# Mathematical Derivation of Annuity Interest Rate and its Application

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1 Mathematical Derivation of Annuity Interest Rate and its Application K.A.Fayed Ph.D.From Dept. of applied Mathematics and Computing, Cranfield University, UK. Faculty of commerce/dept. of applied Statistics and Computing, Port Said University, Port Fouad, Egypt. Abstract A fundamental task in business for investor or borrower is to know the interest rate of an annuity. In this type of problem, the size of each periodic payment(r), the term(n), and the amount(sn) or the present value of the annuity(an) are usually given.however, a direct equation representing the Annuity Interest Rate(i) is not available, since an approximate value of the Annuity Interest Rate is obtained by interpolation methodbased on table showing (Sn/R) values. This paper emphasizes the real time computational problem for Annuity interest rate. It has therefore been important to derive an equation for computing the Annuity Interest rate. The evaluation of error analysis has been discussed. The new algorithm saved computational energy by approximately 99.9%than that of the tabulated one. Keywords: Investment Mathematics, Statistical Toolbox, MATLAB Programming. 1. INTRODUCTION There are many situations in which both businesses and individuals would be faced with either receiving or paying a constant amount for a length of period. When a firm faces a stream of constant payments on a bank loan for a period of time, we call that stream of cash flows an annuity. An annuity is a series of periodic payments, usually made in equal amounts. The payments are computed by the compound interest method[1] and are made at equal intervals of time. Individual investors may make constant payments on their home or car loans, or invest a fixed amount year after year to save for their retirement. Any financial contract that calls for equally spaced and level cash flows over a finite number of periods is called an annuity. If the cash flow payments continue forever, the contract is called perpetuity. Constant cash flows that occur at the end of each period are called ordinary annuities. 2. THE AMOUNT OF AN ANNUITY In Business, the amount of an annuity is the final value at the end of the term of the annuity. To derive the formula for the amount of an ordinary annuity, let: R is the size of each regular payment. i is the interest rate per conversion period. n is the number of payments during the term of an annuity. S n is the amount of an ordinary annuity. Then: The amount of an ordinary annuity is given by: International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

2 Payment Term (n-2) (n-1) n Amount of annuity(s n ) R R + R R(1+i) + R R(1+i) R R(1+i) n-2 + R R(1+i) n-1 i annuity interest rate per conversion Multiply both sides by (1+i), we have: Subtracting Eq.(2) from Eq.(1), we get: 3. THE PRESENT VALUE OF AN ANNUITY The present value of an annuity is the value at the beginning of the term of the annuity. The present value of an annuity can be derived by the same way to get the following formula: Where: An is the present value of an ordinary annuity. 4. ANNUITY INTEREST RATE PER CONVERSION(i) The annuity equation (Eq.3 or Eq.4)can also be used to the find the interest rate or discount rate for an annuity.to determine an accurate valueof the Annuity interest rate instead of using a trial-and-error approach, we need to solve the equation for the unknown value i as follow: a) When the Amount is Known (S n ) (1) Two_Term Simplification To find the annuity interest rate when the amount is known, use the Eq.(3) as follow: From eq.(5), the term can be simplified using binomial theorem, since it can obtain the binomial series which is valid for any real number as follow: The term By replacing can be rewritten in the following form:, we have: From eq.(5) & the two i th term expansion of eq.(7), We have: Dividing both sides by i, we get: International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

3 Therefore: Equation(8) represents the annuity interest rate equation for computingiafter the two i th term expansion. (2) Three_Term Simplification From eq.(5) & the threei th term expansion of eq.(7), We have: Dividing both sides by i, we get: Solving the above quadratic equation for i, we get: Simplifying the above equation, we get: Therefore, equation(9) represents the annuity interest rate equation for computing i after the threei th term expansion. b) When the Present Value is Known (A n ) (1) Two_Term Simplification: Using Eq.(4), we can get the following formulae: From eq.(10) & the two i th term expansion of eq.(7), We have: International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

4 Dividing both sides by i, we get: Therefore, equation(11) represents the annuity interest rate equation for computing i after the two i th term expansion. (2) Three_Term Simplification From eq.(10) & the three i th term expansion of eq.(7), We have: Dividing both sides by i, we get: Solving the above quadratic equation for i, we get: Simplifying the above equation, we get: Therefore, equation(12) represents the annuity interest rate equation for computing i after the three i th term expansion. 5. CALCULATION OF ANNUITY INTEREST RATE a) Tabulated Annuity Interest Rate (1) Known Amount: Table_1 includes selection of annuity interest rate used in the investment market. The ratio in Table_1 has been computed for given values of conversion period(n) and the corresponding annuity interest rate. This ratio is used back to extract the annuity interest rate(i_tabulated) from Tables given in [1]. International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

5 Time period (n) i% exact n=10 n=20 i_tabulated S n /R i_tabulated S n /R TABLE 1: Computing the ratio and tabulated annuity interest rate (2) Known Present Value Similarly, Table_2 computes the ratio for given values of conversion period(n) and the corresponding annuity interest rate. This ratio is used back to extract the annuity interest rate(i_tabulated) from Tables given in [1]. International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

6 Time period (n) i% exact n=10 n=20 i_tabulated A n /R i_tabulated A n /R TABLE 2: Computing the ratio and tabulated annuity interest rate b) Simplified Annuity Interest Rate (1) Known Amount Table_3 computes annuity interest rate derived in Eq.(9), Eq.(10), Eq.(11), and Eq.(12) respectively. These Calculations have been computed for given values of (Table_3_a) or (Table_3_b) in addition to different conversion period(n). Figure_1 shows the tabulated annuity interest rate, the exact annuity interest and the simplified one against different annuity interest rate. This figure indicates that the simplified annuity interest rate moves smoothly without any abrupt change or fluctuations. On the other hand, the tabulated annuity interest rate moves irregularly along with different interest rate. This variation reverses a wide range of errors associated with the tabulated calculation of annuity interest rate. International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

7 i% exact i_tabulated Mathematical formula Absolute Relative Error(ARE) i_2_term i_3_term Tabulated 2_Term 3_Term e TABLE 3: a)annuity Interest Rate at known and time period n=10 i% exact i_tabulated Mathematical formula Absolute Relative Error(ARE) i_2_term i_3_term Tabulated 2_Term 3_Term TABLE 3: b)annuity Interest Rate at known and time period n=20 International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

8 FIGURE 1: Tabulated and Simplified annuity interest rate (known ) (2) Known Present Value: The tabulated annuity interest rate and the simplified one are shown in Table_4. These Calculations have been computed for given values of in addition to different conversion period(n). Figure_2 shows the tabulated annuity interest rate, the exact annuity interest and the simplified one against different annuity interest rate for known values of. This figure indicates that the simplified annuity interest rate moves smoothly without any abrupt change or fluctuations. On the other hand, the tabulated annuity interest rate moves irregularly along with different interest rate. This variation reverses a wide range of errors associated with the tabulated calculation of annuity interest rate. International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

9 i% exact i_tabulated Mathematical formula Absolute Relative Error(ARE) i_2_term i_3_term Tabulated 2_Term 3_Term TABLE 4: a)annuity Interest Rate at known and time period n=10 i% exact i_tabulated Mathematical formula Absolute Relative Error(ARE) i_2_term i_3_term Tabulated 2_Term 3_Term TABLE 4: b)annuity Interest Rate at known and time period n=20 International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

10 FIGURE 2: Tabulated and Simplified annuity interest rate (known ) 6.ERROR ANALYSIS OF ANNUITY INTEREST RATE The percentage absolute relative error(are) between the exact and simplified Annuity Interest Rate is given by: Table_3 and Table_4 show the percentage Absolute Relative Error(ARE)of the tabulated and simplified annuity interest rate respectively. These tables compute the error associated with the annuity interest rate at known amount and present value respectively.figure_3 shows the variation. Therefore, computing the annuity interest rateusing Eq.(9),three_Term_simplification, is recommended especially when theamount is known and lower conversion time period(n). Similarly, Figure_4 indicates that the annuity interest rate using Eq.(11),two_Term_simplification, is recommended especially when the present value is known and lower conversion time period(n). International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

11 FIGURE 3: Percentage absolute relative error of annuity interest rate (known ) FIGURE 4: Percentage absolute relative error of annuity interest rate (known ) International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

12 The percentage reduction in Relative Error between the tabulated technique and the simplified one of the annuity interest rate is given by: Where: isthe percentage reduction in Relative Error between the tabulated technique and the simplified one.if is positive values, Error reduction will occur using simplified technique. If it is negative values, Error reduction will occur using tabulated technique. otherwise, there is no error reduction. Table_5 shows the percentage reduction in Relative Error between the tabulated technique and the simplified one for different interest rate. The squared error(er) between the exact values and the computed annuity interest rate is given by: Known /R & n=10 Known /R & n=10 i% exact Error Squared error(e i ) Error Squared error(e i ) reduction reduction (%) Tabulated 3_Term (%) Tabulated 2_Term E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E Mean % TABLE 5: Squared error and Error reduction for computing Annuity Interest Rate If the integer values of annuity interest rate in Table_5(integer values of i_exact) is excluded due to very small errors associated with it. This indicates that the 3_Term simplified technique of known amount gives reduction in ARE by approximately 83.61% compared to the tabulated technique. Figure_5.a shows the variation. On the other hand, the tabulated technique of known present value is appropriate compared to the simplified one. This led us to implement a correction factor which will be discussed in the coming paper.figure_5.b shows the variation. International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

13 FIGURE 5: Percentage error reduction of annuity interest rate. 7. PROCESSING TIME OF THE ANNUITY INTEREST RATE The processing time required for Computing the annuity interest rateis executed by LaptopDELL-inspiron-1520.Table_6 indicates that the average processing time required for computing the annuity interest rateusing the tabulated and the simplified technique. Known /R & n=10 Known /R & n=10 i% exact CPU time (Second) CPU time (Second) Tabulated 3_Term Tabulated 2_Term e e-007 TABLE 6: Average CPU time of Annuity Interest Rate 8. MATLAB PROGRAMMING: A complete program can be obtained by writing directly to the author[2]. 9. COMPUTATIONAL ENERGY OF THE ANNUITY INTEREST RATE Computing the computational energy for annuity interest rate requires the determination of conversion period(n), the square error(ei), and the average processing time(cpu time). Therefore, consider the conversion period(n) represents the resistance, the square error is measured in [volts]2, and the CPU time in second. Then, the computational energy per conversion period is given by: Where: CE is the computational energy per conversion period. E i is the i th square error. t isthe averagecpu time. International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

14 n is the conversion period. The computational energy saved by the simplified technique compared to the tabulated one is given by: Where: is the relative computational energy saved by the simplified technique. is the computational energy for the Tabulated method. is the computational energy for the simplified technique. Table_7 shows the computational energy(ce) for each technique. This table indicates that the simplified technique saved computational energy by approximately 99.9% compared to the tabulated one. Figure(6) shows the variation in computational energy required for calculation. i_exact % Known /R & n=10 CE_Tabulated CE_3_Term CE_saved by 3_Term E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E Mean TABLE 7: Computational Energy of Annuity Interest Rate(CE) International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

15 FIGURE 6:Percentage Computational Energy of annuity interest rate. 10. CONCLUSIONS A new mathematical formula is derived here to compute an approximate value of the Annuity Interest Rate. It can be implemented using simple calculator, to save time and to avoid systematic errors associated with tables, and to calculate missing values of i in tables. Since other solutions depend on a trial-and-error approach. A new algorithm has been derived for fast evaluation of the annuity interest rate. As a result the new technique offered four advantages over the tabulated one: (1) It drastically reduces the average CPU time required for calculating the annuity interest rate. (2) It drastically reduces the absolute relative error(are) for calculating the annuity interest rateby 83.61%compared to the current one. (3) It gives minimum square error compared to the current tabulated method. (4) It has lowest computational energy. The aforementioned features are combined in a mathematical formula to describe the system performance. This formula is called the computational energy. A quantitative study has been carried out to compute the computational energy for each technique. The results show that the simplified technique saved computational energy by 99.9% compared to the current one. A correction factor will be discussed in the next paper. 11. REFERENCES [1] Shao and Shao, Mathematics for management and finance, eighth edition, [2] International Journal of Experimental Algorithms (IJEA), Volume (2) : Issue (2) :

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