1 How to Efficiently Protect Active Directory from Credential Theft & Large Scale Compromise An Approach Based on Real-World Expertise Friedwart Kuhn, Digital unterschrieben von Friedwart Kuhn DN: c=de, o=ernw Enno Rey Netzwerke GmbH, cn=friedwart Kuhn, givenname=friedwart Nikodemus Michael, sn=kuhn, serialnumber=dtrwm Datum: :12:04 +01'00'
4 #4 Medium-Large Enterprises Firewall Intrusion Detection Anti Spam Antivirus for Mail Web Security * virus hits Antivirus Desktop Firewall > unwanted attempts / day 3,1 Mio* spam s * virus infected s 4.500* infections Content Security Perimeter Security Provider managed environment Endpoint Security Secure Connectivity Internal Security * connections Remote Access Encryption Access control Rights Management * figures per month
5 #5 Do you think it might be possible that one of your Windows systems in Active Directory is compromised?
6 #6 Do you think you are protected against Pass-the-$ attacks? Do you know about Golden Tickets?
11 #11 Pass the Hash in 48 hours (or less) 1. Attacker targets workstations en masse 2. User running as local admin is compromised, attacker harvests credentials 3. Attacker uses credentials for lateral movement or privilege escalation 4. Attacker acquires domain admin credentials 5. Attacker exercises full control of data and systems in the environment Source: Mark Simos, Nicholas DiCola; TWC: Pass-the-Hash and Credential Theft Mitigation Architectures
12 #12 Number of breaches per threat action category over time : DBIR 2014
13 #13 : DBIR 2014
14 #14 How do you communicate this to the management?
15 #15 So, let s start ;-)
16 #16 Authentication in Windows
17 #17 Security Subsystem Architecture Ensures authentication and authorization Components run in the context of the lsass.exe Includes Kerberos v5 authentication protocol NTLM authentication protocol LSA Server service And others
18 #19 LSA Protection Mechanisms Cryptomaterial (credentials, keys, etc.) in memory is encrypted, but in a reversible fashion Encryption is symmetric, keys are also in memory in the LSASS process Of particular interest: Password hashes Encryption keys Kerberos tickets
19 #20 Local LM/NTLM Authentication Administrator: LSASS (msv1_0.dll) LM : daf637eb992bce6e63272efef04def49 NTLM : 8b763234bce9ac475f9b26ffc SAM Database User
20 #21 Kerberos Authentication protocol for mutual authentication between client/server or server/server Used to access a service on a remote system Three integral parts: Key Distribution Center (KDC) Client user Server with the desired service/resource KDC part of the Domain Controller; performs two service functions: Authentication Service (AS) Ticket-Granting Service (TGS) Three different symmetric encryption keys are relevant in the process
21 #22 Kerberos Keys KDC long-term key (Domain key) Derived from krbtgt account password Usage: Ticket-Granting Ticket (TGT) encryption Sign token information, the so called PAC Client long-term key Derived from user/computer account password Usage: AS-REQ time stamp encryption Session key encryption Server/service long-term key Derived from computer account password Usage: Service Ticket encryption Countersign PAC in Service Ticket
22 #23 Microsoft Kerberos PAC Privileged Account Certificate (PAC) Extension element of the authorization-data field in Kerberos tickets Contains authorization-related information for Windows security principles: SIDs and RIDs Group membership User profile information (home directory or logon scripts) Password credentials Security privileges Signed with the KDC long-term key and the service longterm key
23 #24 Kerberos Authentication Overview LSASS (kerberos.dll) User Administrator: * Long Term User Key List : aes256_hmac e0b61d f8de01092e f6ecf539681dc1100fd02bcaffdec aes128_hmac 137dd845f8e47bb64249a80dc98cc807 rc4_hmac_nt 8b763234bce9ac475f9b26ffc Depending on the encryption type (AES, CBC, RC4, ) used in the authentication process, different keys are needed DES-CBC-MD5 and DES- CBC-CRC deactivated by default on Windows 7/Server 2008 R2 The key for RC4-HMAC is specified by [RFC4757] as [ ] the existing Windows NT key (NT Password Hash) for compatibility reasons KDC KDC TGT Service Ticket (5) Usage
24 #29 2 Important Conclusions 1. Who is the trust anchor in Active Directory 2. Which credentials are in which way stored/accessible in Windows memory
25 #30 The Trust Anchor Remember: the KDC creates the PAC (contains information about how powerful the user is (his privileges, group memberships etc.) and signs it with the KRBTGT s NTLM hash $Domain KRBTGT $Root Domain $Domain KRBTGT s NTLM hash = central trusted token stamping authority = trust anchor of the domain Keep this in mind, we will come back to this later ;-)
26 Credentials/Credential Material in LSASS #31 Primary CredentialKeys tspkg wdigest kerberos LM NTLM SHA1 NTLM SHA1 Root DPAPI off on off on pass 1 PIN 4 tickets ekeys Local Account 2 Domain Account 2 5 Local Account Domain Account Microsoft Account Local Account Domain Account Windows XP/2003 Windows Vista/2008 & 7/2008r2 Windows 8/2012 Windows 8.1/2012r2 Microsoft Account 3 3 Local Account Domain Account 3 3 Domain Protected Users 3 3 livessp ssp dpapi credman 6 Microsoft Account Local Account Windows 8.1 vault for user's authentication not applicable 1. can need an unlock on NT5, not available with smartcard PIN Picture Fingerprint data in memory 2. tspkg is not installed by default on XP, not available on 2003 code pass gestures pass pass no data in memory 3. tspkg is off by default (but needed for SSO with remoteapps/ts), wdigest too 4. PIN code when SmartCard used for native Logon 5. PIN code is NOT encrypted in memory (XP/2003) 6. When accessed/used by owner 7. When local admin, UAC and after unlock Source: Benjamin Delpy,
27 #32 Ubuntu Kerberos Client (MIT) Client caches tickets in a file In /tmp One file per user User has full access to all his tickets In Windows users cannot export their tickets by default Root user has access to all ticket caches of all users Tickets can be easily extracted an reused in e.g. mimikatz
28 #33 Credential Theft and Reuse
29 #34 Pass-the-Hash LM/NTLM Authentication Administrator: LSASS (msv1_0.dll) LM : daf637eb992bce6e63272efef04def49 NTLM : 8b763234bce9ac475f9b26ffc User PtH: Reuse of valid password hashes as a credential equivalent to authenticate to a remote server/service LSASS (msv1_0.dll) Administrator: LM : daf637eb992bce6e63272efef04def49 NTLM : 8b763234bce9ac475f9b26ffc b763234bce9ac47 5f9b26ffc
30 #35 Pass-the-Ticket: TGT LSASS (kerberos.dll) Administrator: * Long Term User Key List : aes256_hmac e0b61d f8de01092e f6ecf539681dc1100fd02bcaffdec aes128_hmac 137dd845f8e47bb64249a80dc98cc807 rc4_hmac_nt 8b763234bce9ac475f9b26ffc TGT PtT: Reuse of valid Kerberos tickets to receive Service Tickets or access Kerberos services directly TGT Service Ticket (5) Usage KDC KDC
31 #36 Pass-the-Ticket: Service Ticket LSASS (kerberos.dll) Service Ticket Administrator: * Long Term User Key List : aes256_hmac e0b61d f8de01092e f6ecf539681dc1100fd02bcaffdec aes128_hmac 137dd845f8e47bb64249a80dc98cc807 rc4_hmac_nt 8b763234bce9ac475f9b26ffc Service Ticket (5) Usage KDC KDC
32 #37 Export Kerberos Tickets They can be used ;-) (for 10h)
33 #38 Summary Pass-the- Ticket Several ways to obtain Kerberos tickets Can be used to impersonate other users TGT and Service Ticket both have time restrictions Full impersonation of a user for up to 10 hours (default lifetime of TGTs) Access to a service for up to 10 hours (default lifetime of Service Tickets) so, why not create our own tickets?
34 #39 Self-made Kerberos Tickets
35 #40 Golden Ticket Self-made Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT) It s done with a lot of love <3 (Credit goes to Benjamin ;-)) Requires the KDC long-term key (krbtgt key/hash) from the Domain Controller _NOT_ made by the KDC Variable life time (e.g. 10 years) Not limited by security settings (e.g. Group Policy settings) PAC can have arbitrary attributes (e.g. User name, user RID, group membership) Smart card independent
36 #41 Remember ;-) The KDC long-term key (krbtgt key) is the primary trust anchor in a Kerberos environment Compromise of the krbtgt means compromise of the whole Domain KRBTGT $Root Domain $Domain $Domain Krbtgt key is generated once and does not change automatically Only changes during an upgrade of the Domain Functional Level from NT5 -> NT6 Windows Server 2000/2003 to Server 2008/2012 An upgrade from Server 2008 to 2012 does _NOT_ change the value Previous krbtgt key is also valid!
37 #42 Golden Ticket Prerequisites KDC long-term key, RC4 (NTLM hash) or AES Available through different tools/techniques: Domain SID Domain Name Online: From DC memory with mimikatz (see example) Offline: From ntds.dit dump, task manager lsass.exe dump mimikatz # lsadump::lsa /inject /name:krbtgt Domain : BSC / S RID : f6 (502) User : krbtgt * Primary LM : NTLM : 14057bb953e6252fed b3f8190 * Kerberos-Newer-Keys Default Salt : BSC.LOCALkrbtgt Default Iterations : 4096 Credentials aes256_hmac (4096) : 16f13f49a9918f0f c dba8ed2d2727efa1d946cfe9bfb53b95 aes128_hmac (4096) : f15a9b2cbb40e81a09bda8a039e83181 des_cbc_md5 (4096) : 6dd3c101292ca154
38 #43 Capabilities of Golden Tickets Create TGTs for: Existing user accounts with valid group membership Impersonate any user on the domain Existing user accounts with arbitrary group membership Impersonate any user on the domain and join any domain group (e.g. Domain Admins) Non-existing user accounts with arbitrary group membership User Eve as Domain Administrator Existing but disabled user accounts Be creative ;)
39 #44 I like this one ;-) Thx, Benjamin ::
40 #45 And now???
41 #46 Mitigations
42 #47 So what to do? To prevent/mitigate credential theft and PtH in your environment The short version The more comprehensive version
43 Mitigations --The 2-Slider ;-) (1/2) In 3 major steps : Reorganization of administrative practice /management of Active Directory and business critical services Complement reorganization of Active Directory management with some PtHspecific controls Implement appropriate Active Directory security logging & monitoring Comparably small investment in new hardware and software #48
44 #49 (2/2) This will _not_ require spending money for additional $Hardware & $Software The small print: But you will most probably need more administrative /operational resources
45 #50 That s it! You are done ;-) Management will understand this? At least, they will understand the second slide. So don t forget the small print. Remember what Haroon said about information asymmetry Easy task?
46 #51 Mitigations the More Comprehensive Version ;-)
47 #52 Mitigations Overview High level steps Precondition Design & Organizational Controls Technical Controls 1. Identify business critical systems & applications and services 2. Have processes in place (patch mgmt & so on ) 3. Design & implement administration model & tiers 4. Implement ESAE forest 5. Implement secure Domain Controllers 6. Implement secure domain members 7. Implement MARS 8. Implement technical controls to prevent a. Credential theft b. Unauthorized credential use 9. Implement Active Directory security logging & monitoring
48 #53 Design & Implement Administration Model and Tiers See 
49 #54 Design & Implement Administration Model and Tiers Considerations (might be recommendations): Implement at least 3 tiers Domain Controllers Servers with compartments between business critical services/server and other member servers Clients Each tier might have more than one compartment Separate internal Active Directory (forest) from DMZ Active Directory (forest)
50 #55 Design & Implement Administration Model and Tiers See 
51 #56 How the Model Works Each administrative resource (group, account, servers, workstation, Active Directory object, or application) has to be classified as belonging to only one tier. Personnel with responsibilities at multiple tiers must have separate administrative accounts created for each required tier. Any account that currently logs on to multiple tiers must be split into multiple accounts, each of which fits within only one tier definition. These accounts must also be required to have different passwords.
52 #57 How the Model Works Administrative accounts may not control highertier resources through administrative access. Accounts that control a higher tier may not log on to lower-tier computers. Administrative accounts may control lower-tier resources as required by their role, but only through management interfaces that are at the higher tier and that do not expose credentials. Example: domain admin accounts (tier 0) managing server admin Active Directory account objects (tier 1) through Active Directory mmc consoles on a domain controller (tier 0).
53 #58 How the Model Works Limit the number of administrative accounts, especially in tier 0. The schema admin group should have members only on demand. Limit the number of hosts on which administrative credentials are exposed. Limit administrative role privileges to the minimum required.
54 #59 How the Model Works Create a special group with the debug privilege and grant membership to this group only on demand. Administrative accounts should not be member of this group by default. Restrict and protect high privileged domain accounts, so that: Domain admins (tier 0) cannot log on to enterprise servers (tier 1) and standard user workstations (tier 2). Server administrators (tier 1) cannot log on to standard user workstations (tier 2). (users, computers) so that they can not be delegated
55 #60 How the Model Works Restrict and protect local accounts with administrative privileges from being used for PtH Enforce local account restrictions for remote access Deny network logon to all local accounts Create unique passwords for privileged local accounts or use a 3 rd -party vendor solution for local account management.
56 A Simple Proposal Define admin tiers for 1. DCs 2. Servers. With admin compartments for: 1. Business critical systems 2. Windows-based servers 3. Linux/UX servers in AD 3. Desktops /Laptops #61
57 #62 Administrative Tier Model at Your Org. Pre-condition Re-org. of AD administration Identification of business critical systems & applications Pro Best security benefit Future (Windows) administration model Challenges Requires modification in admin mindset Admins will have more accounts and hence higher operational effort Services with domain admin privileges undermine admin tiering Alternatives none
58 #63 Build it by your own. Don t buy it. (Haroon Meer, Troopers 2015)
59 #64 ESAE Forest
60 #65 ESAE Forest You might be willing to implement an ESAE forest. Service offered by Microsoft. From 
61 #66 ESAE Forest Pre-condition Re-org. of AD administration Implementation of administrative tiers Pro Cons Additional layer of security for high privileged admin accounts SCOM monitoring with special package for monitoring of changes of authentication packages on DCs in the production domain Supposes that the trust anchor of a forest are the Admins. Does not add an additional layer of security for the KRBTGT account. Adds administrative and operational complexity
62 #67 Secure DCs & Domain Members Security best practices for domain members Have OS _and_ application software up-to-date (patch & vulnerability management) I won t speak about passwords You know that one ;-) (but keep them long an complex anyway ) Have special look at service accounts Have UAC enabled at least at its default configuration Have DEP enabled & EMET deployed on as much systems as possible At least on clients and DCs and IIS (Web servers) Have a look on additional NTFS permissions Implement restricted groups for privileged local accounts Don t give admins by default the debug privilege
63 #68 Valuable Recommendations on Service Accounts. Read this (https://community.rapid7.com/ docs/doc-2881 ).
64 #69 PtH /PtT /Golden Ticket Mitigations
65 #70 PtH /PtT /Golden Ticket Mitigations There is not so much to do extra ;-) 1. Do the stuff already mentioned Orga & technique 2. Reset KRBTGT account on a regular basis 02/11/krbtgt-account-password-resetscripts-now-available-for-customers/ 3. Do Active Directory security monitoring
66 #71 Overall Evaluation Table of Mitigations Mitigation Comment Security Benefit Operational Feasibility Mitigates Cred. Theft Mitigation Prevention Mitigates Cred. Use Mitigation Prevention Mitigates Priv. Esca. Mitigation Prevention Mitigates Lat. Movement Mitigation Prevention Effective against mimikatz Facilitates Sec. Monitoring Must Have Recommended Admin Tiering /Credential Partitioning ESAE Forest Secure Administration Hosts Periodical KRBTGT Reset Req.1: Restrict & protect high privileged domain accounts from logon to lower tiers: deny logon locally, deny logon as a batch job, deny log on as a service; account is sensitive and cannot be delegated. Req.2: Restrict & protect local accounts with admin privileges from being used for PtH: Enforce local account restrictions for remote access, Deny network logon to all local accounts, Create unique passwords for privileged local accounts. excellent low no yes yes yes (requires compartments within tier) no yes yes Makes only sense together with Admin Tiering high medium yes no yes no no yes yes Secure administration hosts are possible even without admin tiering, but full benefit requires admin tiering. high medium yes no yes no no a little bit ;-) for DC tier for server (& workstation tier) high Should be low, but little experience no yes (against existing GTs) yes (against existing GTs) yes (against existing no (but restricts GT GTs) use) yes yes (assume breach)
67 3/24/2015 #72 There s never enough time THANK YOU...for yours!
68 Disclaimer All products, company names, brand names, trademarks and logos are the property of their respective owners!
69 #74 Backup
70 #75 An Overall Evaluation of Controls For PtH/PtT/Golden Ticket-specific Attacks
71 Implement Technical Controls to prevent credential theft & unauthorized credential use To be discussed or evaluated in your Org.: Each control has to be evaluated with reference to: Security benefit Operational feasibility User acceptance Cost estimate #76
72 #77 PtH/PtT Specific Controls Short Version For a 2008 R2- /Win 7-based infrastructure with DLF 2008 R2. (Newer OS versions might be part of the domain and take advantage of some mitigations that require Server 2012 R2 /Windows 8.1) Implement Admin Tiering with Logon restrictions for high privileged domain accounts & local accounts with admin privileges & well known SIDs Implement secure admin hosts Use remote management tools that do not place reusable creds in remote computers memory Implement services hardening Reset KRBTGT account Enforce credential removal after logoff Remove LM Hashes from LSASS Remove plaintext creds from LSASS for domain accounts LSA Protection Restrict debug privilege
73 PtH/PtT Specific Controls Short Version For a relative homogeneous environment with: - Windows Server 2012 R2 & Windows DLF = Windows Server 2012 R2 Protected Users security group Authentication Policy and Authentication Policy Silos Implement additionally #78
74 #79 Conclusion on the Technical Controls to prevent credential theft & unauthorized credential use Pre-condition Pro Classic DC/server/client hardening etc. Some technical controls with security benefit (e.g. logon restrictions f. privileged accounts) Challenges Some controls require big evaluation effort (e.g. deactivation of NTLMv1) or are useless (Restricted Admin Mode for RDP)
75 #80 How You Might Communicate ALL this With a risk analysis & High level benefits summary
76 #81 Risk Assessment Current Risks Evaluated Threat Vulnerability (Description) Primary Security Concern Probability Vulnerability Impact Risk Disclosure of confidential and pii data (= personenbezogenen Daten im Sinne des BDSG) allover rated (not only a certain type of data) Disclosure of arbitrary user mails Disclosure of arbitrary Classified Person mails Disclosure of Classified Person data (PowerPoint, Excel, Word, PDF etc.) Disclosure of encrypted mails of Classified Person Identity theft and use (pretend being a Classified Person via: mail, digital signature) Disclosure of classified or stricktly confidential data (patents, strategy plans, finance etc.) No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration C C C C C I C
77 #82 Risks Before and After Admin Tier Model + AD Hardening Main Technical Threat Threat Vulnerability (Description) Risk Mitigated Risk Vertical privilege escalation Vertical privilege escalation Vertical privilege escalation Vertical privilege escalation Vertical privilege escalation Vertical privilege escalation Vertical privilege escalation Disclosure of confidential and pii data (= personenbezogenen Daten im Sinne des BDSG) allover rated (not only a certain type of data) Disclosure of arbitrary user mails Disclosure of arbitrary Classified Person mails Disclosure of Classified Person data (PowerPoint, Excel, Word, PDF etc.) Disclosure of encrypted mails of Classified Person Identity theft and use (pretend being a Classified Person via: mail, digital signature) Disclosure of classified or stricktly confidential data (patents, strategy plans, finance etc.) No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration No admininistrative boundaries between DC administration, server administration and client administration
78 #83 Benefits Robust and industry standard like organization of operation: Secure operation of Active Directory and business critical services Sustainable operation on a long-term basis Leading by example
79 #84 Questions & Answers
80 #85 Literature     Microsoft Solutions for Security and Compliance. Windows Server 2003 Security Guide, 2006,  Mitigating Service Account Credential Theft on Windows, https://community.rapid7.com/docs/doc-2881  KRBTGT reset script & information: https://gallery.technet.microsoft.com/reset-the-krbtgtaccount-581a9e51  Protection from Kerberos Golden Ticket: SWP_14_07_PassTheGolden_Ticket_v1_1.pdf
81 #86 Literature : 2014 Data Breach Investigations Report (DBIR),
82 #88 Recommendations from Microsoft From their PtHv2 paper, see 
83 #89 Microsoft Backpedals The default behavior for Restricted Admin mode changed in Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, and Windows RT 8.1. By default, Restricted Admin mode is now turned off, and you have to enable it again after you install update or if it is required. Previously, Restricted Admin mode was turned on by default. Source:
84 #90 Mitigation against a Golden Ticket Recovering from a Golden Ticket is very difficult, if possible at all (because rebuilding your complete AD wouldn t be an option, right?)
85 #91 Mitigation against a Golden Ticket Reset KRBTGT s password Possible implications TGTs get invalidated, so that: End-users including smart-card users will be automatically requested to authenticate to receive a new valid ticket Services and applications that require manual startup with a password and use Kerberos may stop working properly until next manual restart. Requesting new TGTs may cause some load on the DC The exact impact level will depend on the criticality of the related users, services and applications Until now, little known experience about this, but following the right procedure, it shouldn t have a great impact.
86 Mitigation against a Golden Ticket Resetting procedure Microsoft recently released a script with some additional information, see . Detailed information is provided as well by the CERT-EU, see  #92
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Stealing credentials for impersonation Emmanuel Bouillon email@example.com October 29, 2010 Disclaimer Introduction This expresses my own views and does not involve my previous, current and future employers.
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Did you know your security solution can help with PCI compliance too? High-profile data losses have led to increasingly complex and evolving regulations. Any organization or retailer that accepts payment
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NETWRIX PASSWORD MANAGER ADMINISTRATOR S GUIDE Product Version: 6.1 February/2012 Legal Notice The information in this publication is furnished for information use only, and does not constitute a commitment