ILLUSTRATION 10-1 CAPITALIZATION OF INTEREST COST

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1 ILLUSTRATION 10-1 CAPITALIZATION OF INTEREST COST There are seven steps involved in the capitalization of interest. 1. Determine Which Assets Qualify for Capitalization of Interest. Qualifying assets include assets under construction for the firm's own use (such as buildings, machinery) and assets under construction for sale or lease as part of discrete projects (such as real estate projects). 2. Determine the Capitalization Period. The capitalization period begins when all three of the following conditions have been met: (1) Expenditures for the asset have been made (i.e., the firm has made cash payments or has incurred debt for construction of the asset). (2) Necessary activities to get the asset ready for its intended use are in progress (i.e., actual construction work is taking place). (3) Interest cost of some kind is being incurred (i.e., the firm has some type of interest-bearing debt outstanding). This debt need not be specific debt incurred on the asset. It may be general debt such as bonds payable. Therefore a company may capitalize interestcost even though the entire construction cost of the asset was paid for in cash, so long as the company has some type of interest-bearing debt outstanding. The capitalization period ends when any one of these three conditions is no longer being met. 3. Compute the Expenditures Made During the Capitalization Period. An expenditure may be financed either with cash payments or with the incurrence of debt. Whenever an expenditure is made on a qualifying asset, the qualifying asset account is debited and either the cash account or a liability account is credited. 4. Compute Weighted-Average Accumulated Expenditures. The amount of expenditures on qualifying assets usually varies considerably; it builds up or accumulates as additional expenditures are made during the year. In order to determine the interest cost associated with these expenditures, it is necessary first to compute the weighted-average accumulated expenditures. This figure is an "average" or "annualized" quantity representing the average amount of funds tied up in construction throughout the year. 73

2 ILLUSTRATION 10-1 (continued) 5. Compute Avoidable Interest. The purpose of this computation is to estimate the amount of interest that theoretically could have been avoided if expenditures had not been made on qualifying assets. Three procedures must be followed before avoidable interest can be computed: (1) Identify the company's outstanding debt and classify either as: a. Specific debt debt incurred specifically to finance the construction of assets. b. General debt all company debt excluding specific debt. (2) Determine the appropriate interest rate to apply to the weighted average accumulated expenditures. a. Specific debt rate the interest rate associated with specific debt. b. General debt rate a weighted-average of interest rates incurred on all other outstanding debt during the period. (3) Compute the avoidable interest. a. Multiply the specific debt interest rate times the portion of the weighted-average accumulated expenditures that is less than or equal to the amount of specifically borrowed debt. b. Multiply the weighted-average of interest rates incurred on all other general debt times the portion of the weighted-average accumulated expenditures that is greater than the specific debt. 6. Compute the Actual Interest Cost Incurred. It would not be reasonable to capitalize more interest than the total amount of interest cost actually incurred. 7. Determine the Interest Cost to be Capitalized. The interest cost to be capitalized is the avoidable interest or the actual interest, whichever is less. The amount of interest capitalized is debited to an asset account along with the construction and other costs of acquiring the asset. These costs are depreciated over the asset's expected useful life. The amount of interest cost expensed is written off immediately to Interest Expense. 74

3 ILLUSTRATION 10-2 CAPITALIZATION OF INTEREST EXAMPLE Delmar Corporation borrowed \$200,000 at 12% interest from State Bank on January 1, 1997, for the specific purpose of constructing special-purpose equipment to be used in its operations. Construction on the equipment began on January 1, 1997, and the following expenditures were made prior to the project's completion on December 31, 1997: Expenditures Made in 1997 January 1 \$100,000 April ,000 November 1 300,000 December ,000 Total expenditures \$650,000 Other general debt existing on January 1, 1997, and issued in 1997 at par was: \$500,000, 14%, 10-year bonds payable \$300,000, 10%, 5-year note payable Step 1: Determine which assets qualify for capitalization of interest. Special purpose equipment qualifies for interest capitalization because it requires a period of time to get ready and it will be used in Delmar's operations. Step 2: Determine the capitalization period. The capitalization period is from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1997 because expenditures are being made and interest costs are being incurred during this period while construction is taking place. Step 3: Compute the expenditures during the capitalization period. Expenditures Made in 1997 January 1 \$100,000 April ,000 November 1 300,000 December ,000 Total expenditures \$650,000 75

4 ILLUSTRATION 10-2 (continued) Step 4: Compute the weighted-average accumulated expenditures. Date Amount Capitalization Period Weighted-Average Accumulated Expenditures Jan. 1 \$100,000 12/12 \$100,000 Apr ,000 8/12 100,000 Nov ,000 2/12 50,000 Dec ,000 0/12 0 \$650,000 \$250,000 Step 5: Compute avoidable interest. Specific debt: \$200,000 12% = \$ 24,000 General debt: \$500,000 14% = 70,000 \$300,000 10% = 30,000 Total annual interest expense \$124,000 Weighted-average interest rate on general debt = \$100,000/\$800,000 = 12.5% Accumulated Expenditures Interest Rates Avoidable Interest \$200,000 12% \$24,000 50, % 6,250 \$250,000 \$30,250 Step 6: Compute the actual interest cost incurred. The actual interest cost incurred during the capitalization period is \$124,000 (Step 5). Step 7: Determine the interest cost to be capitalized. Avoidable interest of \$30,250 (Step 5) is less than actual interest of \$124,000 (Step 6); therefore, \$30,250 interest costs can be capitalized. 76

5 ILLUSTRATION 10-3 FLOWCHART FOR DETERMINING CAPITALIZATION OF INTEREST COST CAPITALIZATION OF INTEREST under SFAS #34 Qualifying Asset? Intended for Sale or Lease, Constructed as a Discrete Project over Time OR Intended for Company Use, Constructed as a Discrete Project over Time NO SFAS #34 Does Not Apply YES Capitalize Interest during the Acquisition (= Capitalization) Period Three Capitalization Criteria Met? 1. Expenditures for asset made. 2. Asset construction in process. 3. Interest costs incurred. NO Capitalization Period Has Not Yet Begun YES Capitalize the Lesser of Avoidable Interest: Actual Interest: Applicable Rate(s) from Interest Expense Specific &/or Weighted incurred on the Average Rate(s), applied Outstanding Debt to Weighted Average during the Acquisition Accumulated Expenditures Period Capitalize Interest until the Asset is Substantially Complete and Ready for Use Charge Capitalized Interest to the Cost of the Asset DISCLOSE: Total & Capitalized Interest, Interest Expense 77

6 ILLUSTRATION 10-4 ACCOUNTING FOR NONMONETARY EXCHANGES The following steps may be used to account for nonmonetary exchanges. 1. Compute the net book value (carrying value) of the old asset. This is equal to original cost minus accumulated depreciation on the date of exchange. 2. Compute the realized gain or loss. This is equal to the difference between the fair market value (FMV) and the net book value of the old asset on the date of exchange. a. If fair market value is greater than net book value, a gain has been realized. b. If fair market value is less than net book value, a loss has been realized. 3. Use the chart below to determine the gain or loss to be recorded. 4. Prepare the journal entry to record the exchange. This entry involves the following: a. Remove the cost and accumulated depreciation of the old asset from the books. b. Record any cash paid or received. c. Record any gain or loss as determined in Step 2. Use the chart below. d. Record the cost basis of the new asset. Use the chart below. IF LOSS REALIZED IF GAIN REALIZED FROM STEP 2 FROM STEP 2 DISSIMILAR Record the entire loss. Record the entire gain. ASSETS Record the new asset at Value A.* Record the new asset at Value A.* SIMILAR Record the entire loss. If NO Cash is Exchanged ASSETS Record the new asset at Value A.* or Cash (Boot) is Paid: Record no gain. Record the new asset at Value B.** If Cash (Boot) is Received: Record a portion of the gain as shown below.*** Record the new asset at Value B.** *Value A: This is the fair market value of the new asset. It should also be equal to the fair market value of the old asset plus the cash paid or minus the cash received. **Value B: This is the fair market value of the new asset minus the gain deferred (i.e., minus the gain or portion of gain that is not recorded). It should also be equal to the net book value of the old asset plus the cash paid or minus the cash received and plus the gain, if any, that is recorded. ***Portion of Gain to be Recorded when Cash (Boot) is Received: Gain Recorded = Gain Realized Cash Received Cash Received + FMV of New Asset 78

7 ILLUSTRATION 10-5 NONMONETARY EXCHANGE FLOWCHART EXCHANGE OF NONMONETARY ASSETS What is the nature of the assets being exchanged? SIMILAR DISSIMILAR What is the outcome of the exchange of similar assets? For the gain situation, was any monetary consideration received (and less than 25%)?* GAIN LOSS YES NO Recognize loss immediately Record acquired asset at the fair value of asset given up or fair value of asset received, whichever is more clearly evident. Recognized gain/loss immediately RECOGNIZE PORTION OF GAIN DEFER GAIN Recognized Gain Cash Received = Gain Realized Cash Received + Fair Value of Other Assets Received *If monetary consideration received is 25% or more, the entire gain is recognized. 79

8 ILLUSTRATION 10-6 EXCHANGE OF SIMILAR NONMONETARY ASSETS (WITH AND WITHOUT BOOT) EXAMPLE Gamble Company exchanges its delivery trucks and \$100,000 for similar type delivery trucks from Proctor Company. Relevant information on the date of exchange is as follows: GAMBLE COMPANY PROCTOR COMPANY Gamble trucks \$400,000 Proctor trucks \$600,000 Accumulated depreciated 100,000 Accumulated depreciation 200,000 Book value \$300,000 Book value \$400,000 Fair market value of Fair market value of Gamble trucks \$400,000 Proctor trucks \$500,000 Gamble Company Analysis 1. Book value of Gamble trucks \$300, Gain realized (\$400,000 \$300,000) \$100, Defer gain (earnings process not complete) 4. Value assigned to Proctor trucks (\$500,000 \$100,0000) \$400,000 Gamble Company Entry to Record Exchange Trucks (Proctor).. 400,000 Accumulated depreciation. 100,000 Trucks (Gamble) ,000 Cash. 100,000 80

9 ILLUSTRATION 10-6 (continued) Proctor Company Analysis 1. Book value of Proctor trucks \$400, Gain realized (\$500,000 \$400,000) \$100, Recognize gain for portion asset sold \$100,000 \$100,000 \$ 20,000 \$100,000 + \$400, Defer portion of gain on asset considered exchanged \$100,000 \$20,000 = \$80,000 Gain deferred 5. Value assigned to Gamble trucks (\$400,000 \$80,000) \$320,000 Proctor Company Entry to Record Exchange Cash.. 100,000 Trucks (Gamble).. 320,000 Accumulated depreciation. 200,000 Trucks (Proctor) 600,000 Gain on Sale of Trucks 20,000 81

10 ILLUSTRATION 10-7 SUMMARY OF COSTS SUBSEQUENT TO ACQUISITION OF PROPERTY, PLANT, AND EQUIPMENT Type of Expenditure Additions Normal Accounting Treatment Capitalize cost of addition to asset account. Improvements and (a) Carrying value known: Remove cost of Replacements and accumulated depreciation on old asset, recognizing any gain or loss. Capitalize cost of improvement/ replacement. (b) Carrying value unknown: 1. If the assets' useful life is extended, debit accumulated depreciation for cost of improvement/replacement. 2. If the quantity or quality of the assets' productivity is increased. Capitalized cost of improvement/replacement to asset account. Rearrangement (a) If original installation cost is known, and Reinstallation account for cost of rearrangement/ reinstallation as a replacement (carrying value known). (b) If original installation cost is unknown and rearrangement/reinstallation cost is material in amount and benefits future periods, capitalize as an asset. (c) If original installation cost is unknown and rearrangement/reinstallation cost is not material or future benefit is questionable, expense the cost when incurred. Repairs (a) Ordinary: Expense cost of repairs when incurred. (b) Major: As appropriate, treat as an addition, improvement, or replacement. 82

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