Establishment of a New Migration Monitoring Network across China for the Siberian Crane and Other Waterbirds. Abstract

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1 SIBERIAN CRANE WETLAND PROJECT TECHNICAL BRIEF SIBERIAN CRANE WETLAND PRO ECT Establishment of a New Migration Monitoring Network across China for the Siberian Crane and Other Waterbirds By Qian Fawen, Jiang Hongxing, Shu Jinde and Liu Hua Abstract Tumuji National Nature Reserve staff surveying Siberian Cranes May Photo by Crawford Prentice The UNEP/GEF Siberian Crane Wetland Project (SCWP) is a six-year effort to protect a network of globally important wetlands in Asia that are of critical importance for migratory waterbirds and other wetland biodiversity. The project uses the globally threatened Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus) as a flagship species, linking activities at 16 key wetlands along the species western and eastern flyways in Russia, Kazakhstan, Iran and China. Since the UNEP/GEF Siberian Crane Wetland Project (SCWP) formally commenced in August 2003 in China, the National Coordination Unit (NCU) of China has conducted migratory waterbird monitoring activities along the Siberian Crane flyway across eastern China. The goals of the site network are to monitor the distribution and migration of the Siberian Crane and other globally significant migratory waterbirds, in order to improve the management capacity for conservation of migratory waterbirds on the eastern flyway. Since 2004, the NCU has signed waterbird monitoring agreements with 18 key monitoring partners in ten provinces of China, established the monitoring site network and clarified the responsibilities of staff, engaged monitoring consultants, and mobilized all parties involved in the monitoring activities. A total of 158 monitoring sites are included in the network. Monitoring activities are conducted in the spring and autumn each year, along with annual workshops to summarize the monitoring results, solve problems, adjust the monitoring plan and develop annual reports. Through the four years of monitoring implementation, we have developed an improved understanding of the migratory routes and stopover locations of the Siberian Crane and other migratory waterbirds in China. Migrating Siberian Cranes at Huanzidong Reservoir, Liaoning Province, China. Photo by Zhou Haixiang For more information visit or contact the International Crane Foundation, E11376 Shady Lane Rd, Baraboo WI, USA

2 Background For the eastern Siberian Crane population, the Songnen Plain in Northeast China and the eastern coastal regions are important migratory staging areas, while the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze floodplain, and especially the Poyang Lake Basin of Jiangxi Province, are important staging and wintering areas. The goals of the site network are to monitor the distribution and migration of the Siberian Crane and other globally significant migratory waterbirds, in order to improve the management capacity for conservation of migratory waterbirds on the this flyway. Since 2004, the NCU of China has signed waterbird monitoring agreements with 18 key monitoring partners where Siberian Cranes and other cranes and storks stop during migration or winter, including: Dalai Lake National Nature Reserve (NNR) of Inner Mongolia, Tumuji NNR of Inner Mongolia, Northeast Forestry University, Jilin Forestry Science Academy, Shuangtaihekou NNR of Liaoning Province, Qinhuangdao Forestry Bureau of Hebei Province, Hebei Cangzhou Academy, Yellow River Delta NNR of Shandong Province, Yancheng NNR of Jiangsu Province, Anqing Yanjiang Wetland Nature Reserve and Shengjinhu National Nature Reserve of Anhui Province, East Dongting Lake NNR of Hunan Province, Wuhan University, the four SCWP sites in Northeast China (Zhalong, Xianghai, Momoge and Keerqin NNRs), and the SCWP site on the wintering grounds for the Siberian Crane at Poyang Lake (Poyang Lake NNR in Jiangxi Province). The 13 monitoring partners, together with the five project sites, form the monitoring network, which is directed by national consultants and the NCU. A total of 158 monitoring sites are included in the network. According to the monitoring plan approved in 2004, the monitoring sites are subdivided into four sections, including 1) the wintering grounds and staging areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including Anhui, Jiangsu, Hubei and Hunan provinces, 2) staging areas in Northern China, 3) the Liaoning-Jilin, and 4) Heilongjiang- Inner Mongolia staging areas in Northeast China. The sites conduct monitoring activities according to the monitoring plan, and submit reports to the section principal. After collection and analysis, the section principal submits a combined report to the national level consultant, and the final report then is submitted to NCU for final approval. Based on the experience and practice gained through monitoring, the NCU revised and normalized the methods of data analysis and collection, introducing international advanced methods for monitoring and statistics; adjusted the layout of monitoring sites, by increasing some flexible monitoring sites and adding the spring/autumn migration monitoring site of Lianfengshan in Beidaihe; adjusting the monitoring time; and confirmed the content, format and time that monitoring groups submit phased outputs.

3 Activities under the Site Network The National Bird Banding Center (NBBC) appointed three staff to act as coordinators of the three networks established under the Asia Pacific Migratory Waterbird Conservation Strategy and now covered by Working Groups under the East Asia Australasia Flyway Partnership (NE Asia Crane Site Network WG, Anatidae WG, focusing on ducks, geese and swans, and Shorebird WG). These coordinators maintain communication with the secretariats of these WGs and attend related meetings and workshops. The Chinese national project team conducts information exchange and communication regarding Siberian Crane migration between professionals in China and Russia and will implement a Siberian Crane satellite telemetry project. To support the satellite telemetry data, the Chinese project team will verify results through ground surveys within China. NBBC convenes an annual flyway monitoring meeting to summarize the monitoring outputs, exchange monitoring information, adjust and improve monitoring content and methods according to experience and practice, and further develop the monitoring plan. The Chinese national project team appointed a flyway coordinator to collect relevant information on waterbird migration and communicate and exchange data with the Siberian Crane Flyway Coordinator located in Moscow. Major Findings The 18 monitoring partners set up 158 monitoring sites according to the regular migration flyway of Siberian Cranes. Continuous monitoring sites were established at regular staging areas, such as Lianfengshan in Beidahe in Hebei province, with 30 days of continuous monitoring records in spring and autumn, and increased morning and evening monitoring during peak migration periods. Temporary monitoring sites were checked in order to identify new staging or wintering areas. The NCU and national consultant established or adjusted the monitoring sites based on satellite monitoring results each year. The following are the major findings for each year of monitoring to date. 2004/2005 Monitoring In the spring monitoring of 2005, participants counted 153 White-naped Cranes, but the cranes were only distributed in the Nandagang wetland in Cangzhou (Hebei Province). No White-naped Cranes were found in the Yellow River Delta, where a larger number of White-naped Cranes were observed in autumn of /2007 Monitoring Siberian Cranes at Momoge National Nature Reserve November Photo by Sergei Sleptsov During the autumn monitoring activities in 2006 in North China, two Siberian Crane staging flocks were found in coastal areas of Cangzhou, and one Siberian Crane staging flock was monitored in the coastal area of Tangqin (Hebei Province). This autumn was the first time that Siberian Crane staging flocks were found in this area. Participants also discovered some new staging sites, such as Qilihai of Qinhuangdao (Hebei Province), Letingwangtanxinhai (Hebei Province), Dakouhe Salt Field of Haixing County (Hebei Province), Nandagang Reservoir (Hebei Province), Heiyupao of Daqing (Heilongjiang Province), Majiaduan (Jilin Province), Qiaojiaweizi in Jilin Province, Yancheng in Jiangsu Province, etc. The project secured some new records of

4 birds, such as Snow Goose and Bulwer s Petrel etc. in Hubei Province. The monitoring results in Lianfengshan confirmed again that the fall migration period for migratory cranes passing by Beidaihe (Hebei) is from the end of October to early November, and the period of northward migration in spring is in early March. In the autumn of 2006, 299 Siberian Cranes were recorded at 12 monitoring sites in Tumuji (191 cranes) in Inner Mongolia, and Tailai (19) and Zhalong (89) in Heilongjiang Province. In the spring of 2007, 72 Siberian Cranes were recorded in this area, and another seven individuals were recorded in Xingkaihu in Heilongjiang Province. Siberian Crane flocks were found in Xingkaihu continuously in 2006 and 2007, providing new information on the Siberian Crane migration route. A staging concentration of more than 2,000 Siberian Cranes was recorded in Momoge NNR on May 3, 2007; the largest group included 1,156 individuals. 2007/2008 Monitoring Results Section Date sites Middle and Lower Yangtze River Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia 20 Dec - 23 Feb Sep mid Oct late Mar early May species waterbirds ,813 (includes part of the autumn record in Jiangsu and Hubei Provinces) Siberian Cranes other key species* 56 2,148 (6 species) ,817 8 (total for both autumn and spring surveys) , Comments Counts of 23 species exceed 1% of the regional flyway populations; 12 species exceed 5-10% of the flyway population; 17 Nordmann s Greenshanks were first discovered Wang Lake at in Hubei. Counts exceeded 1% of flyway populations for 11 species in autumn 2007 and 10 species in spring 2008; 19 species totaling 53,952 individuals, are nationally protected birds listed in the CITES Appendices and IUCN Red List, of which seven species belong to Chinese 2nd Class Key Protected Birds. North China Oct 13 Nov 23 Feb 28 Mar , (8 species) , ,067 (6 species) ,550 Liaoning- Jilin Oct 10 Nov 9 Mar 14 Apr , important species** total 16, important species total 8,889 *Key species include Siberian Crane, Red-crowned Crane, White-naped Crane, Hooded Crane, Eurasian Crane, Demoiselle Crane, Sandhill Crane, Oriental White Stork, Black Stork, and the Great Bustard. **Species listed in CITES and Wetland Convention.

5 Conservation Implications The populations of waterbirds are relatively stable in China, though some sites witness declining trends due to consecutive years of drought and destruction of habitat. While the scientific data supporting these assessments are incomplete, in many cases improved assessments will take place as management plans are developed and implemented, with support from newly established GIS databases for the Songnen Plain and the Poyang Lake Basin. The systematic midwinter counts of Siberian Cranes in the Poyang Lake Basin from , recorded higher or similar numbers than the original population estimate of 3,200 birds. Aerial and ground surveys showed a number close to this population estimate only in December 2005, while the peak count was higher at 3,944 birds. Experts are hesitant to unconditionally accept these results, as some of the observers involved in this very demanding and complex census (involving 40 teams and 200 people) were relatively inexperienced and had limited equipment. But according to the survey results between 2006 and 2008, experts consider that 3,500 is an accurate population estimate for the eastern population of Siberian Cranes at present. A national Siberian Crane database is in preparation. This database will support the regional database developed through the SCWP to collect information on the main sites, species, number and distribution of Siberian Cranes, and data on other globally significant migratory birds that have been recorded at the project sites, as well as an indication of these sites condition. Aerial survey at Zhalong National Nature Reserve, Heilongjiang Province, spring Photo by Wang Wen Feng The project has demonstrated that monitoring methods for a migratory network are an effective strategy for monitoring waterbird species of concern, and this method has been commended for application to other significant waterbird monitoring efforts by China s State Forestry Association (SFA). The monitoring program has also promoted waterbird conservation in each province. For example, the problem of planting poplar trees in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River has required attention of the SFA, and in North China, the management of nature reserves and soil & water conservation has also won the attention of the local government.

6 Further Reading Further information will be available in 2009, when the various monitoring reports will be published and made available through the project s websites: and About the Authors Qian Fawen, Project Manager of China NCU. Jiang Hongxing, Technical Assistant of China NCU. Shu Jinde, Executive Assistant of China NCU. Liu Hua, Administrative Assistant of China NCU & Siberian Crane Flyway Coordinator of China.

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