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4 colophon AnD contents In this issue Volume 7, Issue 10, October 2011 Articles Experiences from world bank development support for land reform KEITH CLIFFORD BELL 7 Analyses of Internetbased GPS processing services HARUN KENAN SUBAŞI AND REHA METIN ALKAN 11 national GIS: Shaping India DR K KASTURIRANGAN 16 Innovation in archaeological documentation methods NURUL SHAHIDA BINTI SULAIMAN, ZULKEPLI BIN MAJID AND HALIM BIN SETAN 27 columns My coordinates EDITORIAL 6 news GPS 36 GIS 38 LBS 38 GALILEO UPDATE 39 INDUSTRY 40 REMOTE SENSING 42 Mark your calendar NOVEMBER 2011 TO AUGUST this issue has been made possible by the support and good wishes of the following individuals and companies Halim Bin Setan, Harun Kenan Subaşi, K Kasturirangan, Keith Clifford Bell, Nurul Shahida Binti Sulaiman, Reha Metin Alkan, Zulkepli Bin Majid; and CHC, ESRI, Foif, GeoEye, Javad, Hemisphere GPS, HiTarget, Kanq Digital, NRSC, Pentax, Navcom, NovAtel, Racelogic, South, Trimble and many others. Mailing Address 50 A Pocket A SFS Mayur Vihar Phase III Delhi , India. Phones , , Fax October 2011 Web Coordinates is an initiative of cgit that aims to broaden the scope of positioning, navigation and related technologies. cgit does not neccesarily subscribe to the views expressed by the authors and advertisers in this magazine and may not be held liable for any losses caused directly or indirectly due to the information provided herein. cgit, Reprinting with permission is encouraged; contact the editor for details. Annual subscription (12 issues) [India] Rs.1,200 [Overseas] US$80 Printed and published by Sanjay Malaviya on behalf of Centre for Geoinformation Technologies at A221 Mangal Apartments, Vasundhara Enclave, Delhi , India. Editor Bal Krishna Owner Centre for Geoinformation Technologies Designed at Thomson Press India Ltd. Printer Thomson Press India Ltd., B 315, Okhla Phase I, New Delhi , India this issue of coordinates is of 44 pages, including cover

5 Our List is Long to Make Your Choice Easy Our List Ultra RTK & RTK Extend StarFire Included Three Year Warranty Full GNSS Support Online Training Library All Accessories Included Your List LAND-PAK It s All Included - Just Add LAND-PAK to Your List We understand that to do the job right, you need all the right tools. The LAND-PAK system includes full GNSS support, an online video training library, all hardware & accessories, plus field, office & GNSS post processing software. For additional piece of mind, LAND-PAK is covered by our industry leading three year warranty. Built around a powerful combination of advanced survey tools, the LAND-PAK system helps reduce outages while providing extended coverage with Ultra RTK & RTK-Extend. For applications that don t require a base station, LAND-PAK also includes our StarFire global satellitebased augmentation system that provides decimeter accuracy worldwide. We make your choice easy. LAND-PAK is your more complete survey system, including all the right tools to get the job done right. October

6 Mycoordinates More than an E-nabler Land reforms Will continue to remain a contentious issue In many parts of the world, That can be driven more by strong political will And sustained commitment. The Information and Communication Technologies With the components of land administration, transparency and good governance Has been utilized as an enabler to land reforms. It could also be playing a more apt role If it is allowed to become a tool that empowers, The poor and the landless, Who deserves to be benefitted the most Bal Krishna, Editor ADVISORS Naser El-Sheimy PEng, CRC Professor, Department of Geomatics Engineering, The University of Calgary Canada, George Cho Professor in GIS and the Law, University of Canberra, Australia, Associate Professor Abbas Rajabifard Director, Centre for SDI and Land Administration, University of Melbourne, Australia, Luiz Paulo Souto Fortes PhD Associate Director of Geosciences, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics -IBGE, Brazil, John Hannah Professor, School of Surveying, University of Otago, New Zealand 6 October 2011

7 land administration Experiences from world bank development support for land reform This paper discusses the World Bank support for sustainable land reform, focusing on the East Asia Region, with particular emphases on initiatives in land governance, land development investment, tenure security, NSDI, e-government, land tax, spatial planning, disaster response and mitigation. We present here the first part of the paper Keith Clifford Bell World Bank, East Asia Pacific Region Washington DC, USA The World Bank, with the support of development partners and civil society organizations (CSO), are continuing to support the implementation of land administration and management projects throughout the world. From the World Bank side, specific support to the land sector has been provided for the past three decades. These projects have varying degrees of emphasis on social equity and economic development. In post-conflict countries, tenure security and access to land are major factors in providing long-term stability. There are many complexities, dimensions and themes associated with land administration. Securing land rights is particularly relevant to vulnerable groups such as the poor, women, orphans, displaced persons and ethnic minority groups, especially after disasters or conflicts. Fees and taxes on land are often a significant source of government revenue, particularly at the local level, and often underpin the sustainability of decentralization. In most societies, there are many competing demands on land including development, agriculture, pasture, forestry, industry, infrastructure, urbanization, biodiversity, customary rights, ecological and environmental protection. Most countries have great difficulty in balancing the needs of these competing demands. Reform of land administration in any country is a long-term prospect requiring decades of sustained commitment. It is a major investment of capital and human resources and requires strong, consistent, transparent and accountable leadership, in order to achieve effective, sustainable outcomes. Dealing with each and every one of these can contribute to achieving the challenges of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Reform is often inhibited or even undermined by poor governance. Good land administration is often as much related to land administration issues as it is to the quality of the civil service, especially its transparency and accountability. Investment in land administration systems should also explicitly see the development of the spatial data infrastructure and the spatial enablement of the government as part of overall reform, which facilitates an expanded agenda including land governance, social development, sustainable management of natural resources and the environment, disaster prevention, climate change, carbon monitoring and so forth. However, such investments need to be calibrated for the specific country requirements, including capacity and sustainability. World bank support for the land sector Overview The World Bank has been directly engaged in supporting the land sector for more than thirty years. Over the past twenty years, the Bank has supported 76 dedicated land administration projects in 48 countries totaling an investment of around US$3.6 billion, and in addition, a further 228 projects (in 78 countries) had a secondary focus in land. Currently, the World Bank is providing funding of around US$ 1.5 billion for around forty-six projects which are classified as land administration and management projects. Projects with a secondary focus in land may fall under natural resources management, agriculture, forestry, urban development, housing and infrastructure sectors. Furthermore, the World Bank is also providing significant funding for land-related cross-sectoral analytical and technical assistance interventions globally, regionally and nationally. (Deininger and Bell, 2010). Of all the development sectors supported by the World Bank, land is amongst the most challenging, complex and controversial, and it directly or indirectly, impacts the achievement of each of the eight MDG. However, it is also one of the most fundamental sectors, with land issues underpinning multiple other sectors. Land issues are deeply rooted in countries histories and cultures. At its most extreme, land issues have been identified as cause of civil and international wars, and even genocide. Furthermore, land issues are often highly politically sensitive, implying that attempts to address them need to be solidly grounded in empirical research, often building on carefully evaluated pilots. The risk matrix for all land-related interventions is indeed high, and such risks run far more deeply than reputational risks to donor institutions, as the lives and the livelihoods of individuals is very much affected. The continuing legacy major natural disasters has emphasized the critical importance of land and property rights in reconstruction and rehabilitation. Table 1 presents a summary of World Bank supported land administration projects in the East Asia Region since October

8 Table 1: Summary of World Bank Supported Land Administration Projects in East Asia THAILAND : Three Phases - Land Titling Projects I, III and III Program Focus Tenure security and building a sustainable land administration system. Support provided for land titling, valuation, capacity building, training, education, institutional strengthening. Achievements 9 million titles were distributed to land owners (no gender disaggregated data) Strong capacity - institutional, technical, service delivery Strong land and property market High public awareness Sustainability: very sustainable program still running. Annual operating costs of Thai Department of Land about US$150 million. Income generated about US$ 1.5 Billion Strong, sustainable education programs. LAO PEOPLES DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC : Two Phases - Land Titling Projects I and II Program Focus Tenure security and building a sustainable land administration system. Support provided for land titling, valuation, capacity building, training, education, institutional strengthening Achievements Approximately 400,000 land titles issued (37.5% of titles issued to women-compared to 23.4% to men) Strong capacity - institutional, technical, service delivery, implementation in all 17 provinces Strong public awareness High gender mainstreaming Sustainable land administration educations programs INDONESIA and : Two Phases - Land Administration Project; Land Management and Policy Development Project Program Focus Institutional strengthening and capacity building, policy development, titling, local government land management Achievements Approximately 4.3 million titles distributed (no gender disaggregated data for Phase 1, 20% of the 2.3 million titles under Phase 2 issued to women) Training, capacity building & education, 3 x LAM education programs Institutional strengthening & policy development High levels of participation of women in public awareness campaigns Approx 1,000 local government personnel trained in LAM. INDONESIA (disaster response) : Reconstruction of Aceh Land Administration Project Program Focus Tenure security in the reconstruction of Aceh after the tsunami and civil war titling, institutional development and capacity building, policy. Achievements 222,628 land titles distributed (28% distributed to women or joint owners) More than 300,000 land parcels community land mapped to support reconstruction Titles issued for 120,000 newly constructed houses Joint Land Titling Policy adopted : RALAS was designed to be the first program to systematically formalize hitherto women s customary land rights Institutional strengthening and policy development Strong public awareness Very high civil society engagement. PHILIPPINES 1999-Present: Two Phases Land Administration and Management Project I and II Program Focus Land administration reform including policy development, institutional strengthening and capacity building, land valuation and taxation. Achievements Key legislation for titling and valuation introduced Strong land administration service delivery Modest titling outputs as country has large proportion of first tilting completed High gender mainstreaming Land sector development framework, endorsed as the approach to reform and the national medium development plan, includes NSDI Valuation standards fully operational after extensive development and testing Fiscal reform in progress Strong partnerships with LGUs Key agreement with Indigenous Peoples established and under implementation. CAMBODIA : Land Management And Administration Project Program Focus Land policy development, institutional strengthening and capacity building, land titling, land dispute resolution and land management. Achievements 1.2 million titles distributed Strong systematic land titling capacity developed in project provinces Dispute resolution procedures under cadastral commissions Strong land administration and surveying education programs established. NB. A further program in Cambodia, Land Allocation for Social and Economic Development, has been under implementation, since VIETNAM 2008 Present: Vietnam Land Administration Project Program Focus Tenure security (issuance of land use rights certificates -LURC), institutional strengthening, service delivery. Achievements Target of 5.1 million LURC to be issued (work in progress); 72% expected to be in joint ownership) Joint ownership introduced Single certificate covering land and building introduced Outsourcing of surveying and land certification All land offices in 9 provinces to be modernized, services standards, capacity building. 8 October 2011

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10 Since the early 1980s, land administration programs have evolved from being more narrowly focused on titling, institutional strengthening and capacity building to address any number of the following: Institutional and policy reforms Capacity building in government and private sector Education Applications of information communications technologies (ICT) including computerized records management, geographic information systems (GIS), electronic data capture, web-based applications, satellite position systems (GPS/CORS), national spatial data infrastructure (NSDI), e-governance Service Delivery Land valuation and taxation State land management Land management Good governance and civil service reforms. Breaking news land remains a high priority for World Bank support During the first months of 2011, the World Bank s senior management have strongly affirmed the institution s support to agendas of the land sector. Firstly, in January 2011, the World Bank President, Mr. Robert Zoellick, in an interview with Newsweek, advised that the biggest challenge facing the developing world was food security and there was a need to give priority to property rights (Schneiderman, 2011). In April, 2011, Mr. Zoellick further drew attention to food security and the importance of land and property rights as well as the concerns of foreign direct investment (FDI) in land for agri-business. More recently, Ms. N. Okonjo-Iweala, World Bank Managing Director, in opening the Bank s 2011 Annual Conference on Land and Poverty, advised: Agriculture and food are back on the agenda for development agencies and increasingly also the private sector. But to maximize investment in the sector and ensure that it yields benefits for local people, attention to land tenure is critical....increasing farmer s tenure security, ensuring that they can transfer land to better uses and join the non-farm economy in the context of structural change, and possibly allow them to use it to access credit. In most developing countries, women s rights to land and girls ability to inherit are weak. Land is critical for how cities expand. Opportunities to expropriate land from farmers at little or no cost lead cities to expand horizontally rather than vertically. This makes services costly to provide pushing the poor into far-flung informal settlements and increasing commuting and pollution. Thus, while sources of tenure insecurity differ across regions - loss of land to urban growth is very important to Asia consequences are similar. The main one is a failure to put a valuable resource to its best use and make it contribute to the local economy rather than rent-seeking and conflict...in response to our clients we are fully committed to expand our commitment to address the challenges in this sector especially as recent events have made doing so more urgent.. to be continued next issue The International Global Navigation Satellite Systems (IGNSS) Society is pleased to announce the IGNSS 2011 Incorporating the International Symposium on GPS & GNSS November 2011 University of Symposium, Exhibition & Field Day New South Wales, Sydney Australia The School of Surveying & Spatial Information Systems (SSIS), at the University of New South Wales (UNSW), is proud to co-host the 2011 symposium in the beautiful harbourside city of Sydney. The program will include updates on the major satellite systems, keynote presentations, interactive poster sessions, panel sessions, supplier forums, an informative trade exhibition and field day. The list of topics includes but is not limited to: 1. Status of GNSS (GPS, Galileo, GLONASS, Compass, QZSS) 2. Navigation Systems and Applications 3. Positioning Trends & New Technologies 4. Space Based & Ground Based Augmentation 5. Receiver Design 6. Signal Processing Signal Interference October Multipath 9. Organisational and Governance Issues 10. Location Privacy 11. National Positioning Infrastructure (NPI) 12. International GNSS Applications & Developments 13. Intelligent Transport Systems and Transport Telematics 14. Agriculture, Mining and Rural Industries 15. Consumer Applications - Indoor, Urban & B2B 16. GNSS and Environment Applications 17. Location Based Services 18. Precise Timing 19. Surveying, Mapping & Geodesy 20. UAV s 21. Machine Automation 22. Emergency Services 23. Location Based Security 24. Space Applications 25. Vehicle Positioning (eg DSRC) 26. Sensor Networks 27. Locata 28. RFID Positioning 29. Inertial Systems for Positioning & Orientation Updates regarding the conference will be posted to the website at If you would like to receive more information about the symposium, please contact: Shannon Lockyer, IGNSS Society

11 GPS Analysis of Internet-based GPS processing service In this study, the accuracy performance of internet-based online GPS processing service is analyzed Figure 1: OPUS Service Result File Harun Kenan Subaşi Istanbul Technical University, Department of Geomatics Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey Reha Metin Alkan Professor Istanbul Technical University, Department of Geomatics Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey Positioning with GPS can be realized two main ways: i-single Point Positioning (SPP), ii- relative positioning. When the high accuracy is required, the accuracy obtained from SPP is not enough and for those applications relative positioning method have to be considered. However in this method, there should be at least two receivers to collect the data and software to process these data. In order to use the GPS Processing Software, their license price must be paid and users should take a training. For the users who do not have an experience to process GPS data with this software may sometime leads to the results that are wrong. Although it removes some of these problems to a certain degree with the usage of the network RTK systems named CORS- TR (TUSAGA Active), ISKI-UKBS in Turkey, it is still necessary to use traditional approaches when these systems are not considered to be enough or high accuracy is needed. In recent years as an alternative to the traditional processing method, internet-based on-line GPS processing services have been started to be used widely. With the help of these services, collected GPS data are sent to the mentioned system and then the coordinate of the stations can easily and practically be obtained. In processing, the International GNSS Services (IGS) or fixed station data of CORS networks are considered as a reference and hence the coordinates of the stations are estimated with the relative method. The most important advantage of these services is that the users can process their data just using a web browser and an without any GPS processing software knowledge. The usages of these systems are for saving both time and workforce by removing the needs of fixed station and software. In this study, the accuracy performances of the internet based GNSS processing services are analyzed. Internet-based GPS processing services Traditionally, GPS surveys are conducted at least with two receivers, i.e. reference and rover receivers and the collected data is processed with the GPS processing software in the office. In this approach, the users need to do both surveys with at least two GPS receivers and also use the GPS processing software. These drawbacks can be removed by using the internetbased GPS processing services (Sanlioglu and Inal, 2005). Several internet-based automatic GPS processing services are put into service in the world. Today, there are five internet based GPS processing services that can be widely used for free of charge: Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) operated by United States National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Scripps Coordinate Update Tool (SCOUT) operated by Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) Australian Online GPS Processing Service (AUSPOS) operated by National Mapping Division of GeoScience Australia AutoGipsy operated by NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) CSRS-Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP) operated by Canada Geodetic Survey Division of Natural Resource Canada (NRCan). October

12 Internet-based GPS processing services use different software. For instance SCOUT uses GAMIT software; AUTO-GIPSY uses GIPSY software; OPUS uses PAGES software; CRCS-PPP uses NRCan-PPP software; and AUSPOS usesmicrocosm software. Although the mentioned software have similar mathematical principles, they can differentiate in high modeling and data quality control algorithms (Tsakiri, 2008). The necessities in order to benefit from these services are the same; internet access and an address. The widely used on-line processing services are summarized below. More detailed information is given in Subası (2011). Online positioning user service (OPUS) Online Positioning User Service(OPUS) is a service that was set up by American National Ocean and Atmosphere Association (NOAA). In this system, the coordinates are determined from 3 CORS stations for the USA and from 3 IGS stations for the rest of the country. The coordinates are calculated by PAGES software is used improved by NOAA (URL 1). The services web site is After uploading the GPS data collected in the field, type and height of the antenna were also introduced to the system with the help of the easy-usable interface. In addition, the CORS stations and geoid model which will be used in process can also be selected. OPUS calculates the coordinates by taking the results from three independent base vectors. After entering all the necessary information, process starts and results are sent to the address. For a single station, the process lasts approximately minutes. The result message sent via mail includes user name, the studied file s name, used software s version, type and height of the used antenna, calculated survey epoch coordinates, used reference stations names and coordinates. The OPUS system can process the survey files at most 10 Megabyte size and produced by at least 2 hours with dual frequency receivers. The result files sent to the user after the processing consist of survey epoch coordinates, UTM coordinates, type and height of the antenna, starting Feature Service OPUS AUSPOS SCOUT Association Software Limitations American National Geodetic Survey Geoscience Australia The Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center and ending times of the survey, ambiguity solution rate and so on (Figure 1). Australian online GPS processing service (AUSPOS) It is an online GPS data processing service prepared by Geoscience Australia Association. In this system, the coordinates are determined with the help of the 3 nearest IGS station. In the processing stage, IGS precise orbit information, earth rotation parameters and speed vectors of IGS stations are taken into count. For these evaluation, a GPS survey software is used named MicroCosm. Users can be reached to the AUSPOS processing service via web address (Figure 2). PAGES Micro Cosm GAMIT Through the service s interface screen, users start the survey process by entering their addresses, type and height of antenna. Users can install the data both via interface and a ftp server. RINEX files can be installed in the zipped Hatanaka, *.zip or *.gzip format. In AUSPOS system 7 survey file can be processed at the same time. A survey file of a single day can be processed in approximately 15 minutes and the results are sent via (Subasi, 2011; URL 2). In addition to the lots of standard information in the result files, there is also a map showing the location of the stations on the world map, mean-square error values and used troposphere model (Figure 3). min. 2 Hours max. 10 MB min. 1 Hour max. 24 Hours min. 1 Hour max. 10mb Supported Data Type *.Z Hatanaka Zip gzip, pkzip *.Z Hatanaka Zip gzip, pkzip *.Z Hatanaka gzip, pkzip Table 1: Main features of the OPUS, AUSPOS and SCOUT processing services Receiving Method www www, ftp ftp Figure 2: AUSPOS Web Page (http://www.ga.gov.au) Scripps coordinate update tool (SCOUT) Fixed Stations Nearest 3 CORS/IGS Nearest 3 IGS Nearest 3 IGS Position (m) Height (m) Max Min Average Max Min Average 24 hour 0,014 0,003 0,012-0,038-0,022-0, hour 0,018 0,003 0,012-0,037-0,018-0,028 4 hour 0,070 0,010 0,016-0,070 0,020-0,030 2 hour 0,098 0,003 0,024-0,114-0,011-0,032 1 hour Table 2: Differences between PPP-derived and Known Coordinates for OPUS service Position (m) Height (m) Max Min Max Min Max Min 24 hour 0,007 0,001 0,004-0,027-0,005-0, hour 0,017 0,001 0,006-0,034-0,009-0,021 4 hour 0,130 0,003 0,014-0,122 0,005-0,020 2 hour 0,0215 0,005 0,029-0,178-0,001-0,011 1 hour 0,151 0,007 0,050-0,178 0,003 0,016 Table 3: Differences between PPP-derived and Known Coordinates for AUSPOS service Position (m) Height (m) Max Min Max Min Max Min 24 hour 0,009 0,001 0,004-0,026-0,08-0, hour 0,012 0,001 0,004-0,042-0,003-0,02 4 hour 0,029 0,006 0,006-0,106 0,004-0,025 2 hour 0,0117 0,002 0,011-0,106-0,002-0,018 1 hour 0,12 0,002 0,020-0,106 0,008 0,007 Table 4: Differences between PPP-derived and Known Coordinates for SOPAC service Scripps Coordinate Update Tool (SCOUT) is a data processing service 12 October 2011

13 October

14 set up by California University. It broadcasts under the SOPAC (Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center) Association. The service page can be accessed from cgi-bin/scout.cgi address (Figure 4). The GPS data files are uploaded in two stages. In the first stage, and survey files ftp address to which the results are sent, are entered by using the interface screen (in SCOUT service data can only be sent via ftp). In this stage, it is possible to choose IGS stations that will be use as a reference station. The processing of the data is started after entering antenna type and height. The baselines is calculated from nearest 3 IGS stations and the coordinates are calculated by making a network adjustment. The data entered to the system should be at least 1 hour with a 30 seconds interval. The survey files can be in Hatanaka format or any other zipped formats. However, data in *.zip format is not supported. The SCOUT service uses GAMIT software (URL 3). In the result file sent after the processing, coordinate information (survey epoch and ITRF 2005) and names of the used reference stations are sent in text file to the users. Canadian Spatial Reference System- Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP) Canadian Spatial Reference System- Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP) is an internet based GPS survey service supplied by NRCAN (Natural Resources Canada). A single point positioning is determined by using Precise Point Positioning technique with precise orbit and clock information (Sanlioglu and Inal, 2005). The single or dual frequency GPS data can be processed in static or kinematic mode with this service. CSRS-PPP services internet page can be accessed by csrs.nrcan.gc.ca/field/scripts/ CSRS_PPP_main_e.pl address. The main features of the OPUS, AUSPOS and SCOUT services are given in Table 1. Figure 3: AUSPOS Service Result File In this study, six continuously operating GPS stations, operated by ISKI-UKBS, are selected in order to analyse the performance of the online processing service (Figure 5). A GPS surveying campaign was conducted in 2008 and the coordinates were calculated by using BERNESE software very precisely. The details of the study are given in Kahveci et al. (2009). The 6 points have 24 hours GPS sessions on May 16th 2009 and November 6th 2009 are chosen. 24 hour data files were divided into 1 hour, 2 hour, 4 hour, 12 hour sub-sessions. All these data sets were processed with OPUS, AUSPOS and SCOUT services. Delivered coordinates from these services are compared with known coordinates. Differences in position and ellipsoidal height components are shown in Table 2, 3 and 4 for the OPUS, AUSPOS and SOPAC, respectively. Figure 4: SCOUT Web Page (http://sopac.ucsd.edu/cgi-bin/scout.cgi) When analyzing the results in Table 2, 3 and 4, it can be seen that results are obtained between 1 cm and 22 cm accuracy level in position from all 14 October 2011

15 Figure 5: ISKI-UKBS Network services. In height as expected, results are obtained with the less accuracy. To get sub-decimeter accuracy at least 2 hour data acquisition time needed. The results show that, the SCOUT service among the others provides the best accuracy. Results In this study, the accuracy performance of internet-based online GPS processing service is analyzed. The results show that, coordinates are estimated between 1 cm and 22 cm accuracy level in position from all services. To get subdecimeter accuracy at least 2 hour data span is required. The results show that these services can be used for surveying applications with a cost-effective manner and very easily without knowledge of any GPS processing software. References Ghoddousi-Fard, R. and Dare, P., Online GPS Processing Services: An Initial Study, GPS Solutions, 10(1), pp Liu, J. H., and Shih, T. Y., A Performance Evaluation of The Internet Based Static GPS Computation Services, Survey Review, 39(302), pp Kahveci, M., Karagoz, H., Gulal, E., Kartal, U,Eroglu, S. and Tokmak, B., ISKI Real Time Permanent GNSS Network (ISKI-UKBS): Its Establishment and Practical Applications, 4. National Engineering Surveying Symposium, October, pp , Trabzon, Turkey. Macdonald, D., Auto-GIPSY, Grafnet, OPUS and SCOUT; A comparison, Waypoint Constulting Inc., Canada. Subasi, H.K., The Accuracy Analysis of Web Based GPS Processing Services: The Case of Istanbul, MSc Thesis, İTÜ, Istanbul (in Turkish). Şanlıoğlu,I., Inal.C., Web Tabanlı Otomatik Veri Işleme Sistemi Tasarımı, 10. TMMOB Harita ve Kadastro Mühendisleri Odası, 10.Türkiye Harita Bilimsel ve Teknik Kurultayı, 28 Mart - 1 Nisan, Ankara. Tsakiri, M., GPS Processing Using Online Services, Journal of Surveying Engineering, 134(4), pp URL 1, OPUS website, noaa.gov/opus, 01 March URL 2, AUSPOS website, ga.gov.au/bin/gps.pl, 01 March URL 3, SCOUT website, edu/cgi-bin/scout.cgi, 01 March October

16 national GIS National GIS Shaping India The Planning Commission and Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India conducted a workshop on National GIS on September 14, 2011 in New Delhi to discuss the National GIS vision document version 2 with all concerned involved and to formalize a national-level endorsement. We present here some of the issues highlighted by Dr K Kasturirangan, Member (Science), Planning Commission made on the occasion Government recognizes that GIS is an important tool for meeting the key issues that Planning Commission is addressing of good governance planning scientifically, implementing and monitoring the plans effectively and also assessing the benefits outreach in the most effective and equitable manner. In this, the key elements of good governance touch upon many aspects of natural resources, as well as processes relating to economic, social and political governance. The information system required to undertake these critical nation-building and decision-making activities is going to be enormously complex and highly demanding we need to start revitalizing and positioning such information systems. GIS will be one critical component of such an information system. India has made tremendous progress in GIS in fact, India started using GIS way back in mid 1980s and since then, a large number of projects and programmes have been implemented. Over the years, notable strides were taken by several ministries and agencies such as Department of Space, Department of Science and Technology, National Informatics Centre, Survey of India, Geological Survey of India, Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Power and even many state government agencies in this regard. Even looking from global perspectives, our programmes like NRIS, NRDMS, NNRMS, NSDI, NUIS, had many unique and visionary underpinnings. However, from a national perspective we had not utilized the fullest potentials of GIS technology yet. The potentials of a myriad applications which are enabled by the GIS due to rapid advances in related technological domains, have to be innovatively and cost effectively applied in support of our inclusive growth agenda. Let us turn towards the GIS eco-system today in the country. There is tremendous focus for growth in the country, both in terms of achieving it rapidly and sustainably. Here sustainability concept integrates inclusive growth objective also. Achievement of these goals crucially depends upon quality of decision making at all levels. GIS has been playing ever expanding role globally in supporting decision making process. Hence, when it comes to GIS our focus of GIS must be on Decision Support Systems application and our emphasis must be on improving quality of decision making. GIS can be a major differentiator at all levels of governance and nation-building be it in government, in enterprises or by citizens. In fact, as it relates to such GIS impact, the Planning Commission is interested to address all the hierarchical levels national, regional and state level and then going down to district and Panchayats level and also covering all government, enterprise and citizen needs. We should remember that GIS is not just about images and maps, but also of a whole host of spatial data representation of geo-tagged tabular attributes - all of which comprises the GIS-content. So to say, we produce best images, best topographic maps, best forest maps etc is just half the solution unless these are all usable at the end of a user or decision-maker, the second half is not bridged. Structurally, the government is organized in sectors thus data collection and mapping is sectoral but what GIS can do is enrichment of information by cutting across these sectoral systems into an integrated data system. Governance demands that these sectoral spatial datasets are combined and new paradigm of information regime created bringing to fore new geographical relationships that enables visualizing spatial patterns in data, hither-to unavailable, and bringing new developmental perspectives right down to grass-roots level and also allowing for making better and qualified decisions. With the potential to construct and visualise maps, analyze information vis-à-vis its spatial attributes, create interactive queries and use results for easy decision-making, geospatial technologies are fast becoming the strongest DSS toolset of decision makers, government, industry and citizens. Next comes another issue of the user. The user, be it from government, enterprise or a citizen, today faces a major deterrent in using GIS. India today lacks GIS- Ready data which is most current and which a user can easily access and use (though pockets of data maybe with some agency here and there) in spite of the finest of data collection and surveying that is done for topographic map, forest maps, census data or even image data etc. Thus, either the user has to struggle to put tremendous efforts in making these maps/ images to GIS-Ready for his usage or somebody should give this to him ready. So, many a time, even if a user wants to use GIS for his decision-making he may be discouraged by the tremendous technological bind he has to get into and thus he may not use the GIS. Second, if the user has to embed GIS DSS in his work-process, then he needs to be assured of constantly updated data - this GIS- Ready datasets must also be constantly and regularly updated and maintained so that currency of data is most recent for the governance process. New sets of GIS data that technology today provides and that can be generated say, maps on 1:10k scale or larger; re-surveyed land ownership data; terrain data on 3D; underground assets data in cities; crowd sourced data and so on are also extremely useful for a user but these are yet to be available easily to him. We want this major 3-fold gap be removed for the user. The user must not be bothered and worried for GIS-Ready data and must be assured that GIS-Ready data that is needed would be available to him. This is a key paradigm that we want to bring in the eco-system. 16 October 2011

17 Build New Opportunities Esri can help you do that. From planning, analysis, and design to construction, operations, and maintenance, we have the tools to support the infrastructure life cycle. With Esri Technology, you save time, lower costs, and build a sustainable tomorrow. Learn more at esri.com/coordinates October Copyright 2011 Esri. All rights reserved.

18 So, I come to the key issue that was then taken up after Hon ble Prime Minister asked Planning Commission to look into the way beyond GIS. What can we do about these 3 important issues first, how can we ensure that our decision/governance system is supported by a comprehensive, easy-to-use GIS Decision Support System whatever the decision-maker wants must be supported by GIS; second, how can any user be rid of the hassles of GIS data organization that he now faces ensuring that GIS- Ready data is readily available; third, how can we have an institutional system in the country that is responsible for GIS and is accountable to meet the GIS needs of the country. Today, we have come far in addressing these issues and we shall see actionable answers to these. This Workshop will discuss the Vision of National GIS and set forth a series of directions and actions that the country can initiate and in a time-bound manner, bridging all the gaps that exist today and make GIS a part and parcel of our total national system. It is against this backdrop that the Planning Commission has initiated this major step... IX ELMF11 Advert - CoOrd_8x5.pdf 1 12/10/ :51 Mr Sam Pitroda, Adviser to Prime Minister on Public Information, Infrastructure & Innovations, Goverment of India While addressing the workshop, appreciated the vision and concept of the National GIS and expressed support to the programme. He mentioned that India is at the cusp of another technological and development curve and in its drive for inclusive growth, social equity & development a major requirement would be to re-engineer many systems and processes. He mentioned that Information will be the 4th pillar of democracy and GIS will be that important element of the 4th pillar helping in the concept of unified information infrastructures and bring one important level of unification and collaboration amongst many stake-holders. The Public Information Infrastructure (PII) had been envisaged to provide broad-band connectivity and a host of e-services to every citizen be in urban or rural areas. He mentioned that PII aimed to be enabling repositories of citizen needs, geographical and physical characters of our country and programmes of government. He mentioned major technological thrust being taken up first, the laying of a fibre-network for connecting 250k panchayats; establishment of the National Knowledge Network (NKN) and now the National GIS. Mr Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Goverment of India in his inaugural address, mentioned that in the 12th Plan, focus is on social and physical infrastructure with key areas being agriculture; manufacturing; infrastructure, rural connectivity, health and education services and addressing special challenges for vulnerable/ deprived areas. He stressed that the need and demand is for good governance essentially for effective implementation of development and also in context of better functioning of government and private sector in the economy. He emphasized that GIS is an important technology area which can form the basis of a DSS. He highlighted that a national-level GIS that can serve multiple needs government, enterprises and citizens and mentioned that National GIS must power more open government and, thereby, leverage economic and social development and reaching the gains of development to the most needy and at the right place. He noted that GIS must also aim to bring accountability and responsibility of public activities where decision-making can be centered around GIS thus factoring location and time-domain map information. Noting that National GIS will be one capability that can support the nation, he highlighted how spatial planning and determining options and alternatives for planning will become important. Image courtesy of FM-International Oy FINNMAP 18 October 2011 Register online today A major two-day technical conference with supporting exhibition focussing on the use of LIDAR to support transport, urban modelling, coastal zone mapping, asset management and GIS applications. Salzburg Congress AUSTRIA Nov 2011 Organised by: In partnership with:

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