1 You enjoy working with food. People compliment the foods you prepare. You are prompt, accurate, reliable, and do not mind working while others play. You do not expect to get rich quickly. You have a head for business (or a partner who does). These statements describe a person who could succeed in the home food business. Catering, baking, cake decorating, specialty foods, whatever you choose opportunities do exist. But, it takes a combination of hard work, correct decisions, and the luck of being in the right place with the right product at the right time. Even then, your dream may not come true. Many home-based businesses fail in the first year, in most cases not because the product is bad but because there is not enough working capital, and/or the owner has inadequate skills in planning, organizing, controlling, directing, managing, or marketing. Chances for success increase greatly if you take time to make a business plan. First, make sure there is a market for the product or service and that it is possible to make a reasonable profit. Look into state regulatory and licensing requirements for home food businesses. Also consider local zoning, income tax implications, insurance, and other legal matters. List immediate as well as future expenses. After considering those factors, you must think about recipe standardization and procedures, pricing, policies, selling, delivery, recordkeeping, safety, sanitation, and the many other details that go into a successful business plan. SELLING FOOD PRODUCTS: a business from your home Find the Market A market is not always obvious. Look for a need that you can fill for example, decorated cakes, lunches for bridge groups, or homebaked rolls on weekend mornings. Whatever the need, a good product is essential. It must be tasty and attractive, and consistent in taste and appearance. If you will offer a service rather than a specific product, that, too, must be consistent, reliable, and attractive to the customer. Ideally, there should be little or no local competition for your product or service. If there is, find and promote some unique feature that makes yours better than the competitors. Think about the skills you have or will need to develop. Are you confident of your abilities or do you need more practice? If you need more training, is it available? Avoid going into business just because you and your family or close friends like your food. Get opinions of strangers the people who will buy your product. Be realistic. People who say they want your product or service may, when pressed, admit that they are not willing to pay the necessary price. Probe for true answers when assessing potential demand for your product. Find out just how much people are willing to pay. Check sales potential by visiting with local grocers, convenience stores, and other shops that are appropriate for your product. Contact church groups, fraternal groups, and other clubs to see if they are interested in your product or service. If possible, contact a Small Business Administration representative for assistance. Help also may be available through the small business centers that are part of the university extension system in many states. If potential customers do not appear interested, stop and take a critical look at your plans. Maybe you need to change or modify your plans, or consider something new. N. D. MINN. WIS. S. D. North MICH. IOWA NEB. Ill. IND. OHIO KANSAS MO Central Regional Extension Publication No. 259 Revised January 2000
2 Study the Competition If similar businesses exist in your area, study them carefully. Who are their customers? How and where do they sell their products? What marketing methods and promotion pieces do they use? Learn from their successes and their mistakes. How will your business differ from the competition? Why will customers prefer your product? The answers to these questions determine the unique marketing position to stress in sales talks to potential outlets and customers. Licensing The state government agency that regulates food and agriculture probably has requirements you must meet to sell your foods. Check the requirements before you go too far. You may find that a separate kitchen is required, or there is some other rule that you are not willing or able to meet. In some states, a home food business may be exempt from state licensing if it meets certain guidelines, often related to income limitations. State regulations also may prohibit the sale of some types of home-prepared foods. For example, some states prohibit the sale of homecanned foods and/or the use of home-canned ingredients in foods for sale commercially. Zoning Always check local zoning restrictions before planning goes too far and definitely before money is spent. Local ordinances may restrict the kind of home businesses allowed or prohibit a home business entirely. Expenses A business will have both fixed and variable expenses. Fixed expenses are those that do not change, such as rent. Also in this category are the one time or annual expenses such as equipment, remodeling, license fees, etc. Variable expenses change from month to month. Examples are utility bills, ingredient costs, transportation, supplies, promotion and advertising salaries. Facilities and Appliances In most states, separate kitchen facilities are required for a licensed food business. A person just starting out may prefer to rent kitchen space from a church or other facility rather than go to the expense of a second kitchen in the home. In general, it is wise to avoid major remodeling expenses initially, although adequate space is needed for preparation and storage. Even for an unlicensed business, it may be necessary to improve facilities to meet state or local guidelines. Home-style appliances may not be a problem while the business is small, but commercial appliances may be needed eventually. Home refrigerators lack the capacity to cool large amounts of food rapidly, and shelving may not accommodate sheet trays and other large pans. More freezer space may be needed if it is necessary to prepare food in advance. In addition, larger cooking surfaces and more oven space may be necessary. Kitchen Equipment If possible, avoid expensive equipment purchases at the beginning. Certain utensils are essential, however; for example, portioning equipment (scoops, ladles, scales, quart and gallon measures), serving trays, serving utensils, dishes, and tongs. As the business succeeds, reinvest profits in equipment to save hand labor or increase production capacity. It may become necessary to purchase equipment for the location where food is sold or served. Display racks or a special refrigerator may be needed, for example. Food Costs Estimate the cost of ingredients on a per unit basis (or per dozen, if small items such as cookies are involved). List the ingredients needed, then compare prices in both retail groceries and wholesale outlets. Try to find the most inexpensive ingredients, but do not sacrifice quality to cut costs.
3 3 In general, larger quantities of ingredients have lower unit cost. But wholesale buying of large quantities may not save money for a beginning business, particularly if food is perishable. The major advantage of wholesale buying is to maintain consistent product quality. It also may enable the purchase of ingredients that are difficult to obtain in small quantities. Pre-prepared foods such as dehydrated soup bases and chopped nuts may reduce food costs by cutting preparation time. Labor Although you may be willing to work for nothing, assistants and delivery people will expect to be paid. Always include a labor cost, even if you do not intend to pay yourself a salary. This is a good business practice that will help establish a fair price. One way to estimate labor cost is to divide the profit by hours spent. For example, if it takes 50 hours labor to produce a $100 profit, the labor cost is $2 per hour. Another way to establish labor cost is to decide what your time is worth. You may think your time is worth $2 per hour or maybe $20. It s up to you. Labor cost is more than preparation time. A certain amount of time will be required for developing the business, transportation, purchasing, and recordkeeping. If others will be working as well (family members for delivery, for example), include their labor costs also. Will they work as quickly or efficiently as you do? Transportation Will you deliver your products? If so, include gasoline and other automobile costs as an expense. Is a special vehicle necessary? Will you need equipment to keep foods at recommended temperatures while in transit? Can you recover a prorated cost of the delivery vehicle, including fuel and maintenance? Insurance Do not assume a home business is covered by your homeowners policy. Check with your agent to see what coverage you have and what is needed. Types of coverage to consider are product liability (in case people become ill or injured from your food), personal liability, auto (if your car is used for business purposes), fire, business interruption, and workers compensation (if you hire employees). If you do hire employees, you also will need to allow for employer payments to Social Security and unemployment funds. Other Expenses Although not all of the following expenses are applicable to your home business in the beginning, they may become significant as the business grows. Overhead for kitchen, equipment, and delivery vehicle Utilities (fuel) used in food preparation Licenses required by local, state, and federal governments Recordkeeping and required sales reports Customers who do not pay Accounting or legal fees Excess production (leftovers), pilferage, returns, and mistakes Food wrap, napkins, condiments Advertising and promotion, postage, telephone Kitchen modifications Interest Rent If you have made major initial expenses such as kitchen remodeling or appliance purchases, ask an accountant to establish a monthly figure to include in expenses. Pricing Products and Services The price can make the difference between success and failure. Good prices make customers think they are getting their money s worth and make you think you are getting a fair return on your investment of time and money.
4 How much can you charge? Consider comparable commercial products, prices charged by others in your community for similar products, and what the traffic will bear. Consult business people in the community. Prices should reflect all fixed and variable expenses in the business and provide what you consider a reasonable profit. Keep prices competitive and in a range that the target customers are willing to pay. The following pricing methods are guides that you can adjust to your situation. Through experience, you will learn to set up your own pricing formula. Don t worry if the prices you set are a little higher than your competition if you are sure your product is better in some way. Cost-based Pricing This method uses unit costs of ingredients, expenses, and labor to determine the price. For example, as a maker of homemade bread, you have fixed expenses of $50 per month; you plan to work one day each week, or 32 hours per month; your ingredient cost is $.50 per loaf; and you can make 5 loaves in an hour. How much should you charge for each loaf? Step 1: Figure the productive working hours (total hours spent in actually making the product) Seven hours of the 32 are spent in bookkeeping, shopping, and delivery, so are not productive hours. Therefore, your total productive hours per month are 25 (32 7 = 25). Step 2: Figure expenses per hour Divide the monthly fixed expenses by the productive working hours in one month ($50 25 = $2 fixed expenses per hour). Step 3: Figure ingredient cost per hour Multiply the ingredient cost of one loaf ($.50) by the number of loaves you can make in an hour ($.50 5 = $2.50). Step 4: Set labor cost In this example, you decide you are willing to work for $2 per hour. Step 5: Add Fixed expenses $2 Ingredients $2.50 Labor $2 $6.50 total per hour cost Step 6: Divide the total per hour cost by the number of loaves you can make per hour $ = $1.30 the minimum price that will cover your costs. Will customers pay $1.30 for a loaf of your bread? Compare the price with that of similar products. If it seems low, consider increasing it a little. (After all, $2 per hour is a pretty low labor cost.) However, if the price is considerably higher than the competition, consider the options below. Reduce ingredient cost Reduce labor cost Increase per hour production Decrease expenses Improve work methods (which may accomplish all four of the above) Percent Food Cost Pricing This quick method is used by many restaurants. It is based on the theory that food cost makes up about 40 percent of the price. To set a price, multiply the food cost by (40% by = 100%). In the example of the breadmaker, the food cost of $.50 is 38 percent (rounded to 40 percent) of the total selling price of $1.30. The 40 percent figure is just a guideline; it may not be a suitable standard if ingredients cost very little but the product requires a great deal of labor or if ingredients are so expensive that no one would pay times the cost. Some experts say that a reasonable price for catering is ingredient cost 3. To get a price per person, divide that total by the number of people the food will serve.
5 5 Pricing for Services Only If the client purchases the ingredients or reimburses you, prices may cover labor or service only. Again, charge a reasonable but competitive price that takes into consideration any unique skills and special equipment. Policies and Price Sheet List policies on a price sheet that is duplicated and made available to customers. In addition, post both prices and policies in your kitchen. Some basic policies are listed below. Minimum order size Time needed to fill order Delivery schedule Advance payment and billing procedures Returns Cancellations Price changes Other rules you will follow Sales Expenses = Profit To estimate profit, make a conservative estimate of the number of products you expect to sell during a certain time period six months perhaps. Multiply that figure by the selling price per product. Estimate expected total expenses for the same time period. Subtract this total from the total sales. The answer is the anticipated profit. How does the anticipated profit figure compare with what you could make through other job opportunities? What about the money you must invest in the business? Could that money earn a better rate of return elsewhere? If the anticipated profit figure is satisfactory to you, proceed with your business plan. Standardize Recipes Standardized quantity recipes are necessary to ensure uniform product results and keep preparation costs steady. If you plan to adapt a favorite recipe, remember that simply multiplying all quantities may cause reactions that will affect the final product. Brands of ingredients can make a difference too, so don t change brands without testing the result. Experiment with cost-cutting measures that don t affect the final product. For example, discover the minimum amount of each ingredient without affecting quality. Arrange equipment for most efficient production, and streamline work methods as well. To complete the standardization, practice making the recipe over and over until the result is the same every time. The recipe should include the following: Appropriate descriptive title; Size of servings in volume, weight, or size of pieces; Yield number of servings and/or volume or weight; Pan size needed, especially for baked or congealed items, or if important to the quality of the finished product or portion sizes; Number of pans needed and whether glass or metal; Ingredients in order used and brand name; Type or form of ingredients, such as melted fat, all-purpose flour, finely chopped onions; Quantity of ingredients in both weight and volume; and Clear, precise instructions for Preparing and combining ingredients Cooking method, time and temperature Size or portion and method of service Possible substitutions, if desirable. Stress to helpers the importance of following the recipe exactly. Make sure they know what is meant by terms such as mix, beat, and fold. Be specific as to how many strokes to beat, or how long to mix. These details can make a difference.
6 Appearance Attractive products sell better. Attractiveness refers to both the appearance of the food and how it is packaged or displayed. Strive for innovative but appropriate food arrangements. Prepare the product the way you want it to look and take color photographs. Post these in the kitchen so that both you and your helpers can achieve a consistent appearance. Packaging Today s customers are concerned about sanitation and food safety. Securely wrapped and sealed packages are vital if food is sold through retail outlets. Packaging also contributes to the appearance of a product, so choose a packaging method that enhances what you sell. Contracts If possible, get written orders or contracts from buyers, especially if you are producing for resale through retail outlets. This is businesslike and also helps prevent errors and misunderstandings. The order form should have space to write the price, order type and amount, time of delivery, last date order may be changed or canceled, and payment schedule. If food is for resale, be sure the order form specifies the policy on return of unsold merchandise, especially if perishable. Recordkeeping Records tell you where you have been, where you are, and where you are going. Business experts say there is a close relationship between inadequate recordkeeping and business failures. State and federal governments require certain records, and, in addition, detailed records help pinpoint deductions at tax time. Set up a simple bookkeeping system to keep track of expenditures. Marketing, Promotion, and Advertising The words marketing, promotion, and advertising have different meanings. Marketing includes all the decisions involved in the business effort: the product itself, production, pricing, promotion, selling, service, and customer satisfaction. Promotion is the communications aspect of marketing that includes whatever is done to tell the public/potential customers about the product. This might include written publicity, news releases, demonstrations or talks to local groups, posters, free samples, displays, brochures or catalogs, and advertising. Take advantage of promotion opportunities. For example, if you are asked to donate products for community charity events, ask for recognition in some way. As the business grows, however, you may be asked to donate products frequently. Don t feel you must always donate; politely decline those you do not wish to support or do not feel will advance your business interests. Advertising is paid promotion. A newspaper or radio station may be interested in a feature story on your new business or your unusual product, but after that, you will most likely have to pay for publicity in the news media. When you pay for newspaper space and radio time, you can say exactly what you want about your product (provided what you say is allowed by law). However, advertising is not the first thing you should think about. The overall marketing plan should come first. The Marketing Plan A marketing plan begins with some realistic goals, with enough time for the goals to be reached. What do you expect to accomplish in six months? In a year? In five years? Next, think about how to reach the goals. Consider the product in relation to the potential customers. Think about who the customers are, where they go, what they do, what they like and dislike, their income and education. What do these people need? Your business should meet either a real or a perceived need. How will you reach people to tell them about your product? That is where promotion and advertising come in. What are your customers social, leisure, reading habits? Where do they go? What kinds of promotion and advertising are most likely to reach them? For example, it probably is a waste of money to advertise expensive catered dinners in a shopper newspaper that features garage sale ads.
7 7 Develop a portfolio or album with photographs of your products to use when talking to potential customers, especially retail outlets. If possible, have a professional photographer take the picture to present the food in the most appealing way. There are techniques to food photography that only a professional will know. Create a Professional Image One important part of business success is image. If you are professional in your work and in your dealing with customers, they will have confidence in you and feel good about using your product or service. It costs very little to create a professional image. Here are a few tips. Be available during your advertised business hours; if you must go away, leave messages where you can be reached. Return phone calls promptly. Respond to inquiries and requests for price quotes immediately. Be sure food looks professionally prepared and is attractively displayed. Make sure you, your workplace, and your equipment are neat and clean. Meet agreed-upon deadlines. If you use the family telephone for your business, insist that family members answer correctly and know how to take orders and messages. Food Safety A seller of food has both ethical and legal liabilities to provide food that is reasonably free of bacterial and physical contaminants. In addition, illness or injury to a customer can spell disaster for a food business. Licensed businesses must be inspected and follow state safety and sanitation regulations. Unlicensed businesses may need to meet special guidelines for home bakeries and other food sales from the home. Keeping the food free of physical contaminants is less of a problem if you keep both yourself and the work area neat and clean. Be especially alert for hair, either human or animal the most likely unwanted ingredient of home-prepared products. Other possible physical contaminants that will turn-off customers are bits of eggshell, fingernails or metal particles, paper, cardboard, dirt, and grease. Avoiding Bacterial Contamination Table 2 lists some of the common illnesses caused by improperly prepared food. The best rule of thumb for safety is hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Do not serve any foods that cannot be kept at their recommended cold or hot levels until serving time. The bacteria that can cause illness live and multiply best at room temperature, but they also grow and multiply in the range between 40 F (refrigerator temperature) and 140 F (minimum oven temperature). Foods should not be held at room temperature for more than two hours (see Table 1. Leading factors contributing to foodborne illness 1. Improper temperature control a. Store perishables at 40 F or below. b. Cook foods to 165 F or higher. c. Keep hot foods at 140 F or higher. d. Keep cold foods at 40 F or below. 2. Poor personal hygiene unclean hands and sneezing on food. 3. Unclean work area and equipment (utensils). 4. Cross-contamination a. Raw and cooked food contact. b. Equipment and work surfaces not clean.
8 8 Figure 1 and Table 1). Bacteria are not killed unless food is heated above 165 F. Potentially hazardous foods are those that contain meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and milk products. Treat with special care foods that are warm or room temperature, handled, and not heated to the 165 F temperature that destroys bacteria. Good examples are salads with poultry, fish, macaroni, and egg, as well as cream puffs and custard-filled desserts. Carry these foods and others like them to the serving place in an insulated ice chest or similar container. Keep ice clean and do not let it touch the food. If time between cooking and serving is more than two hours, refrigerate the food and reheat it just in time for serving. Reheat to serve above 165 F, then hold above 140 F. Do not use a warming unit to reheat food. More Tips for Handling Food Safely If practical, rinse foods with cool, running water before preparation to get rid of some harmful bacteria. Wash hands before handling food, frequently during preparation, and always after doing unrelated activities such as answering the telephone, using the toilet, or blowing your nose. Dry hands with a paper towel or hot air. After handling raw meat, fish, poultry, or eggs, wash hands and equipment with soap and water before working with other foods. If possible, keep raw and cooked foods in separate coolers or refrigerators to avoid crosscontamination. If raw and cooked foods are stored in the same refrigerator, store raw foods below cooked foods and food that will not be cooked prior to consumption. Avoid touching face, mouth, or hair when hands are clean. Keep hair under a scarf, cap, or hairnet. Do not handle food if you have cuts, scratches, or sores on face, hands, or arms. A bandage does not give necessary protection. Never lick fingers or use the cooking spoon to taste the food. Use the two spoon technique: dip in with the cooking spoon and transfer to the tasting spoon. Whenever possible, use clean kitchen tools instead of hands. For example, use tongs instead of fingers for breads, butter squares, lettuce leaves, cold meat slices, and cheese cubes. Keep kitchen and work area clear of pets and pests. Do not buy or use cracked or dirty eggs. Refrigerate ground meats and cooked foods in shallow pans (no more than four inches deep) to promote quick cooling. Use a thermometer to see that the center reaches 40 F within two hours. Keep frozen foods frozen until ready to use. Cook vegetables while still frozen or icy. Serve immediately. Always use covers to prevent contamination of cooked food. Put newly purchased groceries away immediately, making sure perishable foods go into refrigerator or freezer immediately. Keep frozen meats, including turkey and chicken at 40 F while thawing. If you must speed up the process, place under cold running water. Roasts or unstuffed turkey (with giblets removed) may go into the oven while still frozen (remember to increase roasting time). Bacteria thrive in partially cooked meat, so never partially cook a roast or turkey one day and then finish it the next. Some bacteria may produce toxins that are not destroyed by further cooking. Raw poultry or meat should not come into contact with other foods, especially those eaten raw or only slightly cooked. This means cutting surfaces and knives must be thoroughly washed if used for raw meat or poultry. Do not handle food if you are sick or have a cold, sore throat, sinusitis, or diarrhea.
9 9 Figure 1. Temperature guide to food safety F Boiling point at sea level Bacteria die The time required to kill the bacteria depends on temperature and time; the higher the temperature or longer the time, the greater the destruction. No growth, bacteria do not die Hot foods must be held in this range or above. Body temperature Bacteria grow rapidly Food must be handled quickly in this range. Danger zone Never hold food in this range. Freezing point at sea level Slow growth No growth Cold foods must be held in this range, or below. Bacteria cease to grow but do not die. For food safety, keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Table 2. Foodborne illnesses Illness and symptoms Botulism Double vision, inability to swallow, speech difficulty, progressive respiratory paralysis. High fatality rate. Comes on 12 to 36 hours or longer after eating involved food. Duration 3-6 days Campylobacter jejuni Fever; mild to severe and often bloody diarrhea; abdominal cramps that may be severe; possible headache, malaise, muscle or skeletal pain, or vomiting. Recognized only within the last 10 years as problem to humans. Thought to be more common cause of acute gastroenteritis than Salmonella. Duration 2-7 days Escherichea coli - E. coli 0157:H7 One of four highly infectious types that causes gastrointestinal disease in people, especially infants, elderly, and immune-compromised people. Type 0157:H7 causes bloody diarrhea and severe stomach cramps. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) in children can result in acute kidney failure and death and blood clots in the elderly. Other E. coli types can cause infant diarrhea, traveler s diarrhea, and shigellosis-type dysentery. Foods often involved Improperly homecanned low or medium-acid foods; smoked fish. Rarely, commercially canned foods. Raw or undercooked meats, especially poultry; raw (unpasteurized) milk; water supply that has been contaminated with animal or human feces. Inadequately cooked ground beef, unpasteurized apple cider and juice, contaminated lettuce, sprouts, and other vegetables and foods. Preventive measures Bacterial spores in foods are destroyed by high temperatures obtained only in the pressure canner. More than 6 hours is needed to kill the spores at boiling temperature (212 F). The toxin is destroyed by boiling for 10 to 20 minutes; time required depends on kind of food. Heating and refrigeration practices to kill or control Salmonella also appear to be effective against Campylobacter. Cook ground beef to 165 F interior temperature. Use only pasteurized apple cider and juice or bring to boil before serving, rinse-wash fruits and vegetables. Practice good personal hygiene to prevent person-to-person exposure.
10 Table 2. Foodborne illnesses (cont.) Illness and symptoms Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes) Nausea, vomiting, fever, and headache. Severe cases result in abortion, stillbirth, perinatal septicemia and meningitis to surviving infants, and/or death. Susceptible include elderly, immune compromised, infants, and unborn. Perfringens poisoning Nausea, abdominal pains, diarrhea (like mild 24- hour flu); comes on 10 to 12 hours after eating involved food. Duration may persist for 24 hours. Salmonellosis Sudden onset of vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea. Usually fever, chills, severe headache. Can be dangerous for infants, elderly, and anyone with low resistance. Comes on 12 to 72 hours after eating involved food. Duration 2-7 days Staphylococcus poisoning (staph) Vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, sweating (often attributed to the flu ). Comes on 1 to 6 hours after eating involved food. Duration 1-2 days Viral Infections Small Round Structured Viruses (SRSVs) including Norwalk virus cause gastroenteritis and Hepatitis A virus causes hepatitis. These virus originate from and reproduce in human intestine. They do not increase in numbers in food but will survive in food. Poor personal hygiene (unwashed hands) contaminates food during preparation. SRSVs usually cause sudden onset uncontrollable projectile vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain within 15 to 72 hours. Viral Hepatitis A incubation is 3 to 6 weeks with gradual development of symptoms: loss of appetite, malaise, fever, and vomiting followed by jaundice. Illness lasts a few weeks to several months. Usually more severe symptoms in adults. Foods often involved Meat products like precooked frankfurters and cold cuts, raw milk soft cheeses, raw milk, precooked poultry and seafood products, and unwashed fruits and vegetables. This bacteria will grow slowly at refrigerator temperatures. Cooked meats, poultry, fish, gravies, and main dish casseroles that have not been properly cooled and refrigerated and then have not been reheated above 165 F. Food animals may harbor Salmonella. Raw poultry, meats, eggs, and dairy products are most frequently involved. Also transmitted by infected people, pets, insects, and rodents. Salmonella are destroyed by heating food to 140 F for 10 minutes or to higher temperature for less time. Custard or cream-filled baked goods, ham, meat, poultry and egg salad sandwiches, potato and macaroni salads, creamy salad dressing. Transmitted by people who carry the bacteria. Bacteria thrive at temperatures between 40 F and 140 F. Shellfish such as oysters and mussels from sewagecontaminated waters. Fruit and vegetables if fertilized with sewage sludge or contaminated water. Foods such as salads and desserts contaminated by infected food workers. Preventive measures Eat pasteurized milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. Reheat frozen and refrigerated precooked meat and poultry products like frankfurters. Wash-rinse fruits and vegetables. Store perishable foods below 40 F and use up rapidly. Cool foods rapidly; put foods in shallow pans in refrigerators. Keep cold foods at 40 F or below; keep hot foods at 140 F or above. Reheat leftover foods to 165 F. Wash hands after going to toilet, handling raw meat, and doing activities other than food preparation. Clean and disinfect kitchen equipment. Restrict workers with diarrhea from touching foods. Cook foods to internal temperatures of 165 F. Use separate equipment for raw and cooked products. Cool foods in shallow pans in refrigerators. Keep cold foods at 40 F or below; keep hot foods at 140 F or above. Reheat leftover foods to 165 F. Clean and sanitize kitchen utensils and equipment. Wash hands after visiting toilet and handling raw foods of animal origin. Restrict workers with diarrhea or fever from touching foods. Wash hands after coughing, sneezing, smoking, going to the toilet. Practice good personal hygiene. Cool foods rapidly; put foods in shallow pans in refrigerators. Keep cold foods at 40 F or below; keep hot foods at 140 F or above. Cover infections with waterproof dressing or bandaid. Restrict workers with diarrhea or colds from touching foods. Do not prepare foods for others if suffering from vomiting or diarrhea and after 1 week after jaundice onset. Food handlers exposed to Hepatitis A given immunoglobulin injection. Follow stringent personal hygiene with frequent hand washing. Heat treat shellfish to 195 F for 1.5 minutes. Avoid cross-contamination of raw shellfish with other foods.
11 11 Figure 2. Bacterial growth rate This chart illustrates how a bacterium grows when food is held in the temperature danger zone. When food is initially held at ideal growth temperatures for bacteria, the growth rate is slow. This is termed the lag phase; it takes bacteria time to adjust to the environment and the numbers reproduced are lower. Beyond this initial period, bacterial growth accelerates rapidly. Under ideal conditions bacteria will multiply by dividing in two every 20 minutes. This means a bacterium can grow to more than 16,000,000 in 8 hours. Time: Number of bacteria: 1: ,000,000 1:20 2 Number of bacteria Bacterial growth accelerates 2,000, ,000 40,000 1:40 4 2:00 8 3:00 64 Lag phase 4: Hours 5:00 4,096 6:00 32,768 7:00 262,144 8:00 2,097,152 9:00 16,077,216 Do not hold food in the temperature danger zone for more than two hours.
12 North Central Regional Extension publications are prepared as a part of the Cooperative Extension activities of the 13 land-grant universities from the 12 North Central States in cooperation with the Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Prepared by Jim Huss, Iowa State University extension specialist in hotel, restaurant, and institution management; William L. LaGrange, Iowa State University extension food scientist; and Diane Nelson, Iowa State University extension communication specialist. Programs and activities of the Cooperative Extension Service are available to all potential clientele without regard to race, color, sex, national origin, or disability. In cooperation with the North Central Region Educational Materials Project Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Cooperative Extension Services of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Stanley R. Johnson, director, Cooperative Extension Service, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa File: FN 4 3/00
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TYPES OF HOLIDAY ILLNESSES Whilst on holiday many different contractable illnesses exist, the list below contains the most common. This list is by no means exhaustive and if you have suffered from an illness
Understanding Foodborne Illness (Food Poisoning) 9 Costs of Foodborne Illness (Food Poisoning) possible law suits from customers who are ill There have been numerous cases where restaurants have been sued
FIVE KEYS TO SAFER FOOD MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SAFETY, ZOONOSES AND FOODBORNE DISEASES FIVE KEYS TO SAFER FOOD MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SAFETY, ZOONOSES AND FOODBORNE DISEASES INTRODUCTION Food safety
The Professional Food Handlers Guide. (In compliance with new Australian Food Safety Standards) H Y GIENIC SOLUTIO N S This booklet is designed by Kimberly-Clark to assist you and your staff in achieving
Good Hygiene Practices for Catering at Outdoor Events The following pages of advice are based on the requirements of Regulation (EC) 852/2004 on the Hygiene of Foodstuffs The Food Hygiene (England) Regulations
02.11 Purpose Audience To assure proper and safe food handling, storage, and preparation. All Department of employees. Personnel The following guidelines shall be used to monitor proper and safe food handling,
FOOD POISONING Information Leaflet Your Health. Our Priority. Page 2 of 5 What is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning is an illness that occurs after eating or drinking anything that is contaminated. Usually
REQUIREMENTS FOR TRADE SHOWS All Trade Show Booth operators who give out food samples must be approved before the event and licensed by Regina Qu Appelle Health Region prior to opening. Food sold for immediate
HACCP Food Safety Quality Assurance Manual Adapted with permission from the City of Ottawa Public Health & Long Term Care Branch HPD FS(FS)4-09/2007 jb Table of Contents Page General Definitions 2 Management
Food Safety is in Your Hands! Alejandra Menjivar Community Nutrition Educator & Alejandra Navarro Community Nutrition Educator Today s Class Food Safety is Important Good Personal Hygiene Receiving and
Home Study Course in Food Safety Alberta Health Services Health Protection Environmental Public Health Home Study Course in Food Safety Table of Contents Introduction.. 3 Section 1: Food Safety In Alberta..
GASTROENTERITIS OUTBREAK ATTRIBUTED TO CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS TYPE A ENTEROTOXIN MIAMI COUNTY, KANSAS FEBRUARY 2006 FINAL REPORT DATE April 10, 2006 OUTBREAK INVESTIGATORS Christine Godfrey, Public Health
HYGIENE IN THE GALLEY - good advice for self-assessment aboard Guidance for company and ship s management and galley crew Good hygiene is thinking twice about things when cooking for others. To limit the
Food Poisoning Facts By Dr Yunes Teinaz Acting Head of Environmental Health London Borough of Hackney The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that each year two billion illnesses are caused by unsafe
Taking Care of Business: Food Safety and Finance for School Foodservice Template for Review and Update of the Child Nutrition Food Safety Plan Our Town District Child Nutrition Food Safety Plan City, Mississippi
Yorketown Community Children s Centre Food Safety and Healthy Eating Policy Policy Number 1 Link to CCQA Principles Family Day Care Quality Assurance (FDCQA) Quality Practices Guide (2004) Principle 4.2
SHOP SMART, STORE SAFE Introduction This lesson gives an older adult audience an opportunity to focus on making the most of their food budgets by sharing strategies for healthy shopping on a budget and
Standard 3.2.2 Food Safety Practices and General Requirements AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND FOOD STANDARDS CODE CHAPTER 3 (AUSTRALIA ONLY) A GUIDE TO THE FOOD SAFETY STANDARDS SECOND EDITION, JANUARY 2001 AUSTRALIA
Camp Food Safety S Item Code FS320004 May/04 Edition no 1 (103808) 0845 300 1818 Introduction This factsheet is designed to give basic guidance for food safety at camp. More detailed information is available
Loss Control Department Technical Information Paper Series Food Processing: Understanding and Controlling E. Coli Contamination Copyright 1998 The Hartford Loss Control Department TIPS Series S 190.007
DEFINITIONS: Definition of a Food Allergy: Food Allergies Immune system response to a food that the body mistakenly thinks is harmful. Upon deciding a particular food is harmful, the immune system creates
Module 13 Overview: Safe Storage of Raw Animal Foods TRAINER: Read this page ahead of time to prepare for teaching the module. PARTICIPANTS WILL: 1. Define CROSS-CONTAMINATION. 2. Identify RAW ANIMAL FOODS.
Adult Services FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Based on the principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) for use in ENTER NAME OF residential, nursing or day care centre CONTENTS Page 1.0
10 Home Food Safety Myths and Facts for Consumers The Partnership for Food Safety Education 2014 For more Home Food Safety Mythbusters go to www.fightbac.org Myth #1 Freezing foods kills harmful bacteria
Guarding against disease Milk, a natural liquid food, is one of our most nutritionally complete foods, adding high-quality protein, fat, milk sugar, essential minerals, and vitamins to our diet. However,
Food Safety Manual for the Food Service Worker (Revised March 2013) Portsmouth Health Department Acknowledgments Maricopa County Food Protection Program Environmental Health Services Division of Seattle
Alberta Food Safety Basics Booklet Alberta Health Services Environmental Public Health Alberta Food Safety Basics Booklet Table of Contents Introduction and How to Access Test.... 3 Section 1: Food Safety
Workbook for Developing an Active Food Safety Management System A food safety management system will help to minimize the risk of foodborne illness in your food service establishment. It includes all the
Page 1 of 11 The University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences Cooperative Extension Service Preventing Food Poisoning And Food Infection Estes Reynolds, George Schuler, William
Professional Food Manager Certification Training Version 4.0 Food Safety Center for Public Health Education Developed by the NSF Center for Public Health Education v Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction
COUNTY OF LAKE HEALTH SERVICES DEPARTMENT Division of Environmental Health 922 Bevins Court, Lakeport, CA 95453-9739 Telephone 707/ 263-1164 FAX: 263-1681 TEMPORARY FOOD FACILITY PERMIT APPLICATION Failure
Food safety is a key concern to us - this brochure is brought to you by: turkeyfarmersofcanada.ca 1-888-245-8180 or ehfc.ca 1-888-248-beef or beefinfo.org chicken.ca canfightbac.org eggs.ca More questions
Assessment Blueprint ACF Culinary Arts Certification Test Code: 3990 and 3991 / Version: 01 Copyright 2013. All Rights Reserved. General Assessment Information Blueprint Contents General Assessment Information
VENDOR APPLICATION FOR TEMPORARY FOOD EVENTS All vendors must complete and submit to Event Coordinator for each event in the Tri-County area. If no menu and no equipment change are occurring from one event
Food Safety Manual for the Food Service Worker (Revised December 2006) TESTING SITES & HOURS OF OPERATION All offices are opened Monday - Friday, excluding major holidays Central Regional Office 1645 E.
Grocery Shopping Within a Budget Lesson Plan Grade Level 10-12 Take Charge of Your Finances National Content Standards Family and Consumer Science Standards: 1.1.6, 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.3, 2.5.1, 2.6.1, 2.6.2,
INGREDIENTS FOR A DYNAMITE PRESENTATION o Presentation Guide o What s On the Shelf? o Healthy Meal Planner (Side A) / Healthy Meal Planner Worksheet (Side B) o Smart Shopper Price Comparison o Blank paper
Food Safety For People with Cancer A need-to-know guide for those who have been diagnosed with cancer U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Drug Administration Thank you to Lydia Medeiros, Ph.D., R.D.,
1.8.2 Grocery Shopping Within a Budget Grade Level 10-12 Take Charge of Your Finances Materials provided by: Heide Mankin, Billings Senior High School, Billings, Montana Janice Denson, Twin Bridges High
4. HOUSE RULES TEMPERATURE CONTROL The House Rules Section contains 9 sub-sections each of which covers a particular subject of food safety management. Every House Rule sub-section begins with guidance
Cholera Prevention and Control: Introduction and Community Engagement Module 1 Introduction This guide instructs how to prevent cholera illnesses and deaths in your communities. These slides and modules
Food safety guide for food businesses Class 3 Temperature Time Cross-contamination Hygiene Allergens Food safety guide for food businesses Class 3 If you would like to receive this publication in an accessible
CGSO ADVISORY NOTE 4: FOOD POISONING Introduction What causes food poisoning? How do I know if I have food poisoning? How do I contract a food poisoning? How do the microbes get into the food? How does
Restaurant Grading in New York City at 18 Months Public Recognition and Use of Grades Trends in Restaurant Sanitary Conditions and Foodborne Illnesses Introduction In July 2010, the Health Department began
SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 36 (SURREY) 1. Provincial Legislation All food service events are governed by the Food Premises Regulations of the Health Act of the Province of British Columbia and must comply with
APPLICATION GUIDE - FOOD PREMISES LICENCE Note: For Classes 3-4 at Public Markets, please refer to the New Brunswick Guidelines for Food Premises at Public Markets. You may also contact the nearest Health
Public Health Inspection Services Community Health Head Office Frontier Mall 11427 Railway Ave. East NORTH BATTLEFORD, SK. S9A 1E9 Tel: (306)446-6400 Fax: (306)446-6018 Temporary Food Service Food Vendor
Food Safety and Sanitation Guidelines Culinary Arts Copyright 2 Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. These Materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA)
Environmental Services Directorate Advisory Leaflet Food Sampling A Guide to Microbiological Quality of Food Samples Why do you take food samples? The Food Safety Act 1990 and Regulation (EC) Number 178/2002
Pandemic Influenza: A Guide for Individuals and Families GET INFORMED. BE PREPARED. This guide is designed to help you understand the threat of a pandemic influenza outbreak in our community. It describes
You Can Prevent Foodborne Illness Pacific Northwest Publications PNW0250 Washington State University Oregon State University University of Idaho 1 Key Food Safety Guidelines See pages 6 12 for additional
Instruction in accordance with 43 Para. 1 of the German Infection Protection Act (IfSG) Who requires instruction? Before starting work in the food industry, the following persons require instruction and
Food Sales or Service Agreement (1) Read this agreement and make note of all topics that pertain to your organization s event. (2) Complete pages 1-3 and submit to the at least one week prior to your event.
FARMERS MARKET GUIDELINES A Farmers Market is a short-term operation for the sale of produce and prepared food products under the direction of a designated operator. This guideline also applies to flea
Food safety in non-profit organisations April 2015 Food safety in non-profit organisations Published by the State of Queensland (Queensland Health), April 2015 This document is licensed under a Creative
Precautionary Boil Water Notices: Frequently Asked Questions QUICK TIPS: Boil Water For: Drinking Brushing Teeth Washing fruits & vegetables Preparing food Mixing baby formula Making ice Giving water to
Flooding Advice Flood Information for Food Businesses Public Health If your food business has been flooded there could be a serious risk to public health from infection and food contamination. Do not prepare
Preventing Cross-Contamination After completing this chapter, you will be able to identify: Food that may have been contaminated during receiving How to prevent cross-contamination when storing, prepping,
FACT SHEET Users That Must Take Particular Precautions During A Boil Advisory a) Commercial Establishments (Restaurants, Hotels, Convenience Stores, etc.) - All water that is to be provided directly to
FOOD, HANDS and BACTERIA Cooperative Extension Service University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences STOP THE POPULATION EXPLOSION: WASH YOUR HANDS! Bacteria have their own population
Employee Health and Personal Hygiene for CHILD CARE CENTER DIRECTORS National Food Service Management Institute The University of Mississippi Building the Future Through Child Nutrition The National Food
Food Safety Manual for the Food Service Worker (Revised September 2007) TESTING SITES & HOURS OF OPERATION All offices are open Monday - Friday, excluding major holidays Central Regional Office 1645 E.
These resources provide a comprehensive learning module to understand the reasons of practical food safety procedures. They are ideally suited to a wide range of learners, as they more than fulfill the
Presenter Supplement This Module will deal with individual safety in the home and outside environment. In this Module you will practice OJT Activity #58 Bed to Wheelchair Transfer. Other practice activities
HACCP Plan Designing a HACCP Plan for Your Facility Calvert County Health Department Division of Environmental Health What is a HACCP Plan? HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. It is
What is TB? Do many people get tuberculosis (TB)? Yes, Tuberculosis is a serious problem all over the world. Between 6 and 10 million in South Africa are infected by the TB germ. It is infectious, so it
Eating Well For Less TIPS & RESOURCES FOR COMMUNITY FOOD MENTORS EATING WELL ON A BUDGET Food takes a big bite from most of our household incomes, but eating nutritious & tasty meals IS possible with skills
Maricopa County Environmental Services Department 1001 N. Central. Avenue Suite 300 Phoenix, AZ 85004 esd.maricopa.gov Food for Produce This guidance document was developed for food establishments interested
screen 1 Food contamination This screen shows bacteria just about to move from raw meat to a ready-to-eat food (cream gateau). This is known as cross contamination. Use this screen to start a discussion
Managing Food Safety: A Regulator s Manual For Applying HACCP Principles to Riskbased Retail and Food Service Inspections and Evaluating Voluntary Food Safety Management Systems Additional copies are available