SIL in de praktijk (Functional Safety) Antwerpen Compliance of Actuators and Life Cycle Considerations. SAMSON AG Dr.

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1 SIL in de praktijk (Functional Safety) Antwerpen SAMSON AG Dr. Thomas Karte Compliance of Actuators and Life Cycle Considerations SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators 1

2 Dr. Thomas Karte SAMSON AG, Frankfurt, Germany Applied Physics, University of Heidelberg, Germany Occupied in the Industry since 1985, general area of field instrumentation, later specialist in pneumatic instrumentation for valves in the process industry Joined SAMSON in 2003, since then engaged in Functional Safety Current position: Head of department for Innovation Management and Patents Member of VDI-GMA 6.13, Functional Safety, DKE 9.14, IEC TC65 WG 13 Numerous articles and patents SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 2

3 Control Elements - Complex Field Devices Main task - Change of Material Flows Increasing Diagnosis and Asset Management Functions SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 3

4 Standard questions and concerns Certificate for the device / final element in question What is the failure rate What is the value for diagnostic coverage How can evidence of these numbers be given What is the usefull lifetime Please, I want to have a SIL 3 valve SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 4

5 IEC and IEC SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 5

6 Requirement for subcomponent selection SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 6

7 Structure of talk Causes of Valve Failures Exclusion of Systematic Errors Manufacturer Measures Valve Testing Design and Implementation of Automated Testing Numerical Rating Summary SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 7

8 DIN EN in a nutshell Failures Sytematic failures Aviodable in principle FSM-System Not avoided Diagnostics Fail Safe diversely Redundancy Random failures Unaviodable in principle Diagnostics Fail Safe Redundancy Measures sufficient? Probability Calculation SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 8

9 Safety Life Cycle to avoid Systematic Errors 1 Hazard and risk assessment Allocation of safety functions to protection 2 layers Management and assessment of the functional safety audits Design and planning the Safetylifecycle 3 4 Step 2 Specification of Security? Requirements for the SIS Step 1 Step3 Design and planning of the SIS Design u.planung other measures to reduce risk Installation, commissioning and validation 5 Verification Step 4 Step Operation and maintenance Change Quelle: DIN EN Bild 8 8 Decommissioning SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 9 9

10 Main Components of the Final Element Membrane Globe Valve Spring Ball Valve Solenoid valve Positioner Limit Switch Packing Seat/Disk Housing Ball Seat Ring Housing SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 10

11 Potential Hazards (VDI ) Fatigue (e.g. Metal Bellows Seal) Wear from Cavitation / Flashing Abrasion (due to material flowing solids) Deposits of the Medium Aging: Damage caused by exposure to light and heat, Organic materials such as plastics and elastomers Chemical Attack: Damage caused by chemical extraction & decomposition processes SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 11

12 Actuator Reliability, Is a Constant Failure Rate Meaningfull? Electronics Mechanics Statistical Statements on the Reliability Controlled Environment Self-Diagnosis Methods for accelerated Aging Macroscopic, accountable System Media Influence Environmental Influence Long term Effects can t be Accelerated SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 12

13 Qualifying Procedures - Manufacturer 1 ISO 9001 Qualified 2 Quality Manual, Primary Process Development 3 Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EG 4 Calculation of Pressurized Parts 5 Materials and Supplier Qualification for Pressure Parts 6 Standard Tests to SAMSON- Globe Valves 7 Quality Management installed that keeps track of field performance 8 Adapting the final element to the specific process valve seizing SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 13

14 Fixed R&D Schedule compliant to ISO SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 14

15 Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EG SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 15

16 Calculation of Pressurized Parts SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 16

17 Calculation of Pressurized Parts SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 17

18 Materials and Supplier Qualification for Pressure Parts Supplier Qualification by SAMSON-Specifications Minimum Requirement Material Certificate according to DIN EN %-Examination of the Pressure-Bearing parts in the Receipt of Goods SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 18

19 Standard Test to SAMSON Globe Valves SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 19

20 Valve Seizing Collection of Customer Data in Accordance with DIN EN Collection of additional Information by Echange with Customers Creating a TV-SK (special design) if necessary SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 20

21 Valve Seizing Permissible Flow Velocities Subcritical Relaxation 10bar to 7bar U VC < Ma1 Critical Relaxation 10bar to 5bar U VC = Ma1 Supercritical Relaxation 10bar to 2,5bar U VC > Ma SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 21

22 Safety Lifecycle to Avoid Systematic Errors 1 Hazard and risk assessment Allocation of safety functions to protection layers 2 Management and assessment of the functional safety audits Design and planning the Safetylifecycle 3 Specification of Security? Requirements for the SIS Step 1 Design and planning of the SIS 4 Step 2 Step3 Design u.planung other measures to reduce risk Installation, commissioning and validation 5 Validation Verification Quelle: DIN EN Bild 8 Step 4 Periodic inspection and testing Examination during operation Stufe 5 Documentation 1 system failure Operation and maintenance Change Decommissioning SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 22

23 Safety life cycle at customer side Specification of safety requirements Selection of suitable components Manufacturer declaration Valve seizing (fit to the specific process) Proven in use statement highly recommended (NE 130) Consideration on reliability Defined procedures for inspection and testing Trained personal Documentation of all steps SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 23

24 What is the safety requirement The final element shall shut down or open the pipe Leakage rate Time response Keep specifications as wide as possible This has major influence on testing and diagnostic SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 24

25 Namur recommendation NE 130 Proven in use NE 130 provides clear definition for proven in use Instrument performance for a specific application is rated SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 25

26 Failure rates provided by NE 130 Based an data generated by NE 93 Survey on a voluntary basis within NAMUR companies Applicable for proven in use devices SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 26

27 Process equipment datasheet (VDI 2180 Part 5) Valve seizing process to adapt to specific application Guided by VDI (example) SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 27

28 How is a Valve Tested From the Manufacturer Items Leak Test Pressure Test Functional Test In the plant Inspection after (Plant Tour, Visual Inspection) Functional Test during Non-Operating Times (Parameters: Function, Closing Time, End Position) Functional Testing under Load (+ leaks) Standard requires Testing under Operating Conditions SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 28

29 Automation Options Solenoid Valve, Limit Switches 3730 Positioner Solenoid valve, Limit Switches and Positioners Diagnostic Capability in a Housing Diagnostics Automatic Monitoring during Operation 3738 Intelligent Limit Switch Solenoid Valve, Limit Switches Certified Safety Function by TÜV Diagnostics Automatic Monitoring during Operation SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 29

30 Positioner as a Single Automation Component Suitability for Safetyrelated Circuits Shutdown over 4 ma Reduced Cabling Costs Safety-related Control Position Feedback Pressure Measurement Automation Valve Test Test Coverage Pneumatic Positioner Positioner, Analogue Positioner, Analogue Positioner yes SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 30

31 Automated Testing Reproducible Implementation: Valve movement is initiated Positioner Internal Measurement of the Valve Motion Valve Motion is Recorded Result: Functional Test Path-time Diagram Dead time, run-time Breakout Force Exact closed position ALARM Dokumentation: Registration of the Event Numerical Results Path-time Diagram Good / Bad Review SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 31

32 Periodic Inspection Implementation: Manually triggered Automatic test without user interaction Solution: Functional Test Travel-time Diagram Dead time, Run-time Breakout Force Exact Closed Position ALARM Rating: Ability to move Breakout Force Travel-time Tightness (from closed position) SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 32

33 Testing During Operation Implementation: Manually or automatically triggered Automatic test without user interaction Result: Functional Test Path-time Diagram Dead time, Run-time Breakout Force Exact Closed Position ALARM Rating: Ability to move Breakout Force Travel-time Tightness (from closed position) As an additional Security Measure, or to check during Operation SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 33

34 Examination during Operation, Friction Detection SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 34

35 Capture of spurious trips Implementation: Triggered by valve movement independent data collection Result: Functional Test Travel-time Diagram Dead time, Run-time Breakout Force Exact Closed Position Alarm Rating: Ability to move Breakout Force Travel-time Tightness (from closed position) SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 35

36 Extended Operation Time by Online Testing 1 PFD = λ T PR 2 λ = 1,14-06 Failure rate (1/hr) T PR = 1 year Proof Test Intervall 0,0100 0,0075 PFD SIL2- Grenze Bauformen SIL 2 (Final element 50%) PFD 0,0050 0,0025 0, Prooftest [month] Safety margin SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 36

37 Extended Operation Time by Online Testing 1 PFD = λ T PR PFD = λ DC T + λ (1 DC) 2 2 PST T PR DC = 0,6 Diagnostic coverage λ = 1,14-06 Failure rate (1/hr) T PST = 1 month Partial Stroke Intervall T PR Proof Test Intervall 0,0100 0,0075 PFD PFD PST PST SIL2- Grenze Bauformen SIL 2 (Final element 50%) PFD 0,0050 0,0025 0, Prooftest [month] Safety margin SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 37

38 Optimization of Safety Loops ( 3.4.1) and IEC Analysis of the records is mandatory Documentation for the operating experience regarding any problems Potential for improvement: new devices with more favorable properties Option to extend the proof time Aus Paul Gruhn, Safety Shutdown Systems SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 38

39 Trending SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 39

40 Error Images and Diagnostic Coverage Component Failure Mode Recognizability Seat/Disk Corrosion internal/external Fatigue (e.g. Metal Bellows Seal) Wear from Cavitation / Flashing Abrasion Deposits of the medium Flow measurement, diagnosis STR, disassembly not applicable Flow measurement, diagnosis STR, disassembly Flow measurement, diagnosis STR, disassembly Flow measurement, diagnosis STR, disassembly Diagnostic Possibility Positioner acoustic leak sensor, zero offset (driving force, friction) not applicable acoustic leak sensor, end position trend (Zero Point offset), (driving force, friction) Aging not applicable not applicable Chemical Attack not applicable not applicable mechanical stress Flow measurement, diagnosis STR, disassembly acoustic leak sensor, end position trend (Zero Point offset), (driving force, friction) SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 40

41 Summary Normative Requirements: Defined Processes, Documentation, Diagnostics Coverage Systematic failures are dominant as a consequence Safety Life Cycle is the most important isssue Safety Life Cycle is supported by state of the art instrumentation SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 41

42 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! Compliance for Actuators SAMSON AG Dr. Karte Compliance of Actuators. 42

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