or proprty wil usin or trtnin to us violn. ivor t ll nin o mrri. to mr (in ompny lw) wn two ompnis join totr to orm on. to s somwr to stlis somwr s t min pl wr you work or liv. oos tins tt r prou so tt ty n sol. un n mount o mony tt prson or ornistion kps to py or somtin in prtiulr. 14 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 15

9 Unit 1A / Fountion Exris 4 Coos wor or prs rom t ox to omplt t sntns. l rtin l t lw o quity n trusts l riminl lw l vli l s in l oos l intlltul proprty lw l t lw o tort l mily lw l mr is t ll pross involv in trnsrrin t ownrsip o ous or ln rom t sllr to t uyr. To inst somon mns to v irntly towrs tt prson, usully in t workpl, us o tir, sx or t olour o tir skin. is sitution wr somon loss is or r jo or rson tt is not vli. is mony tt n mployr must py to n mploy wn tt mploy is ill n nnot work. Unit 1A / Fountion A lwyr wo ls wit lints wo r in troul wit t poli is spilist in. Lst yr my nk wit i Grmn nk n ty r now ll EuropBnk. I tink ty r t ist nk in Europ now! i A is n rmnt to llow somon to us ln or uilins or ix prio o tim in rturn or pymnt o rnt. T is t stlismnt o nw usinss in spii wy. A lwyr wo ls wit lints wo rt nw invntions su s miins, mins or nw rtisti works su s ooks or musi, is spilist in. I spnt tr ours tis mornin ontrt or my nw lint. I tink t ontrt is ry or im to r n sin now. j k l A is usinss wi minimum o two popl own n ontrol. is t tim prio wn womn is not t work or n tr t irt o r y. Hr mployr usully pys r or prt or ll o t tim tt s is wy. is t totl mount o mony, proprty n otr ssts tt usinss s. i j I wnt to put som o my mony into un or t nit o my rnilrn, wi ty will v wn ty r t o 18. I n to s lwyr wo is spilist in. Wll, I m rom Lonon ut I m Amstrm t t momnt us I m workin or Dut ompny. A lwyr wo ls wit lints wo r ivorin or wo v prolms ovr t r o tir ilrn is spilist in. T ompny livrs ll ovr t Unit Stts y ril n y truk. A lwyr wo ls wit popl wo r tir ivil uty o r is spilist in. Tt ontrt is not us your lint s not sin it. Exris 5 Look t t wors n prss in t ox. All o t wors r onnt wit spii rs o lw. Put t wors into t orrt sntn to omplt t initions. m is sitution wr somon loss is or r jo us n mployr no lonr ns so mny mploys. n o A is prson wo owns ous, lt or oi n rivs rnt rom somon or llowin tm to liv tr, or us t uilin or usinss purposs. is mor orml wy o syin ln n uilins. Hlp sk Wt o ts wors mn? ownrsip to v ownrsip o proprty mns tt t proprty lons to you. You r t ownr o t proprty. ssts tins tt prson or ompny owns. ts sums o mony tt you ow. rnt t mony tt somon pys, usully vry mont, to us lt, ous or n oi tt lons to somon ls. ix somtin tt is ix is rtin n nnot n. l unir ismissl l ls o ln n uilins l ormtion o usinss l lnlor l mtrnity lv l isrimint l tnnt l pitl l sik py l insolvnt l onvynin l runny l prtnrsip l mrr l rl stt Exris 6 All o t wors n prss in Exris 5 lon to itr mploymnt lw, usinss lw or ln lw. Put wor or prs unr t orrt r o lw. Employmnt lw Businss lw Ln lw To mns not vin nou mony to py your ts. A is t joinin totr o two or mor tins, su s ompnis, to orm on sinl tin or ompny. A is prson wo pys rnt to t ownr o ous, lt or n oi in rturn or livin tr, or or usin t uilin or usinss purposs. 16 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 17

10 Unit 1A / Fountion Exris 7 Complt t ollowin sntns y usin t wors rom t mploymnt lw stion. My y will rriv t t n o Mr so I will tk six monts strtin on 1 Mr. H su is mployr on t rouns o us t rson is mployr v or irin im ws not vli. I you r ill n not l to work you soul look t your ontrt to s i you n t. It is inst t lw in Enln or n mployr to inst n mploy us o is or r. Mny mploys r worri out us lot o usinsss r losin in tis r t t momnt. Exris 8 Complt t ollowin sntns y usin t wors rom t usinss lw stion. T is t orml wy o syin t wy in wi nw usinss is rt. T totl o t usinss is vlu t pproximtly 32 million. T usinss os not v nou mony to py its ts n is. Tr will nxt yr twn two mjor Britis mil ompnis. My rin n I wnt to strt lnin usinss totr n w i tt t st tin to o is to rt. UNIT 1A VOCABULARY CHECK Ts r t importnt wors tt you v stui in Unit 1A. You soul mk sur tt you know ts wors or you o on to Unit 1B. t or voy lltion ppr ttorny ili rristr to s somwr r pitl rlssnss s ivil lw limnt lint ompny lw onvynin riminl lw ms l wit t nnt ln lw lnlor lw irm t lw o ontrt t lw o quity n trusts t lw o tort lwyr ls ll ll osts ll prti litition mtrnity lv mttr mr nlin no win no olition ow to v ownrsip prtnrsip prty plinti pl s prtis prour proins to qulii Unit 1A / Fountion Exris 9 Complt t ollowin sntns y usin t wors rom t ln lw stion. H is vry oo. H lwys pys t rnt on tim! My sistr works in t proprty prtmnt o r lw irm. S ts or popl wo r uyin n sllin ouss. S is spilist in. W on t own our ous; w rnt it. T ns in tr monts so w will v to in somwr ls to liv. H is t o iv ouss in tis r. H mks lot o mony vry mont rom t rnt. T pri o in tis prt o t ountry inrs lot lst yr. It is vry xpnsiv to uy ous. isrimint isput ivor rt uty o r mploymnt lw mily lw ormtion o usinss oos rouns rm r immirtion lw insolvnt intlltul proprty lw issu rl stt runny rprsnt rspon to v rit rit o uin srv sik py soliitor spilis su tnnt tort trinin ontrt unir ismissl vli jumnt will 18 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 19

11 Unit 1A / Fountion TOLES FOUNDATION EXAM PRACTICE Exris 1 Look t t sntns low. E sntn ontins mistk. T mistk is itr n inorrt wor or wor tt soul not tr. Put irl roun t wor. Do not irl mor tn on wor or sntn. Tr is n xmpl t t innin (*). Exris 3 Hr is onvrstion twn lwyr n is lint. T onvrstion is mix up. Put t onvrstion in t orrt orr. Writ your nswrs in t oxs numr 2 9 low. Tr is n xmpl t t innin (*), wi is t strt o t onvrstion. Unit 1A / Fountion Exmpl (*) In t Unit Stts ty o not irn twn two sprt kins o lwyr us ll lwyrs r known s ttornys. 1 Wn stunt iniss is or r ll stuis or s s to mk two-yr trinin ontrt wit lw irm. 2 T lw o tort sys tt vryon must to rul n not rm otr popl. (*) Goo Mornin Mr Roriuz. Tnk you or omin to s m. I unrstn tt you woul lik to issu lim in t County Court? Tr monts is lon tim. I r tt you soul issu lim. I will xplin to you ow it ll works. T irst tin tt w must o is to omplt lim orm n il it t t County Court. Ys, you will v to py. But i you win, t ju will usully orr t nnt to py k t. T nxt tin tt ppns tr w il t lim is tt t ourt will srv t lim orm upon t nnt. 3 I will strt my trinin ontrt wit t Tylor Wllis in Sptmr. 4 I w issu lim inst you w will sk or vry i ms. 5 H r t ontrt n I will prosut im in t ivil ourt. Ys, tt is orrt. I tink oin to ourt is t only tin tt I n o. I supply oo to rsturnts n és in Ctswort. I v ontrt wit ll o my ustomrs. T ontrt stts tt ustomr s 14 ys to py m rom t t ty riv livry. A ustomr wo owns é in town is tr monts lt in pyin m. I woul lik to strt proins inst im. I s. Wt inormtion o you n to omplt t lim orm? Exris 2 R t ollowin rtil n i i t sttmnts unr it r tru or ls. Writ your nswrs in t ox low. Tr is n xmpl t t innin (*). Snjy Pritm is prtnr wit lw irm in Soutmpton in t sout o Enln. Snjy is spilist in mritim lw. H os tis r o lw us o is mily istory. His tr owns sip. Snjy s tr work on tis sip or is wol li. Snjy work wit im or two yrs n tn strt is ll stuis. Snjy tinks tis prtil xprin on sip ws vry usul. Enlis lw inluns most o t lw tt ovrns intrntionl mritim ss. For tis rson, lwyrs rom ll ovr t worl ontt Snjy s oi to sk im or is opinion, wi ivs y pon or mil. Wn mritim lwyrs r spkin inormlly ty ivi ss into two toris. Ty ll tm ry ss n wt ss. Dry ss involv prolms wit sippin ontrts n wt ss involv prolms t s, su s sips tt v ints. Most o t ss tt Snjy ls wit nnot notit n n in litition. H s 14 ys to rspon. In tis s I op your ustomr rs tt your lim is orrt n tt will py t mony ows you wn rivs t lim. Tt is t st tin tt n ppn. I n t nm n rss o your ustomr. Wn w il t lim your ustomr will ll t nnt. I lso n t tils o your lim. I n to know wn t nnt riv t livry rom you n wn ws suppos to py you. Pls rin m opy o t ontrt so tt I n k t prt o it tt tlks out pymnt. How mu mony os ow you? An wn rivs t lim ow mny ys os v to rspon to it? 430. I n rin opy o t ontrt to your oi tis trnoon. Wt ppns wn w il t lim? Do I v to py ourt? (1) (*) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Exmpl (*) Snjy Pritm works in mily lw prti. 1 Snjy s tr is lso lwyr. 2 Snjy tinks it is oo tt work on sip or ws lwyr. 3 Snjy usully trvls to otr ountris to lp lwyrs wo v qustions out mritim lw. 4 A mritim s involvin r o ontrt is inormlly ll ry s. 5 Most o Snjy s ss o to ourt us t prtis nnot r upon solution. (*) FALSE (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 20 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 21

12 THE LEGAL PROFESSION THE IMPORTANCE OF COLLOCATIONS Collotions r wors tt orm nturl prtnrsips in Enlis. For xmpl, w sy, Unit 1B / Hir Mrry Cristms! ut Hppy Nw Yr! Wy n t w sy Mrry Nw Yr? It s us ntiv Enlis spkr wouln t xpt ts wors to o totr. Ty o not orm oo ollotion. Ll Enlis is ull o ollotions. Ty mit : l vr+noun Do you pt liility? l noun+vr T p s win twn tm. l jtiv+noun S m tl rror. l vr+jtiv Tis is ily ontntious isput. l vr+vr Coul w pls isuss tis mttr rtionlly? T ky to lrnin urt ll Enlis is to v oo milirity wit ollotion. Som nouns orm oo ollotions wit mor tn on vr. Som nouns orm oo ollotion wit just on vr. T importnt tin is to strt to noti urt ollotions n mmoris tm. For xmpl: to rt ontrt to writ ontrt Goo ollotion: to onour ontrt B ollotion: to rspt ontrt T Ll Prossion Unit 1B/ Hir to r ontrt to inrin ontrt As you work trou tis ook you will s mny ollotions. To lp you noti n rmmr urt ollotions ty v n put into ollotion nk or you. T symol m mns mmoris. Collotion nk m l to rt ontrt l to onour ontrt l to r ontrt Exris 1 Look t ts sntns. Ty ontin ollotions tt r in Unit 1A. Complt t sntns wit t orrt ollotion rom t our ois on t nxt p. Soliitors r llow to lints in ourt. I m ri I n t lp you. I m ommril lwyr n tis is riminl. Wt r t or your s? I will my inl lw xms in Jun o nxt yr. My lint is nw tory n ns vi out t rlvnt lt n sty rultions. Glol Ll Enlis 23

13 Unit 1B / Hir A rprsnt B work or C stn or D vot A issu B mttr C sujt D point A rouns B rsons C motivs D sis A pss B mk C prpr D tk SOLICITORS AND BARRISTERS Exris 1 Din Willims is lwyr. Toy s is oin to visit sool in r town to tlk to t stunts out rr in lw. Hr r som o Din s nots or r tlk. In tis stion s is tlkin out t two sprt prossions tt xist in Enln, soliitors n rristrs. Fill in t ps in t txt wit t orrt wor rom t ox low. Unit 1B / Hir A strtin B lunin C opnin D inititin l prtnr l ju l lint l uin l quliy l prtis l soliitor l ssoit l prtnrsips l ourt l ttorny l issu THE IMPORTANCE OF PREPOSITIONS As you work trou tis ook you will s mny prpositions. To lp you noti n rmmr urt prpositions in ll ontxt ty v n put into prposition nk or you. T symol m mns mmoris. Prposition nk l n ttorny t lw My utr is n ttorny t lw in Atlnt. l to sn qu or n mount o mony Pls sn qu or m My nots or rrs tlk t Ctswort Hill Sool In Enln w v two irnt typs o lwyr. On is known s () n t otr is rristr. Bot r ll lwyrs. Tis n littl onusin us in t USA vry lwyr is usully known s n (). An Enlis lw stunt s to i t som tim urin tir univrsity stuis wi typ o lwyr ty woul lik to () s. l to work on somtin I m urrntly workin on mrr rmnt. Exris 1 Complt ts sntns wit prposition tt you sw in Unit 1A. T ju wr my lint 20,000 ms. Suin somon is mor inorml wy o syin strtin proins somon. A smll lim is lim mximum o l sujt to somtin T oos r or sl t tis pri sujt to vilility. Stpn works or lw irm Mnttn. Wn you r isput wit somon you n strt lim in t ivil ourt. Coul I tk look your mploymnt ontrt? Exris 2 Usin t knowl tt you v out ollotions n prpositions orrt t lnu low. My nm is Luii n I m lwyr () t Miln. I work () into i lw irm. Toy I m vry usy. I m () writin ontrt () to nw lint. Tis trnoon I m () spkin or irnt lint in ourt. It is () isrspt o ontrt s. I tink w will win t s us our () rsons r vry stron. Most Enlis lw stunts i to om soliitor. Ts r t lwyrs tt (), t prson wo pys or t srvis o lwyr, will usully mt irst. Otn t soliitor n lp t lint witout t n or rristr. Most soliitors work in smll privt usinsss, known s (), in wt r ll Hi Strt irms. Tis prs Hi Strt irm rrs to typil, smll roup o soliitors workin totr in t typ o ois tt you n in on t mjor strts o ny Enlis town or ity. Mny lw irms r st up s (). A nw lwyr will usully work irst s n () o t irm n in som xprin wil in pi ix slry or in or t opportunity to om (). A typil Hi Strt soliitor usully spiliss in prtiulr r o lw, su s mily, mploymnt or ommril lw. Mny popl liv tt soliitors nnot t or tir lints in (i) ut tis is untru. Tousns o soliitors ppr in ourt vry y, spilly in t County Courts wr most lims r (j). T son typ o lwyr oun in Enln is known s rristr. Brristrs r usully spilists in vry prtiulr r o lw. Ty iv vi n opinions to soliitors n tir lints. Brristrs v t rit o (k) (t rit to r y ju) in ll o t ourts in t ln. Brristrs otn sr ois, known y t tritionl nm o mrs, ltou ty usully work lon s iniviuls rtr tn in prtnrsips. Atr svrl yrs o xprin, mmrs o itr prossion my pply to prsi ovr ss n sit s (l). Witin t Enlis ll systm lw stunt nnot tk n xm to ju ut s to wit to ppoint tr som yrs o xprin s lwyr. My nm is Luii n I m lwyr () Miln. I work () i lw irm. Toy I m vry usy. I m () ontrt () nw lint. Tis trnoon I m () irnt lint in ourt. It is () o ontrt s. I tink w will win t s us our () r vry stron. 24 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 25

14 Unit 1B / Hir Exris 2 Look t t soliitors vrtismnts on t opposit p. Giv t nm n t tlpon numr o t irm o soliitors tt I soul ll i I v t ollowin ll prolms. Collotion nk l to quliy s lwyr l to t or lint Prposition nk l to known s somtin Ty r known s rristrs. I v r t o 50 n I m tinkin out wt I wnt to ppn to my proprty tr my t. I wnt to in usinss importin ltril oos rom on Europn Union ountry into notr n I wnt to know wt t ruls r. I m womn wo is nry tt mn oin t sm jo in t tory wr I work is pi mor tn I m. I m visitor to Enln rom t USA. I m to work in Lonon 18 monts o, wit t prmission o t Britis utoritis. Howvr, I only prmission to r or yr n now I m ri us I v rokn t lw. Firm o soliitors l to sit s ju l to quliy s somtin S qulii s lwyr two yrs o. l to o into prtnrsip wit somon H is oin to o into prtnrsip wit is rotr. l to in som xprin Tlpon numr l to issu lim l to tk n xm l to spilis in somtin Tom spiliss in ommril litition. l to work in/or usinss H works in lw irm ut s works or nk. l to prsi ovr s T insurn s s strt n Ju Mortimr is prsiin ovr it. m m 1st CALL ACCIDENT CENTRE ACCIDENT? INJURED? Somon n rlss? NO WIN NO FEE (Hom n ospitl visits) FREEPHONE Swnous Pl, Ctswort MARION KAYE Soliitors Prossionl, rinly, tiv. n Businss Lw n Commril Proprty n Commril Litition n EU Lw n Insolvny n Intlltul Proprty n Lnlor n Tnnt Tlpon: Ois in Lonon, Oxor n Ctswort DAVID ROSS & CO SOLICITORS Juy Brly Soliitor NUMBER ONE FOR EMPLOYMENT LAW I you v prolm in ny o t ollowin rs ll toy or irst lss vi UNFAIR DISMISSAL / REDUNDANCY BULLYING / DISABILITY RIGHTS EQUAL PAY / DISCRIMINATION BREACH OF CONTRACT Hymrkt Ln, Ctswort. Ptl & Co, Soliitors SPECIALISTS IN IMMIGRATION LAW Inluin BUSINESS IMMIGRATION LAW & Work Prmits Emil: Tl: Royl Crsnt, Ctswort. Cll toy! MCrty Kyl & Co YOUR LOCAL EDUCATION LAW SPECIALISTS IN CHATSWORTH Spilists in ll rs o Eution Lw inluin: SPECIAL EDUCATION NEEDS / DYSLEXIA / ADMISSIONS AND EXCLUSIONS n NEGLIGENCE CLAIMS Blvr Grns, Ctswort. Unit 1B / Hir Crity lw / Convynin Litition / Wills n Prot Aint n Injury Divor n Fmily Hvry Ro, Ctswort Sur rom SOLICITORS NEGLIGENCE? Contt us now FREE initil onsulttion *NO WIN NO FEE FREEPHONE st ll or tion Mttw Morrison Soliitors 51 Qun Ann Squr, Ctswort *sujt to ssssmnt 26 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 27

15 Unit 1B / Hir Exris 3 Fin wor in t vrtismnts tt mts t ollowin initions. Not tkin nou r ovr somtin tt you r rsponsil or wit t rsult tt mistks r m or somon is urt. T wor is An ornistion tt xists in orr to ollt mony, oo or oos n iv tm to popl wo n tm. T wor is AREAS OF LAW Exris 1 Look t t wors in t ox n i i ty om rom ivil lw or riminl lw. rory riminl ivil litition riminl ivil Unit 1B / Hir T pross o llly trnsrrin t ownrsip o ln or uilins rom on prson to notr. T stt o usinss not vin nou mony to py wt it ows. ontrt riminl ivil prtnrsip riminl ivil su riminl ivil usinss riminl ivil T wor is T wor is prison riminl ivil prosut riminl ivil A sitution wr somon s to lv tir jo us ty r no lonr n y tir mployr. A prson or ompny wi pys rnt to notr prson to llow tm to liv in or us ln or uilins. T wor is T wor is Exris 2 Look t t toris o ivil lw n mt tm wit t simpl initions provi low. Exris 4 Sy wtr t ollowin sttmnts out t vrtismnts r tru or ls. I I invnt nw typ o wtr tr tt I on t wnt nyon ls Tru Fls to l to opy, I soul ll I I wnt to stuy lw, I soul ll MCrty Kyl & Co. Tru Fls Mttw Morrison will lwys pt ny lint on Tru Fls no win no sis. Mritim lw T lw o tort Businss n ompny lw Contrt lw T lw o quity & trusts IT lw Intlltul proprty lw Fmily lw Employmnt/lour lw T lw o rl proprty/onvynin T 1st Cll Aint Cntr spiliss in t lw o tort. Tru Fls Mttw Morrison ls wit omplints out otr soliitors. Tru Fls T lw tt ls wit t prottion o t rits o invntors (wo mit invnt nw ru or min) or rtists (wo mit writ ook or son). T lw tt ls wit privt rmnts twn popl or ompnis n tris to mk sur tt no on surs loss i n rmnt is rokn. Collotion nk l to mk will l r o ontrt l to m runnt m T lw tt ls wit situtions wr somon s ontrol o proprty or prio o tim n must look tr it or t nit o somon ls. T lw tt ls wit vry itizn s rsponsiility not to rm otr popl in ny wy, vn i it is not ontrtul or riminl sitution. Prposition nk l to import oos rom notr ountry S import r r rom Blium. l to import oos into ountry S import r r into Enln. l to tk r ovr/wit somtin Pls tk r ovr/wit tt oumnt us it is vry importnt. l to l wit somtin or somon Coul you pls l wit Mr Jons or m s I m usy tis mornin? m T lw tt ls wit vnts su s ivor n t ustoy o (t rit to look tr) ilrn. T lw tt ls wit vrytin onnt wit inormtion n ow it is pss twn popl, spilly y mns o t Intrnt. T lw tt ls wit ln, inluin trnsrrin t ownrsip o uilins or ln rom on prson to notr. i j T lw tt ls wit popl s rits, py or onitions in t workpl. T lw tt ls wit t wy usinsss r st up (rt) n run (oprt) n ow ty must work in rltion to otr n t nrl puli. T lw tt ls wit vrytin onnt wit t s or sips. 28 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 29

16 Unit 1B / Hir Exris 3 Look t t situtions low n i wi r o ivil lw is rlvnt. Ann r to py Pul 4000 to lnsp t rn t r nw ous. Pul s now inis t work ut Ann sys s is not stisi wit it n s s rus to py im. Bill s n mrri to Rut or 14 yrs. Howvr, now wiss to lv Rut n liv wit Jn. Bill n Rut nnot i ow to sr tir proprty twn tm. THE REGISTER OF LETTER WRITING Exris 1 Din Willims s riv tis lttr rom stunt t t sool wr s v r tlk. T wors tt v n unrlin r too inorml. Complt t sm lttr on t nxt p y oosin ttr wor or prs rom tos in t lu ox. Unit 1B / Hir T r o lw is Crolin n Susn wnt to strt usinss totr. Ty n soliitor to rt n rmnt or tm out ow ty will sr ll t rsponsiilitis o t usinss. T r o lw is T r o lw is Pillip s riv n or to uy is ous, ut tr is prolm wit t xt position o t ounry. T uyr's soliitor must k tis or t ontrt is sin. T r o lw is Miss Din Willims Cstr n Plton, Soliitors 227 Gllowt Ctswort CH1 4NG 6 T Gt Ctswort CH15 2MM 24 April 20XX Dnil wnts is two-yr ol rnson, Wyn, to v is ous wn is. Howvr, i Dnil is or Wyn is 21 yrs ol Dnil wnts is rin, Hrry, to look tr t ous until Wyn rs 21 yrs ol. T r o lw is Elist s ompny trnsports oos rom Sout Amri to Enln y sip. Howvr, tr ws storm t s lst wk n t sip rryin t oos snk o t ost o Frn. T r o lw is Dr Miss Willims Your tlk t Ctswort Hill Sool lst wk Tnk you vry mu or t tlk tt you v to our lss on Tusy. It ws vry intrstin. I m tinkin vry sriously out omin lwyr n I op tt you n nswr som qustions out on or two tins tt wr not inlu in your tlk. Emily s n in ospitl n s n vry ill tr n oprtion. S tinks tt t otor ws nlint n tt s m r illnss wors y is tions. S wnts to lim ms. T r o lw is Dvi s n usin t Intrnt to sn lot o privt mils t work n is oss sys tt tis is n us o t tim or wi is pi. Dvi s n snt om rom work on ull py us is oss is invstitin t sitution. T r o lw is () In t irst pl, I m littl worri out t pross o () usin t ivil ourt to strt o ll pross. I m tinkin o ttin lim orm n som llts to try to in out mor. I I o to t County Court in Ctswort, will I llow to pik up lim orm just to look t? Also, oul you tll m littl mor out () writin mor omplit ll oumnts su s ontrts? I m vry nrvous out tis prt o t work. My motr n tr out nw ous rntly n t soliitor wo i t () rl stt trnsr o ownrsip sm to o lot o vry iiult pprwork. Wt ppns i I mk mistk? Cn t lint () strt s in t ourt i I iv tm () wron vi? Collotion nk l to pss inormtion l to sur loss l to st up usinss l to run usinss l to rt n rmnt l to lim ms Prposition nk m m Also, you si tt in t utur tr is oin to lot o () isussin prolms wit somon wo n lp in n rmnt twn lints inst o oin to ourt so otn. Tis worris m littl. Dos it mn tt tr will lss work or lwyrs n som irms my tink out mkin popl () out o work? (i) Lst, you si tt lwyrs usully work in prtnrsip n r rrly (j) lwyrs wo work lon. Wt will ppn i I join prtnrsip out (k) ttin t usul py rom my lw irm wn I m ill, or wn I v y n I n to tk (l) som tim wy rom work to look tr im or r? Tnk you in vn or your lp. l to pss inormtion twn two popl or mon roup o popl On t onintil inormtion pss twn t two o tm, it ws known mon t wol roup in t oi in just w ys. l to mrri to somon S s n mrri to Ptr or svn yrs. l to on ull py T ompny suspn im rom work on ull py. Yours sinrly Emm Som 30 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 31

17 Unit 1B / Hir l mition l sik py l Firstly l runnt l rtin l Finlly l nlint l issuin lim l mtrnity lv l onvynin l su l sol prtitionrs Xppl LISTENING Exris 1 Listn to tis trin lwyr spkin out is xprin o workin or mjor lw irm in Lonon. Som wors r missin rom t txt. Listn rully n writ t missin wors in t ox low. Unit 1B / Hir Miss Din Willims Cstr n Plton, Soliitors 227 Gllowt Ctswort CH1 4NG Dr Miss Willims Your tlk t Ctswort Hill Sool lst wk 6 T Gt Ctswort CH15 2MM 24 April 20XX My nm is Ro Jons n I m trin wit lw irm. I v lwys wnt to () n I n t imin oin ny otr jo. I strt workin r t Tylor Wllis yr o. Tylor Wllis is lol lw irm wit its qurtrs in t City o Lonon. I stui lw t Mnstr Univrsity ut I wnt to o my trinin ontrt in Lonon us I m intrst in () lw n nkin n I tink t st positions wit t top lw irms r r. I tink my prnts wr isppoint tt I in t om () n work in mrs n wr wi in ourt, ut I wsn t intrst in tt t ll! Wit tis lw irm t two-yr trinin ontrt is ivi into our prios. E six-mont prio is ll st. My irst st ws in t () prtmnt. Tt rlly just mns lin wit ompnis n usinsss. I ws involv in mtin lints, () oumnts n took prt in som vry i vlu ls. O ours, I lots o support rom t xprin popl workin on my tm (w ll tm t prinipls) ut I ws surpris t ow mu rsponsiility ty v m. Tnk you vry mu or t tlk tt you v to our lss on Tusy. It ws vry intrstin. I m tinkin vry sriously out omin lwyr n I op tt you n nswr som qustions out on or two tins tt wr not inlu in your tlk. (), I m littl worri out t pross o (). I m tinkin o ttin lim orm n som llts to try to in out mor. I I o to t County Court in Ctswort, will I llow to pik up lim orm just to look t? Also, oul you tll m littl mor out () mor omplit ll oumnts su s ontrts? I m vry nrvous out tis prt o t work. My motr n tr out nw ous rntly n t soliitor wo i t () sm to o lot o vry iiult pprwork. Wt ppns i I mk mistk? Cn t lint () i I iv tm () vi? My son st ws in t proprty prtmnt. Tis involv () or lints wo wr uyin n sllin omsti n ommril proprty, mu o it oi uilins r in Lonon. I ws l to t som xprin o () s wll s littl lnlor n () lw wn w lt wit rntls. Nxt I will movin into t (i) proprty prtmnt. I m rlly pls out tt s it ovrs quit w irnt rs o lw n n involv mous lints. At t momnt t prtmnt is lin wit r o opyrit s or mous musiin. I op to sty wit Tylor Wllis wn I (j) s lwyr nxt yr. In t, I m lookin orwr to in s in Lonon or most o my ll rr. Also, you si tt in t utur tr is oin to lot o () twn lints inst o oin to ourt so otn. Tis worris m littl. Dos it mn tt tr will lss work or lwyrs n som irms my tink out mkin popl ()? (i), you si tt lwyrs usully work in prtnrsip n r rrly (j). Wt will ppn i I join prtnrsip out (k), or wn I v y n I n to tk (l)? Tnk you in vn or your lp. Yours sinrly i j Emm Som 32 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 33

18 Unit 1B / Hir USING YOUR KNOWLEDGE Collotion rviw Complt ts sntns wit ollotion tt you v sn. You r 50 yrs ol now Mr Jonson, you soul rlly tink out will. i j T typ o lwyr wo works in mrs n pls ss (usully in t ir ourts) is known s. Tins tt r prou in orr to sol r ll. A lwyr in t USA is usully known y t nrl nm o. Unit 1B / Hir I you o not onour your si o t rmnt tt you v sin, I m ri I will v to su you or o ontrt. I v spnt t lst w ours usinss prtnrsip rmnt or two nw lints. I inis my trinin ontrt n strt work two yrs o, so I m irly nw to t ll prossion. Wn i you s lwyr? Prposition rviw Complt ts sntns wit t orrt prposition. I m workin vry intrstin mrr projt t t momnt. A lnlor is prson wo rivs rnt somon. I m tinkin o nw usinss n I n som vi out ow to strt. I m ri tt tis irm os not l riminl lw. S s n r own usinss or svrl yrs now n s s n vry sussul. Tr r two sprt prossions wo r llow to lw in Enln ut in t USA ty on t mk tis istintion. I m s Stokolm t t momnt. In your lim orm you v m som vry srious lltions my lint. S imports oos Grmny rom Cin. I m ri my lint vry srious loss u to your lint s tions. Wi ju is prsiin tis s? i W r strtin proins immitly n w will limin o 10,000. W will ln you t mony sujt onirmtion o t mount o your slry. j I m oin to my lw xms in Jun nxt yr. i Pls sn qu 20 to tis rss. j Hv you r t nws? Jnnir n Stvn v on prtnrsip. Voulry rviw Complt ts sntns wit wor tt you v sn. A prson wo pys rnt to lnlor is. H s work or tt ompny or 20 yrs ut usinss isn t oo t t momnt n ty mit v to mk im. Ty wnt into lst yr, wi mns ty own n run t usinss totr. S is n xprt in prours. S ls wit ompnis tt on t v nou mony to py tir ts. S ls wit. It onrns t uyin n sllin o ln n ouss n mkin sur t ownrsip o tm is llly trnsrr. T pross o two popl tlkin out tir ll prolm wit n inpnnt prson to lp tm r on solution is ll. I you wnt to su somon wo sn t n rul nou, t rouns or your s woul proly. 34 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 35

19 Unit 1B / Hir TOLES HIGHER EXAM PRACTICE Exris 1 Tr is wor or prs missin rom t ollowin sntns. For sntn irl t wor or prs wi st its into t sp rom t options provi. Do not mrk mor tn on nswr or sntn. Tr is n xmpl t t innin (*). Exmpl I prson loss is or r jo or rson tt is not vli it is ll unir (*). 1 Soliitors r llow to (1) lints in ourt. 2 Tis is riminl (2), so I will v to rr you to ollu wo ls wit riminl lw. Exris 2 R t txt low n tink o t wor tt st its sp. Us only on wor in sp. Writ your nswrs in t ox low. Tr is n xmpl t t innin (*). Brristrs t work Li s rristr is prstiious ut it n lso xtrmly strssul. Juli Bur is rristr in Lonon. T irst iiulty Juli ws to (*) s rristr t ll. Only 1200 or so lw stunts mn to pss t Br Prossionl Trinin Cours in Enln n Wls vry yr. Only roun 500 r wr tnny. In n vr yr pproximtly 1,500 stunts in t ours, so mny o not mk it. Unit 1B / Hir 3 I stui som lnlor n (3) lw wn I ws t univrsity ut I on t rmmr it now. T Br Prossionl Trinin Cours is sri s ri twn t mi stuy o lw n vin to tully (1) lw in t rl worl. Juli pss t ours tr yrs o. 4 It is ll in Enln n Amri or som lwyrs to work on no win no (4) sis. 5 I on t tink I will vr wnt to (5) s ju us I njoy my jo s soliitor. 6 I tink it is ir tt vryon ts (6) py or oin t sm jo. 7 I v i to spilis in ln lw so I xpt to oin lot o (7). 8 My lw irm s oo rputtion or nlin (8) proprty ss, spilly i omputr sotwr is opi witout t sinr s prmission. 9 I lwyr is llow to r in prtiulr ourt w sy tt or s s rit o (9). 10 I you wnt t ju to wr you ms rom t nnt you will v to prov to t ourt tt you v (10) loss. In typil y Juli lvs r lt t 7.30m n rrivs t (2), t spil nm or rristr s oi, t 8.30m. Juli srs uilin wit 14 otr rristrs. Howvr, ty r not prtnrs. Brristrs r llow to sr oi ommotion ut ty o not usully orm (3). Most rristrs r sl-(4). I s is rprsntin lint tt y Juli trvls irtly to ourt. Spkin on l o lint in ourt is ll (5) s. As rristr, Juli s t rit o uin in ourt t vry lvl. S is onint (6), wi mns tt s is skill t spkin in ourt. Juli is vry sussul in ourt, s s lovs puli spkin. S is lso rquir to o lot o rsr n lot o (7), wi mns writin ll oumnts. On ys wn Juli is not in ourt s spns r tim prprin ss n writin opinions. S usully lvs work t roun 7.30pm, tkin ny work tt is not inis wit r. Juli otn works lon ours ovr t wkn. Juli is spilist in insolvny, so s viss lints wo (8) mony ut or som rson ty nnot py. All o Juli s lints r ompnis. Wn ompny s innil prolms, Juli will vis t ompny i it n llly ontinu trin. S somtims s to n lints in ourt wn ll (9) v n issu inst tm. I r lint loss t s n t ju wrs (10) to t limnt tn Juli will vis r lint on wt to o nxt. (*) A irin B runny C ismissl D rls (1) A tlk or B t or C rprsnt or D vot or Exmpl (*) quliy (2) A prolm B topi C sujt D mttr (3) A rntr B oupir C tnnt D rsint (4) A pymnt B C slry D mony (5) A sit B prtis C ritrt D rul (6) A sm B quivlnt C lik D qul (7) A trnsrrin B ssinin C rlotin D onvynin (8) A invntion B rtiv C intlltul D oriinl (9) A spkin B onsulttion C rin D uin (10) A sur B xprin C D nur (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 36 Glol Ll Enlis Glol Ll Enlis 37

20 Unit 1B / Hir Xppl Listnin Exris 3 Listn to t onvrstion twn lwyr n som stunts. Answr t qustions low. 1 How lon s Hln Ry n workin s soliitor? 2 Wt is t sujt o Hln Ry s univrsity r? 3 How lon prio o stuy is t Post-Grut Diplom in Lw? 4 Wt rson os Hln Ry iv or lw irms mployin lwyrs wos irst r is not in lw? 5 Wt is t LLB? 6 Wt is voy? 7 Wn Hln Ry spks out t Ll Prti Cours s mntions our skills tt r tut on t ours. Two o t skills r rtin oumnts n voy. Wt r t otr two? 8 On o t stunts nms n r o stuy tt s is not vry oo t. Wt is it? 9 Hln Ry sys tt ttin trinin ontrt wit lw irm tr univrsity is omptitiv usinss. Wt rson os s iv or tt? 10 Wt is t roll o soliitors? 38 Glol Ll Enlis

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