Development of Rural Drinking Water Security Plan A Case Study from Raipur Block, Bhilwara District, Rajasthan

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1 Development of Rural Drinking Water Security Plan A Case Study from Raipur Block, Bhilwara District, Rajasthan Dr. B. K. Bhadra Scientist/Engr. SF Regional Remote Sensing Centre (RRSC-W) NRSC/ISRO, Dept. of Space, Jodhpur 22 August, 2013

2 Drinking Water Security Plan (DWSP) DWSP aims for drinking water security and total sanitation in every village by means of investment cost, setting of minimum standards for pricing, quality and quantity of water supply, storage management (aquifer management, demand side management), capacity building and training. The futuristic plan emphasised in maintaining sustainability at least for next years. DWSP can avoid in duplicity of different government-run schemes and provide scope of participation of the local public for their self-reliance. Thus, a holistic model is proposed for the Drinking Water Security Plan (DWSP) with six key features viz. 1. Water source 2. Destination 3. Connectivity 4. Beneficiary 5. Monitoring 6. Security

3 Flow Chart of Drinking Water Security Plan (DWSP) Water Source: Hydro-Geomorphology (HGM) Map Destination: Village Demography Connectivity: Water Supply Mechanism Beneficiary: Safe Drinking Water to Every Village Monitoring: Effectiveness of Implemented Programmes Security: Sustainable Water Resources Management

4 DRINKING WATER SECURITY PLAN MANAGEMENT Phase-I Phase-II Phase-III Phase-IV GIS DATABASE OF THEMATIC LAYERS HGM Maps Layers - Lithology, Geomorphology, Structure/ Lineaments, Drainage, Hydrogeology (water bodies, canal, spring, irrigated area, well data), Base map (Road, Rail, Settlement) Additional Inputs Layers Cadastral, Village / Panchayat / Block, Watershed, Canal command, Land use/ land cover, DEM/Slope, GW quality maps and Litholog, Temporal water level, Rainfall and Demography data GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF COLATERAL DATA Derived Maps Layers Ground water prospect map, Recharge structure map, Water level contour map, GW fluctuation map for recharge, GW fluctuation map for draft, GW quality contour map, Rain water harvesting structure map IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISM FOR WSP & SANITAION Action Plan Based on Analysis Water consumption per capita (human and cattle population), Tube well supply of safe drinking water (quantity and quality) through pipeline, Alternate supply of water through canal from major water bodies, Other domestic uses (utensil cleaning, washing clothes, cattle feeding), Sanitation in every house, school and public toilets SUSTAINAIBILITY AND MONITORING OF WSP Conjunctive use of Water Resources Construction of Rain water harvesting structures for augmenting aquifer condition, Roof water harvesting structures in every school and concrete buildings in the village, Impact assessment on human value, health and sanitation under this project

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6 INPUT DATA FOR DRINKING WATER SECURITY PLAN HGM Maps Inputs - Lithology, Geomorphology, Structure/Lineaments, Drainage, Hydrogeology (water bodies, canal, spring, irrigated area, well data), Base map (Road, Rail, Settlement) Y Additional Layers Inputs Cadastral, Village/ Panchayat/ Block, Watershed, Canal command, Land use/land cover, DEM/ Slope, GW quality maps and Litholog, Temporal water level, Rainfall & Demography data Derived layers Ground water prospect map, Recharge structure map, Water level contour map, GW fluctuation map for recharge, GW fluctuation map for draft, GW quality contour map, Rain water harvesting structure map

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8 INDIA RAJASTHAN Bhilwara District ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARY OF THE STUDY AREA Raipur Block

9 Salient Features of Raipur Block Raipur Block is located in the west of Bhilwara district with total area of sq. km. It is comprised of 22 Gram Panchayats with 92 villages. Hydrogeologically, the area comprised of gneisses and schists of Bhilwara Supergroup. Due to lack of primary porosity, groundwater storage is confined to secondary porosity (joints, fissures, fractures and weathered zones). Potential groundwater aquifer is spread in sq.km which may yield m 3/ day. This block is over-exploited with ground water development % (CGWB Report, 2008). Groundwater level vary from 13.6m (pre-monsoon) to 2.83m (post-monsoon). Rain Fall Average Surface water Status Small Dam (2 no.) Small & Medium Pond (23 no.) Groundwater Status Net Availability Existing Water Draft GW Development stage Groundwater Sources (PHED) Open Well / Tube Well Hand Pump mm 722 mm 778 mm mcft mcft mcm mcm (Over Explo.-Present Assessment) Public Sources (OW/ TW) 7508

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15 Locating Groundwater Prospect Sites (Source) and Recharge Structures using HGM Maps GW Prospect Map of SW part of Raipur Block

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18 RAIPUR RAIPUR RAIPUR

19 Narayan Khera Hand Sketch of WSP Not to scale (prepared by SO) WSP may be updated with High Resolution Satellite Images

20 PREPARATION OF THEMTAIC LAYERS USING RS & GIS

21 No. of Water Bodies = 189 Area of Water Bodies = Ha (17.62 sq. km) (Estimation from 2010 Image)

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27 Micro-watershed for Runoff Estimation and Locating Water Harvesting Structures

28 GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY DATABASE

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31 Total No. of GPs = 22

32 Total No. of Villages = 92

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55 Field Photographs of Raipur Block during 6-8 August, 2013 Water Supply from DW Gneissic Rock Shallow WL in DW Check Dam Surface Water Storage Rain Gauge Device Interaction with SO Storage in Water Tank through Pipeline Supply Interaction with SO & PHED Officials Water Samples Interaction with Villagers

56 Recommendations 1. Reduction of GW Development - Ground water draft is very high in most of the villages of Raipur Blocks. Stage of ground water development in the Block has reached 145% due to indiscriminate use. It has to be controlled by preventing further development. 2. Harnessing Shallow water - Alluvial tracts along river channels are most feasible locations where shallow wells can be constructed to harness the shallow water table aquifers being potentially recharged by the flash flood and surface runoff. These wells can be used for water supply, wherever feasible. Surface runoff can be harnessed by constructing tanks at feasible sites in the area occupied by the hard rock terrain for supplementing irrigation potential to increase the agricultural production. 3. Traditional Storage System - Revival of traditional groundwater storage system like Baori, open wells, Tanka etc. for rainwater conservation for use in day to day life will reduce ground water draft. 4. Construction of Recharge Structures - Taking advantage of uneven topography of the area, small check dams or earthen dams, upstream of irrigation commands, at suitable sites, may be constructed to store rainwater. This will increase recharge to ground water which ultimately result in increase of yield of wells. 5. Agricultural Management - Modern agricultural management techniques have to be adopted for effective and optimum utilization of the water resources. Maintaining irrigation through minimum pumping hours as per minimum requirement of water by the crop and also selecting most suitable cost effective cropping pattern can achieve this. 6. Alternate Cropping - High water requirement crops be discouraged. Proper agriculture extension services should be provided to the farmers so that they can go for alternate low water requirement economical crops. 7. Training - Awareness programmes and training on rainwater harvesting will be beneficial to check the decline in water level and justified use.

57 Water Crisis

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