DUTCH WORD ORDER AND BINDING


 Randall Gibson
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Chapter 1 DUTCH WORD ORDER AND BINDING Glyn Morrill Abstract This paper offers a typelogical account of Dutch word order with special reference to quantifier binding in subordinate clauses. This paper offers a typelogical account of Dutch word order with special reference to quantifier binding in subordinate clauses. The word order of simple subordinate clauses is exemplified by the following: a. (:::dat) Jan zong (:::that) J. sang (:::that) Jan sang b. (:::dat) Jan boeken las (:::that) J. books read (:::that) Jan read books c. (:::dat) Jan boeken aan Marie gaf (:::that) J. books to M. gave (:::that) Jan gave books to Marie (1.1) We see that the finite tensed verb appears clausefinally. When the main verb is an infinitival complement of a modal or control verb, a socalled verb raising trigger, it appears after the verb raising trigger(s) in a clausefinal verb cluster: a. (:::dat) Jan boeken kan lezen (:::that) J. books is able read (:::that) Jan is able to read books b. (:::dat) Jan boeken wil kunnen lezen (:::that) J. books wants be able read (:::that) Jan wants to be able to read books (1.2) Work partially supported by CICYT project PB C
2 2 The semantic form of (1.2a) is (able (read books)) and that of (1.2b) is (want (able (read books))). Thus we have a syntactic/semantic mismatch with the discontinuous constituent boeken:::lezen interpreted as a semantic unit (read books), with an indefinite number of verb raising triggers intervening. If such a subordinate clause contains a quantifier, there is scope ambiguity as to whether the quantifier takes scope within or outside of the verb raising trigger: (:::dat) Jan alles wil lezen (:::that) J. everything wants read (:::that) Jan wants to read everything (1.3) Main clause yes/no interrogative word order, V1 word order, is derived from subordinate clause word order by fronting the finite verb: Wil Jan boeken lezen. Does Jan want to read books? (1.4) Main clause declarative word order, V2 word order, is further derived by fronting a major constituent: Jan wil boeken lezen. Jan wants to read books. (1.5) In this paper we offer an account of these various facts of Dutch word order. 1. ASSOCIATIVE LAMBEK CALCULUS The associative D(AB)=fs1+s2js12D(A)&s22D(B)g D(AnB)=fsj8s02D(A);s0+s2D(B)g D(B=A)=fsj8s02D(A);s+s02D(B)g D(I)=fg F::=AjIjFnFjF=FjFF Lambek calculus with product unit (Lambek 1988) is the calculus of a monoid(l;+;)where+is seen as the associative operation of concatenation:s1+(s2+s3)=(s1+s2)+s3andis seen as the empty string: s+=+s=s. The category type formulasfare defined on the basis of a setaof atomic category type formulas by the type forming operators I (product unit),n( under ), / ( over ) and( product ) as follows: (1.6) Each category type formulaais interpreted as a setd(a)las follows: (1.7)
3 :A +:B :AnBnE :B=A a:a +:B :A=E a+:bnin :AnB 3 Where we write:ato indicate that expressionis in categoryathe following deduction rules are valid: :A+a:B=In :B=A a:a n +:AB :BI (1.8) :I II (1.9) (1.10) (1.11) The overline inni and /I indicates cancellation of a hypothesis with the coindexed rule. The rules fore and IE, which are more difficult to formulate, are excluded since they are not needed in this paper. D(AB)=fs1Ws2js12D(A)&s22D(B)g D(A#B)=fs2j8s12D(A);s1Ws22D(B)g D(B"A)=fs1j8s22D(B);s2Ws12D(A)gthat1hs1;s2i= 2. DISCONTINUITY Versmissen (1991) and Solias (1992, 1994, 1996) treat discontinuity in terms of split strings. Solias works with an algebra(l;+;h;i)where+is associative andh;iis strictly nonassociative, i.e.(l;+)is a semigroup and(l;h;i)is a free groupoid. Wrap is derived as a parcial operation. This is made more explicit in Morrill and Solias (1993) where the algebra is augmented with projection functions,(l;+;h;i;1;2), such s1and2hs1;s2i=s2. Then wrapping,w, is defined as a total operation bys1ws2=df1s1+s2+2s1, whence infixation, extraction and discontinuous product operators are interpreted by: (1.12) However, these formulations encounter the technical difficulty of the incompleteness of the nonassociative Lambek calculus for free groupoids (Venema 1994), therefore Morrill (1994, 1995) proposes wrap as a primitive operation
4 (B"C)#D)((AnB)"C)#(AnD) 4 in an algebra(l;+;(;);w)where(l;+)is a semigroup and(l;(;))and (L;W)are groupoids such that(s1;s2)ws=s1+s+s2. Nevertheless this does not assure all the expected behaviour of wrap, for example it does not validate the intuitively valid Geachlike shift: (1.13) Thus in D(A#B)=fsj8hs1;s2i2D(A);s1+s+s22D(B)g Morrill (1995, appendix) and Morrill and Merenciano (1996) an alternative tack D(B"A)=fhs1;s2ij8s2D(A);s1+s+s22D(B)g is taken which consists in sorting the categorial types. The concatenation adjunction has functionalityl;l!l. We further define an interpolation adjunctionwof functionalityl2;l!l:hs1;s2iws=s1+s+s2. We refer to sortlas sort string, and sortl2as sort split string. Les us assume that atomic formulasaare of sort string. The wellsorted category formulas or typesfof sort string andf2of sort split string are defined by mutual recursion (1;2):A 1++2:B :A#B#E n Each formulaaof sort string has an interpretationd(a)land each formula Aof sort split string has an interpretationd(a)l2: (1;2):B"A (a1;a2):a D(AB)=fs1+s+s2jhs1;s2i2D(A)&s2D(B)g(1.15) 1++2:B :A"E a1++a2:b#in :A#B Valid deduction rules are as follows: (1;2):A(1;2):B"A 1+a+2:B"In a:a n 1++2:AB :BI (1.16) (1.17) (1.18) thus:f::=ajijfnfjf=fjffjf2#fjf2f F2::=F"F (1.14)
5 John:Nthinks:(NnS)=N QUANTIFICATION John+thinks+someone+walks:S thinks+someone+walks:nnsne a:nwalks:nnsne (;walks):s"nsomeone:(s"n)#s#e a+walks:s"i1 someone+walks:s=e Quantification is derived by assigning quantifier phrases type (S"N)#S. Consider the narrow scope (nonspecific) and wide scope (specific) readings of John someone walks. The narrow scope reading is derived by infixation at the level of the subordinate clause as follows: jthink1 (1.19) ((think9y(walky))j) (think9y(walky))ne x(walkx)x9y(xy)#e (walksx)"i1 xwalkne 9y(walky)=E Semantics is given by the CurryHoward rendering of categorial deductions: functional application for rules of implicational use (elimination) and functional abstraction for rules of implicational proof (introduction); node for node with (1.19): John:Nthinks:(NnS)=S1 (1.20) (John+thinks;walks):S"N John+thinks+a+walks:S"I1 thinks+a+walks:nnsne John+thinks+someone+walks:S a:nwalks:nnsne a+walks:s=esomeone:(s"n)#s#e In the wide scope derivation on the other hand, infixation is at the level of the superordinate clause: (1.21)
6 x((think(walkx))j)x9y(xy)#e ((think(walkx))j)"i1 jthink1 (think(walkx))ne 9y((think(walky))j) xwalkne (walkx)=e 6 Node for node, the semantics is thus: that:r=((s"n)i)m::nsent:((nns)=pp)=n1 a:n=e (1.22) 4. FRONTING Fronting such as relativisation can be treated by assignment of the relative pronoun to (CNnCN)/((S"N)I). that+mary+sent+to+john:r (Mary+sent;to+John):S"N Mary+sent+a+to+John:S"I1 sent+a:(nns)=ppto+j::pp=e Mary+sent+to+John:(S"N)I=E sent+a+to+john:nnsne :II II For example (the book) that Mary sent to John is derived thus: the+book:n:(nns)=((s"n)i)mary+sent+to+john:(s"n)i=e (1.23) the+book+mary+sent+to+john:s Mary+sent+to+John:NnS Fronting such as topicalisation can be derived by assignment to the empty string of (XnS)/((S"X)I). For example The book, to John is derived thus: (1.24)
7 b:a3(b+a1;a2):b"a b+a1+c+a2:b"i2 (a1;a2):(anb)"c a1+c+a2:anb1c:c"e 2 :((AnB)"C)#(AnD) a1++a2:and#i1 b+a1++a2:dni3 :(B"C)#D#E 7 5. GEACH EFFECT The intuitively valid Geachlike shift (1.13) is derivable as follows: (1.25) 6. DUTCH VERB RAISING PLUS QUANTIFIER RAISING: MULTIPLE DISCONTINUITY Consider the following example with quantification in a subordinate clause: (:::dat) Jan alles aan Marie wil given (:::that) J. everything to M. wants give (:::that) Jan wants to give everything to Marie (1.26) A wide scope derivation is obtained on the following pattern: a. aan Marie geven b. aan Marie wil geven c. Jan aan Marie wil geven d. Jan alles aan Marie wil geven (1.27) A narrow scope derivation is obtained on the following pattern: a. aan Marie geven b. alles aan Marie geven c. alles aan Marie wil given d. Jan alles aan Marie wil given (1.28) The essential puzzle is the manageament of multiple points of discontinuity. We treat this by adding to the type language a logical constant J which is interpreted as a subsetjof the underlying algebraic field such that2j. We refer to this as the connection set. Intuitively, connections allow for hypothetical reasoning over discontinuous strings as if they were continuous, by supposing that they are connected; the connection set includesbecause the empty string always connects adjacent
8 :J JI 8 strings. Semantically, J is neutral, like I. It has the following rule of introduction: (1.29) 7. FINITE AND INFINITE VERBS For the generation of simple Dutch subordinate clauses let us assume the following assignments: aan+marie m := PP boeken books := N gaf gave := PPn(Nn(NnS)) Jan j := N las read := Nn(NnS) zong sang := NnS (1.30) These derive in a straightforward way the following: a. (:::dat) Jan zong (:::that) Jan sang b. (:::dat) Jan boeken las (:::that) Jan read books c. (:::dat) Jan boeken aan Marie gaf (:::that) Jan gave books to Marie (1.31) The possibility of verbcomplement discontinuity will be accommodated by having infinite verbs combine with a connection to the left. Where a finite verb has categoryx, the corresponding infinite verb has categoryjnx: geven give := Jn(PPn(Nn(NnS))) lezen read := Jn(Nn(NnS)) zingen sing := Jn(NnS) (1.32)
9 Jan:Nboeken:NJI Jan:NJI Jan+zingen:S :Jzingen:Jn(NnS)nE zingen:nnsne 9 Note that this allows Jan+boeken+lezen:S boeken+lezen:nnsne :Jlezen:Jn(Nn(NnS))nE lezen:nn(nns)ne bare infinitival clauses to be generated as continuous strings: (1.33) (1.34) 8. FINITE AND INFINITE VERB RAISING TRIGGERS boeken:n1 a:jzingen:jn(nns)ne (;zingen):(nns)"jkan:((nns)"j)#(nns)#e a+zingen:nns"i1 1 kan+zingen:nns isable := ((NnS)"J)#(NnS) (1.35) wil wants := ((NnS)"J)#(NnS) (boeken;lezen):(nns)"j boeken+a+lezen:nns"i1 a:jlezen:jn(nn(nns))ne a+lezen:nn(nns)ne boeken+kan+lezen:nns kan:((nns)"j)#(nns)#e (1.36) (1.37) A finite verb raising trigger is defined to infix at the connection site of a verb phrase: This situates the verb raising trigger at the left of an infinitival verb:
10 10b::Naan+M:1 (boeken+aan+marie;geven):(nns)"j boeken+aan+marie+a+geven:nns"i1 aan+marie+a+geven:nn(nns)ne a:jgeven:jn(ppn(nn(nns)))ne boeken+aan+marie+kan+geven:nns a+geven:ppn(nn(nns))nekan:((nns)"j)#(nns)#e(1.38) boeken:n1 (boeken;lezen):vp"j boeken+a+lezen:vp"i1 a:jlezen:jn(nnvp)ne a+lezen:nnvpne (boeken;kunnen+lezen):vp"j boeken+b+kunnen+lezen:vp"i2 b:jkunnen:jn((vp"j)#vp)ne boeken+wil+kunnen+lezen:vp b+kunnen:(vp"j)#vp#e 2 wil:jn((vp"j)#vp)#e(1.40) As was the case for ordinary verbs, so it is for verb raising triggers that where the finite verb has categoryx, the infinite verb has categoryjnx: kunnen beable := Jn(((NnS)"J)#(NnS)) willen want := Jn(((NnS)"J)#(NnS)) (1.39) This accounts for multiple verb raising as in the following, where VP abbreviates NnS: 9. VERB RAISING PLUS QUANTIFIER RAISING Recall the following example: (:::dat) Jan alles wil lezen (:::that) J. everything wants read (:::that) Jan wants to read everything (1.41)
11 Jan:N2 b:n1 (b;lezen):(nns)"j a:jlezen:jn(nn(nns))ne 11 (Jan;wil+lezen):S"N b+a+lezen:nns"i1 a+lezen:nn(nns)ne Jan+a+wil+lezen:S"I2 b+wil+lezen:nnsne The wide scope reading for the Jan+alles+wil+lezen:S wil:((nns)"j)#(nns)#ealles:(s"n)#s#e quantifier is derived thus, where the quantifier joins the derivation after wil : (1.42) The narrrow scope reading is derived thus, where the quantifier joins the derivation before wil : Jan:N c:n2 b:n1 (c;a+lezen:s"n c+b+a+lezen:s"i2 b+a+lezen:nnsne a:jlezen:jn(nn(nns))ne a+lezen+nn(nns)ne Jan+alles+wil+lezen:S (alles;lezen):jn(nns) alles+a+lezen:nns c+alles+a+lezen:sni alles+wil+lezen:nns alles:(s"n)#n#ewil:((nns)"j)#(nns) (1.43) x(x):=m=((s"a)j) :=fva V1 10. V1 AND V2 For V1 yes/no interrogative order we assume lexical lifting of finite verbs (cf. Hepple 1990): (1.44)
12 wil:m=((s"x)j)jan:nboeken:n1 (boeken;lezen):(nns)"j boeken+a+lezen:nns"i1 a+lezen:nn(nns)ne a:jlezen:xne 2 12 Hence the following, wil+jan+boeken+lezen:m (Jan+boeken;lezen):S"X Jan+boeken+b+lezen:S"I2 boeken+b+lezen:nnsne Jan+boeken+lezen:(S"N)J=E b:((nns)"j)#(nns)#e:ji JI where X is Jn(Nn(NnS)). follows: xy(yx):=(xnt)=((m"x)j) (1.45) Jan+wil+boeken+lezen:T wil+boeken+lezen:nntne wil+boeken+lezen:(m"n)j=e :JI And for V2 declarative order we furthur assume assignment to the empty string as (1.46) (1.47) Thus:Jan:N:(NnT)=((M"N)J)(wil;boeken+lezen):M"NJI In this way the basic facts of Dutch subordinate and main clause word order are accommodated, including the case of quantifier binding.
13 O2::=pF2jF;O2jO2;Fj1pF2;O2;2pF2 Appendix A 13 2::=O2)pF2 O::=jF;OjO;Fj1pF2;O;2pF2 ::=O)F Appendix: Sequent calculus for sorted discontinuity In this appendix we present sequent calculus for sorted discontinuity (cf. Morrill 1998). The basic idea is to represent split strings by two formula occurrences at their two loci of action. These components are punctuated as roots. Sequents come in two sorts. A sort string sequenthas a sort string succedent on the right and a sort string configurationoon the left. A sort split string sequent2has a sort split string succedent the right and a sort split string 1pA;pA;2pA)pA A)A?)A(A))YCut (?))Y configurationo2on the left. The wellformed configurations and sequents of sort string and split string are defined as follows: (A.1) We have sort string and sort split string identity rules. The notation?() indicates a configuration?with a distinguished subconfiguration.yandz?)anb id2?(pa))pa(1pa;;2pa))ycut2 (?()))Y vary over formulas of?)a)br A;?)BnR?;A)B=R?)B=A)I IR?())YIL sort string and the roots of formulas of sort split string.?;)ab?)a(b))z=l?)a(b))znl (?;AnB))Z (B=A;?))Z?(I))Y?(AB))Z?(A;B))ZL (A.2) (A.3) The rules for the Lambek connectives are thus: (A.4)?(pB"A))pB"A 1pA;?;2pA)B#R?)A#B?(A))B"R?(pA))pA(B))Z#L )J (1pB"A;?;2pB"A))Z JR?)A(B))Z"L (?(A#B)))Z (A.5) (A.6) (A.7) J is like I but has no left rule: (A.8) The rules for the discontinuity connectives are as follows: (A.9) (A.10)
14 ?(pa))pa)br?())ab?(1pa;b;2pa))zl?(ab))z 14 (A.11) References Hepple, M. (1990) The Grammar and Processing of Order and Dependency: a categorial approach, Ph.D. thesis, Centre for Cognitive Science, University of Edinburgh. Lambek, J. (1988) Categorial and Categorical Grammars in Richard T. Oehrle, Emmon Bach and Deirdre Wheeler (eds.) Categorial Grammars and Natural Language Structures, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp Morrill, G. (1994) Type Logical Grammar: categorial logic of signs, Kluwer, Dordrecht. Morrill, G. (1995) Discontinuity in categorial grammar, Linguistics and Philosophy 18, Morrill, G. (1998) Proof syntax of discontinuity, in P. Dekker, M. Stokhof and Y. Venema (eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Amsterdam Colloquim, ILLC, Amsterdam, pp Morrill, G. and J.M. Merenciano (1996) Generalising Discontinuity, Traitement Automatique des Langues 37 2, pp Morrill, G. and T. Solias (1993) Tuples, Discontinuity and Gapping, in Proceedings of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Utrecht, pp Solias, T. (1992) Gramáticas Categoriales, Coordinación Generalizada y Elisión, Ph.D. thesis, Departamento de Lingüística, Lógica, Lenguas Modernes y Fílosofia de la Ciencia, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Solias, T. (1994) Unassociativity, Sequence Product, Gapping and Multiple Wrapping, in M. Abrusci, C. Casadio and M. Moortgat (eds.) Linear Logic and Lambek Calculus, proceedings of the 1993 Rome Workshop, pp Solias, T. (1996) Gramática Categorial: modelos y aplicaciones, Editorial Sintesis, Madrid. Venema, Y. (1994) Tree models and (labeled) categorial grammar, in P. Dekker and M. Stokhof (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth Amsterdam Colloquium, ILLC, Amsterdam, Versmissen, Koen (1991) Discontinuous Type Constructors in Categorial Grammar, ms. Onderzoeksinstituut voor Taal en Spraak, Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht.
CHAPTER 7 GENERAL PROOF SYSTEMS
CHAPTER 7 GENERAL PROOF SYSTEMS 1 Introduction Proof systems are built to prove statements. They can be thought as an inference machine with special statements, called provable statements, or sometimes
More informationThe compositional semantics of same
The compositional semantics of same Mike Solomon Amherst College Abstract Barker (2007) proposes the first strictly compositional semantic analysis of internal same. I show that Barker s analysis fails
More informationSemantics and Generative Grammar. Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1
Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1 1. Introduction Thus far, we ve considered two competing analyses of sentences like those in (1). (1) Sentences Where a Quantificational
More informationWord order in LexicalFunctional Grammar Topics M. Kaplan and Mary Dalrymple Ronald Xerox PARC August 1995 Kaplan and Dalrymple, ESSLLI 95, Barcelona 1 phrase structure rules work well Standard congurational
More informationRegular Expressions and Automata using Haskell
Regular Expressions and Automata using Haskell Simon Thompson Computing Laboratory University of Kent at Canterbury January 2000 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Regular Expressions 2 3 Matching regular expressions
More informationž Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG) associates at least one elementary tree with every lexical item.
Advanced Natural Language Processing Lecture 11 Grammar Formalisms (II): LTAG, CCG Bonnie Webber (slides by Mark teedman, Bonnie Webber and Frank Keller) 12 October 2012 Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar
More informationFixedPoint Logics and Computation
1 FixedPoint Logics and Computation Symposium on the Unusual Effectiveness of Logic in Computer Science University of Cambridge 2 Mathematical Logic Mathematical logic seeks to formalise the process of
More informationCassandra. References:
Cassandra References: Becker, Moritz; Sewell, Peter. Cassandra: Flexible Trust Management, Applied to Electronic Health Records. 2004. Li, Ninghui; Mitchell, John. Datalog with Constraints: A Foundation
More informationSounds Like Like. Peter Lasersohn. University of Rochester. Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between
Sounds Like Like Peter Lasersohn University of Rochester Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between one reading where it denotes a twoplace relation between individuals and properties,
More information2. The Language of Firstorder Logic
2. The Language of Firstorder Logic KR & R Brachman & Levesque 2005 17 Declarative language Before building system before there can be learning, reasoning, planning, explanation... need to be able to
More informationCooperative questionresponses and question dependency
FINAL DRAFT. Appeared in: Logica Yearbook 2012, eds. V. Punčochář and P. Švarný, College Publications, 2013, p. 79 90. Cooperative questionresponses and question dependency Paweł Łupkowski Abstract The
More informationMovement and Binding
Movement and Binding Gereon Müller Institut für Linguistik Universität Leipzig SoSe 2008 www.unileipzig.de/ muellerg Gereon Müller (Institut für Linguistik) Constraints in Syntax 4 SoSe 2008 1 / 35 Principles
More informationSYNTAX. Syntax the study of the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation.
SYNTAX Syntax the study of the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation. 1) Syntactic categories lexical:  words that have meaning (semantic content)  words that can be inflected
More informationStructure of Clauses. March 9, 2004
Structure of Clauses March 9, 2004 Preview Comments on HW 6 Schedule review session Finite and nonfinite clauses Constituent structure of clauses Structure of Main Clauses Discuss HW #7 Course Evals Comments
More informationIntroduction. W. Buszkowski Type Logics in Grammar
W. Buszkowski Type Logics in Grammar Introduction Type logics are logics whose formulas are interpreted as types. For instance, A B is a type of functions (procedures) which send inputs of type A to outputs
More informationAikaterini Marazopoulou
Imperial College London Department of Computing Tableau Compiled Labelled Deductive Systems with an application to Description Logics by Aikaterini Marazopoulou Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
More informationIP PATTERNS OF MOVEMENTS IN VSO TYPOLOGY: THE CASE OF ARABIC
The Buckingham Journal of Language and Linguistics 2013 Volume 6 pp 1525 ABSTRACT IP PATTERNS OF MOVEMENTS IN VSO TYPOLOGY: THE CASE OF ARABIC C. Belkacemi Manchester Metropolitan University The aim of
More informationParsing Natural Language using LDS: A Prototype
Parsing Natural Language using LDS: A Prototype MARCELO FINGER, Departamento de Ciência da Computação, Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. Email: mfinger@ime.usp.br
More informationSAND: Relation between the Database and Printed Maps
SAND: Relation between the Database and Printed Maps Erik Tjong Kim Sang Meertens Institute erik.tjong.kim.sang@meertens.knaw.nl May 16, 2014 1 Introduction SAND, the Syntactic Atlas of the Dutch Dialects,
More informationIntroducing Formal Methods. Software Engineering and Formal Methods
Introducing Formal Methods Formal Methods for Software Specification and Analysis: An Overview 1 Software Engineering and Formal Methods Every Software engineering methodology is based on a recommended
More informationSimulationBased Security with Inexhaustible Interactive Turing Machines
SimulationBased Security with Inexhaustible Interactive Turing Machines Ralf Küsters Institut für Informatik ChristianAlbrechtsUniversität zu Kiel 24098 Kiel, Germany kuesters@ti.informatik.unikiel.de
More informationA Propositional Dynamic Logic for CCS Programs
A Propositional Dynamic Logic for CCS Programs Mario R. F. Benevides and L. Menasché Schechter {mario,luis}@cos.ufrj.br Abstract This work presents a Propositional Dynamic Logic in which the programs are
More informationOutline of today s lecture
Outline of today s lecture Generative grammar Simple context free grammars Probabilistic CFGs Formalism power requirements Parsing Modelling syntactic structure of phrases and sentences. Why is it useful?
More information4 Domain Relational Calculus
4 Domain Relational Calculus We now present two relational calculi that we will compare to RA. First, what is the difference between an algebra and a calculus? The usual story is that the algebra RA is
More informationConstraints in Phrase Structure Grammar
Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar Phrase Structure Grammar no movement, no transformations, contextfree rules X/Y = X is a category which dominates a missing category Y Let G be the set of basic
More informationA Note on Context Logic
A Note on Context Logic Philippa Gardner Imperial College London This note describes joint work with Cristiano Calcagno and Uri Zarfaty. It introduces the general theory of Context Logic, and has been
More informationUNIVERSITY OF AMSTERDAM FACULTY OF SCIENCE. EDUCATION AND EXAMINATION REGULATIONS Academic Year 20122013 PART B THE MASTER S PROGRAMME IN LOGIC
UNIVERSITY OF AMSTERDAM FACULTY OF SCIENCE EDUCATION AND EXAMINATION REGULATIONS Academic Year 20122013 PART B THE MASTER S PROGRAMME IN LOGIC September 1 st 2012 Chapter 1 Article 1.1 Article 1.2 Chapter
More informationPredicate Logic. For example, consider the following argument:
Predicate Logic The analysis of compound statements covers key aspects of human reasoning but does not capture many important, and common, instances of reasoning that are also logically valid. For example,
More informationInterpretation of Test Scores for the ACCUPLACER Tests
Interpretation of Test Scores for the ACCUPLACER Tests ACCUPLACER is a trademark owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. Visit The College Board on the Web at: www.collegeboard.com/accuplacer
More informationC H A P T E R Regular Expressions regular expression
7 CHAPTER Regular Expressions Most programmers and other powerusers of computer systems have used tools that match text patterns. You may have used a Web search engine with a pattern like travel cancun
More informationA Primer in the Semantics of English
A Primer in the Semantics of English Some Nuts and Bolts 20002010 by Terence Parsons A Primer in the Semantics of English Some Nuts and Bolts Chapter 0: Preliminary Issues 0.1 What Sentences Do 0.2 Standingfor
More informationData exchange. L. Libkin 1 Data Integration and Exchange
Data exchange Source schema, target schema; need to transfer data between them. A typical scenario: Two organizations have their legacy databases, schemas cannot be changed. Data from one organization
More informationFull and Complete Binary Trees
Full and Complete Binary Trees Binary Tree Theorems 1 Here are two important types of binary trees. Note that the definitions, while similar, are logically independent. Definition: a binary tree T is full
More informationRelational Calculus. Module 3, Lecture 2. Database Management Systems, R. Ramakrishnan 1
Relational Calculus Module 3, Lecture 2 Database Management Systems, R. Ramakrishnan 1 Relational Calculus Comes in two flavours: Tuple relational calculus (TRC) and Domain relational calculus (DRC). Calculus
More informationA Chart Parsing implementation in Answer Set Programming
A Chart Parsing implementation in Answer Set Programming Ismael Sandoval Cervantes Ingenieria en Sistemas Computacionales ITESM, Campus Guadalajara elcoraz@gmail.com Rogelio Dávila Pérez Departamento de
More informationDynamic Cognitive Modeling IV
Dynamic Cognitive Modeling IV CLS2010  Computational Linguistics Summer Events University of Zadar 23.08.2010 27.08.2010 Department of German Language and Linguistics Humboldt Universität zu Berlin Overview
More informationTextToSpeech Technologies for Mobile Telephony Services
TextToSpeech Technologies for Mobile Telephony Services PaulsephJohn Farrugia Department of Computer Science and AI, University of Malta Abstract. TextToSpeech (TTS) systems aim to transform arbitrary
More informationCS510 Software Engineering
CS510 Software Engineering Propositional Logic Asst. Prof. Mathias Payer Department of Computer Science Purdue University TA: Scott A. Carr Slides inspired by Xiangyu Zhang http://nebelwelt.net/teaching/15cs510se
More informationAutomata and Formal Languages
Automata and Formal Languages Winter 20092010 Yacov HelOr 1 What this course is all about This course is about mathematical models of computation We ll study different machine models (finite automata,
More informationRemarks on NonFregean Logic
STUDIES IN LOGIC, GRAMMAR AND RHETORIC 10 (23) 2007 Remarks on NonFregean Logic Mieczys law Omy la Institute of Philosophy University of Warsaw Poland m.omyla@uw.edu.pl 1 Introduction In 1966 famous Polish
More informationPhrase Structure Rules, Tree Rewriting, and other sources of Recursion Structure within the NP
Introduction to Transformational Grammar, LINGUIST 601 September 14, 2006 Phrase Structure Rules, Tree Rewriting, and other sources of Recursion Structure within the 1 Trees (1) a tree for the brown fox
More informationParametric Domaintheoretic models of Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic
Parametric Domaintheoretic models of Linear Abadi & Plotkin Logic Lars Birkedal Rasmus Ejlers Møgelberg Rasmus Lerchedahl Petersen IT University Technical Report Series TR007 ISSN 600 600 February 00
More informationSoftware Verification and Testing. Lecture Notes: Temporal Logics
Software Verification and Testing Lecture Notes: Temporal Logics Motivation traditional programs (whether terminating or nonterminating) can be modelled as relations are analysed wrt their input/output
More informationClassical BI. (A Logic for Reasoning about Dualising Resources) James Brotherston Cristiano Calcagno
Classical BI (A Logic for Reasoning about Dualising Resources) James Brotherston Cristiano Calcagno Dept. of Computing, Imperial College London, UK {jbrother,ccris}@doc.ic.ac.uk Abstract We show how to
More informationRelatives and thereinsertion. Alastair Butler
Relatives and thereinsertion This paper offers an explanation for why unexpected things happen when relatives relativise into thereinsertion contexts. Unlike restrictive relatives, such relatives only
More informationCategorial Type Logics
Categorial Type Logics Michael Moortgat Utrecht Institute of Linguistics, OTS Excerpt from Chapter Two in J. van Benthem and A. ter Meulen (eds.) Handbook of Logic and Language. Elsevier, 1997. Contents
More informationConstituency. The basic units of sentence structure
Constituency The basic units of sentence structure Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words. Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words. a. The puppy hit the rock Meaning of
More information(LMCS, p. 317) V.1. First Order Logic. This is the most powerful, most expressive logic that we will examine.
(LMCS, p. 317) V.1 First Order Logic This is the most powerful, most expressive logic that we will examine. Our version of firstorder logic will use the following symbols: variables connectives (,,,,
More informationAUTOMATIC PROTOCOL CREATION FOR INFORMATION SECURITY SYSTEM
AUTOMATIC PROTOCOL CREATION FOR INFORMATION SECURITY SYSTEM Mr. Arjun Kumar arjunsingh@abes.ac.in ABES Engineering College, Ghaziabad Master of Computer Application ABSTRACT Now a days, security is very
More information3515ICT Theory of Computation Turing Machines
Griffith University 3515ICT Theory of Computation Turing Machines (Based loosely on slides by Harald Søndergaard of The University of Melbourne) 90 Overview Turing machines: a general model of computation
More informationFormal Languages and Automata Theory  Regular Expressions and Finite Automata 
Formal Languages and Automata Theory  Regular Expressions and Finite Automata  Samarjit Chakraborty Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zürich March
More informationDEGREES OF CATEGORICITY AND THE HYPERARITHMETIC HIERARCHY
DEGREES OF CATEGORICITY AND THE HYPERARITHMETIC HIERARCHY BARBARA F. CSIMA, JOHANNA N. Y. FRANKLIN, AND RICHARD A. SHORE Abstract. We study arithmetic and hyperarithmetic degrees of categoricity. We extend
More informationCS103B Handout 17 Winter 2007 February 26, 2007 Languages and Regular Expressions
CS103B Handout 17 Winter 2007 February 26, 2007 Languages and Regular Expressions Theory of Formal Languages In the English language, we distinguish between three different identities: letter, word, sentence.
More informationTo discuss this topic fully, let us define some terms used in this and the following sets of supplemental notes.
INFINITE SERIES SERIES AND PARTIAL SUMS What if we wanted to sum up the terms of this sequence, how many terms would I have to use? 1, 2, 3,... 10,...? Well, we could start creating sums of a finite number
More informationIndex. 344 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8
Index Index 343 Index A A, an (usage), 8, 123 A, an, the (articles), 8, 123 diagraming, 205 Abbreviations, correct use of, 18 19, 273 Abstract nouns, defined, 4, 63 Accept, except, 12, 227 Action verbs,
More informationAnnotation Guidelines for DutchEnglish Word Alignment
Annotation Guidelines for DutchEnglish Word Alignment version 1.0 LT3 Technical Report LT3 1001 Lieve Macken LT3 Language and Translation Technology Team Faculty of Translation Studies University College
More informationSoftware Modeling and Verification
Software Modeling and Verification Alessandro Aldini DiSBeF  Sezione STI University of Urbino Carlo Bo Italy 34 February 2015 Algorithmic verification Correctness problem Is the software/hardware system
More informationUNIT 2 MATRICES  I 2.0 INTRODUCTION. Structure
UNIT 2 MATRICES  I Matrices  I Structure 2.0 Introduction 2.1 Objectives 2.2 Matrices 2.3 Operation on Matrices 2.4 Invertible Matrices 2.5 Systems of Linear Equations 2.6 Answers to Check Your Progress
More informationLinear Types for Continuations
1/28 Linear Types for Continuations Alex Simpson LFCS, School of Informatics University of Edinburgh, UK Joint work with: Jeff Egger (LFCS, Edinburgh) Rasmus Møgelberg (ITU, Copenhagen) Linear Types for
More informationLikewise, we have contradictions: formulas that can only be false, e.g. (p p).
CHAPTER 4. STATEMENT LOGIC 59 The rightmost column of this truth table contains instances of T and instances of F. Notice that there are no degrees of contingency. If both values are possible, the formula
More informationRelational Calculus. Chapter Comp 521 Files and Databases Spring
Relational Calculus Chapter 4.34.5 Comp 521 Files and Databases Spring 2010 1 Relational Calculus Comes in two flavors: Tuple relational calculus (TRC) and Domain relational calculus (DRC). Calculus has
More informationDeterministic PushDown Store Automata
Deterministic PushDown tore Automata 1 ContextFree Languages A B C D... A w 0 w 1 D...E The languagea n b n : a b ab 2 Finitetate Automata 3 Pushdown Automata Pushdown automata (pda s) is an fsa with
More informationNoam Chomsky: Aspects of the Theory of Syntax notes
Noam Chomsky: Aspects of the Theory of Syntax notes Julia Krysztofiak May 16, 2006 1 Methodological preliminaries 1.1 Generative grammars as theories of linguistic competence The study is concerned with
More informationAN AUGMENTED STATE TRANSITION NETWORK ANALYSIS PROCEDURE. Daniel G. Bobrow Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts
AN AUGMENTED STATE TRANSITION NETWORK ANALYSIS PROCEDURE Daniel G. Bobrow Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts Bruce Eraser Language Research Foundation Cambridge, Massachusetts Summary
More informationCOMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX
COLING 82, J. Horeck~ (ed.j NorthHolland Publishing Compa~y Academia, 1982 COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX Ludmila UhliFova  Zva Nebeska  Jan Kralik Czech Language Institute Czechoslovak Academy
More informationStructurally ambiguous sentences
Language and Mind HONR 218L Recap: entences have structure In speaking and writing we string words together linearly (we have no choice) But in our minds, we represent sentences as hierarchical structures
More informationNondeterministic Semantics and the Undecidability of Boolean BI
1 Nondeterministic Semantics and the Undecidability of Boolean BI DOMINIQUE LARCHEYWENDLING, LORIA CNRS, Nancy, France DIDIER GALMICHE, LORIA Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy, France We solve the open
More informationEstudios de lingüística inglesa aplicada
Estudios de lingüística inglesa aplicada ADVERB ORIENTATION: SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS José María García Núñez Universidad de Cádiz Orientation is a well known property of some adverbs in English. Early
More informationIntroduction to Logic in Computer Science: Autumn 2006
Introduction to Logic in Computer Science: Autumn 2006 Ulle Endriss Institute for Logic, Language and Computation University of Amsterdam Ulle Endriss 1 Plan for Today Now that we have a basic understanding
More informationSummary Last Lecture. Automated Reasoning. Outline of the Lecture. Definition sequent calculus. Theorem (Normalisation and Strong Normalisation)
Summary Summary Last Lecture sequent calculus Automated Reasoning Georg Moser Institute of Computer Science @ UIBK Winter 013 (Normalisation and Strong Normalisation) let Π be a proof in minimal logic
More informationNonnominal WhichRelatives
Nonnominal WhichRelatives Doug Arnold, Robert D. Borsley University of Essex The properties of nonrestrictive relatives All nonrestrictive relative clauses include a whword. There are no that or zero
More informationA set is a Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One. (Georg Cantor)
Chapter 4 Set Theory A set is a Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One. (Georg Cantor) In the previous chapters, we have often encountered sets, for example, prime numbers form a set, domains
More informationLASSY: LARGE SCALE SYNTACTIC ANNOTATION OF WRITTEN DUTCH
LASSY: LARGE SCALE SYNTACTIC ANNOTATION OF WRITTEN DUTCH Gertjan van Noord Deliverable 34: Report Annotation of Lassy Small 1 1 Background Lassy Small is the Lassy corpus in which the syntactic annotations
More informationFrom Logic to Montague Grammar: Some Formal and Conceptual Foundations of Semantic Theory
From Logic to Montague Grammar: Some Formal and Conceptual Foundations of Semantic Theory Syllabus Linguistics 720 Tuesday, Thursday 2:30 3:45 Room: Dickinson 110 Course Instructor: Seth Cable Course Mentor:
More informationFormal Engineering for Industrial Software Development
Shaoying Liu Formal Engineering for Industrial Software Development Using the SOFL Method With 90 Figures and 30 Tables Springer Contents Introduction 1 1.1 Software Life Cycle... 2 1.2 The Problem 4 1.3
More informationGenerating Sentences from Different Perspectives
Generating Sentences from Different Perspectives Lee Fedder, The Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QG, England. If@uk.ac.cam.cl Keywords : Generation, Natural
More informationEstudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face
Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face 1A Question Forms 1.1 YesNo Questions 1. If the first verb is an auxiliary verb, just move it in front of the Subject:
More information6.045: Automata, Computability, and Complexity Or, Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science Spring, 2010. Class 4 Nancy Lynch
6.045: Automata, Computability, and Complexity Or, Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science Spring, 2010 Class 4 Nancy Lynch Today Two more models of computation: Nondeterministic Finite Automata (NFAs)
More informationLecture 10: Regression Trees
Lecture 10: Regression Trees 36350: Data Mining October 11, 2006 Reading: Textbook, sections 5.2 and 10.5. The next three lectures are going to be about a particular kind of nonlinear predictive model,
More informationCURRICULUM VITAE Studies Positions Distinctions Research interests Research projects
1 CURRICULUM VITAE ABEILLÉ Anne Address : LLF, UFRL, Case 7003, Université Paris 7, 2 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris Tél. 33 1 57 27 57 67 Fax 33 1 57 27 57 88 abeille@linguist.jussieu.fr http://www.llf.cnrs.fr/fr/abeille/
More informationCAs and Turing Machines. The Basis for Universal Computation
CAs and Turing Machines The Basis for Universal Computation What We Mean By Universal When we claim universal computation we mean that the CA is capable of calculating anything that could possibly be calculated*.
More informationLecture 4  Sets, Relations, Functions 1
Lecture 4 Sets, Relations, Functions Pat Place Carnegie Mellon University Models of Software Systems 17651 Fall 1999 Lecture 4  Sets, Relations, Functions 1 The Story So Far Formal Systems > Syntax»
More informationSQL INJECTION ATTACKS By Zelinski Radu, Technical University of Moldova
SQL INJECTION ATTACKS By Zelinski Radu, Technical University of Moldova Where someone is building a Web application, often he need to use databases to store information, or to manage user accounts. And
More informationDeduction by Daniel Bonevac. Chapter 5 Quantifiers
Deduction by Daniel Bonevac Chapter 5 Quantifiers Limitations of sentential logic Sentential logic is useful, but there are many logical relationships that it simply can not represent. For example, sentential
More informationCAS LX 522 Syntax I. The structure of sentences. Sentential players. Constituents. Arbitrarily complicated. [name s noun]
S LX 522 Syntax I Week 2b. onstituents (3.13.4) The structure of sentences 1) You will give it to her 2) You will give book to your roommate 3) You will give book about syntax to your roommate s sister
More informationChapter 7 Uncomputability
Chapter 7 Uncomputability 190 7.1 Introduction Undecidability of concrete problems. First undecidable problem obtained by diagonalisation. Other undecidable problems obtained by means of the reduction
More informationParsing Beyond ContextFree Grammars: Introduction
Parsing Beyond ContextFree Grammars: Introduction Laura Kallmeyer HeinrichHeineUniversität Düsseldorf Sommersemester 2016 Parsing Beyond CFG 1 Introduction Overview 1. CFG and natural languages 2. Polynomial
More information2110711 THEORY of COMPUTATION
2110711 THEORY of COMPUTATION ATHASIT SURARERKS ELITE Athasit Surarerks ELITE Engineering Laboratory in Theoretical Enumerable System Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Chulalongkorn University
More informationFundamentele Informatica II
Fundamentele Informatica II Answer to selected exercises 1 John C Martin: Introduction to Languages and the Theory of Computation M.M. Bonsangue (and J. Kleijn) Fall 2011 Let L be a language. It is clear
More informationTesting LTL Formula Translation into Büchi Automata
Testing LTL Formula Translation into Büchi Automata Heikki Tauriainen and Keijo Heljanko Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory for Theoretical Computer Science, P. O. Box 5400, FIN02015 HUT, Finland
More informationRegression Verification: Status Report
Regression Verification: Status Report Presentation by Dennis Felsing within the Projektgruppe Formale Methoden der Softwareentwicklung 20131211 1/22 Introduction How to prevent regressions in software
More informationML for the Working Programmer
ML for the Working Programmer 2nd edition Lawrence C. Paulson University of Cambridge CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS CONTENTS Preface to the Second Edition Preface xiii xv 1 Standard ML 1 Functional Programming
More informationToday s Agenda. Automata and Logic. Quiz 4 Temporal Logic. Introduction Buchi Automata Linear Time Logic Summary
Today s Agenda Quiz 4 Temporal Logic Formal Methods in Software Engineering 1 Automata and Logic Introduction Buchi Automata Linear Time Logic Summary Formal Methods in Software Engineering 2 1 Buchi Automata
More informationCollingwood s thesis: Every statement except a question has meaning only in relation to a question.
(Philosophia Osaka, Nr. 6, 2012/3, pp. 7994.) Identity Sentences as Answers to Questions Yukio IRIE Introduction: Problem Establishment I attempted to prove Collingwood s thesis previously 1. Collingwood
More information3.1 Grammatical Units
Lengua Inglesa II 20092010 Topic 3: Grammatical Units Subtopic 1: Units and Boundaries Subtopic 2: The Noun Phrase Mick O Donnell VIbis 302 michael.odonnell@uam.es 1. Units and rank scale Unit: any stretch
More informationLecture 1. Basic Concepts of Set Theory, Functions and Relations
September 7, 2005 p. 1 Lecture 1. Basic Concepts of Set Theory, Functions and Relations 0. Preliminaries...1 1. Basic Concepts of Set Theory...1 1.1. Sets and elements...1 1.2. Specification of sets...2
More informationMath 115 Spring 2011 Written Homework 5 Solutions
. Evaluate each series. a) 4 7 0... 55 Math 5 Spring 0 Written Homework 5 Solutions Solution: We note that the associated sequence, 4, 7, 0,..., 55 appears to be an arithmetic sequence. If the sequence
More informationUsing Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English
Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Language Stage CCSS* Supporting Speaking and Writing for Students with Complex Communication
More informationWeb Data Extraction: 1 o Semestre 2007/2008
Web Data : Given Slides baseados nos slides oficiais do livro Web Data Mining c Bing Liu, Springer, December, 2006. Departamento de Engenharia Informática Instituto Superior Técnico 1 o Semestre 2007/2008
More informationThe Language of Social Software
The Language of Social Software Jan van Eijck CWI, Amsterdam Workshop on Logic and Social Interaction, Chennai, January 8, 2009 Abstract Computer software is written in languages like C, Java or Haskell.
More information