1 ACCULTURATION STRATEGIES AND ITS EFFECT ON DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN THE BRAZILIAN IMMIGRANT COMMUNITY IN THE GREATER TORONTO AREA by Iara Regina Da Costa A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Adult Education and Counselling Psychology Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto Copyright by Iara Regina Da Costa (2008)
2 Acculturation Strategies and its Effect on Depressive Symptoms in the Brazilian Immigrant Community in the Greater Toronto Area Iara Regina Da Costa Master of Arts, 2008 Department of Adult Education and Counselling Psychology Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto Abstract Among several difficulties associated with immigration, acculturation process has been recognized as one of the main stressors and one of the major risk factors associated in the incidence of mental disorders. The strategies adopted by individuals to deal with the acculturation process appear to be predictive of different mental health outcomes. This exploratory study investigated the relationship between acculturation strategies and the occurrence of symptoms of depression in the context of the Brazilian immigrant community living in the Greater Toronto Area. The results demonstrated that Separation and Assimilation were the predominant strategies for this sample and that acculturation strategies failed to serve as significant predictors of depression scores. However, participants with Separation as their predominant acculturation strategy exhibited higher depressive symptom endorsement. The significance of these findings in the context of previous research as well as its implications for future research and critical multicultural practice in mental health are discussed. ii
3 Acknowledgements I would like to thank all of the Brazilian immigrants who took part in this study. Thank you for your time, for sharing your opinions and contributing to raise academic and clinical interest in our community. I would also like to extend my appreciation to my thesis supervisor, Dr. Roy Moodley. I appreciate the freedom you gave me to pursue my interests and the direction and feedback that helped me move forward and complete this project. I also would like to thank my committee member, Dr. Jeanne Watson for your valuable recommendations to make my proposal and thesis more meaningful and consistent. I am very grateful to staff members at the AECP/OISE. I would like to thank Susan Hall for your contagious smile and exceptional guidance, and Todd Will for helping me navigate throughout the many deadlines and administrative barriers. I would also like to extend my appreciation to Aline Rodrigues for volunteering in this project. Without your incredible interpersonal skills, independent thinking, and hard work, this project could not have been completed in a timely manner. A special thanks to Olesya Falenchuk for your statistical expertise and generous support. I would like to express my most sincere gratitude to my mother. You are my role model of strength, determination and love. Your journey provided me with the encouragement I needed to proceed. I would like to thank my dear friend Ursula for your beautiful mind and heart. Your enthusiastic technical and emotional support made all the difference to me. I would like to thank Michelle, for being the personification of generosity and for offering me exactly what I needed when I most needed and Tania for blessing me with your unconditional support, insurmountable strength and grace. Finally, I am grateful for human connectedness, which made this project viable and continues to make my life an everyday gift in this new country. iii
4 Table of Contents LIST OF TABLES... VI LIST OF FIGURES...VII LIST OF APPENDICES...VIII CHAPTER Introduction...1 Review of Literature...5 Culture and acculturation... 5 Depression CHAPTER Research Method...35 Research Question Eligibility Criteria and Sample of Participants Measures Procedures Statistical Analysis Ethical Considerations CHAPTER Results...57 Demographic Data Immigration Context Acculturation Strategies Endorsement of Depressive Symptoms Relationship between Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms CHAPTER iv
5 Discussion...86 Acculturation Strategies Prevalence Depressive Symptom Endorsement and Acculturation Strategies Limitations of this Study Implications for Mental Health Promotion and Clinical Practice Future Research Conclusion REFERENCES APPENDICES v
6 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Generic Demographic Characteristics Table 2. Educational and Occupational Characteristics Table 3. Economical Characteristics Table 4. Immigration Characteristics Table 5. Pre-immigration factors Table 6. During-acculturation factors Table 7. Social Support Network Table 8. Attitude toward Canadian culture and life in Canada Table 9. History of Depressive Symptomatology Table 10. Acculturation Strategy Prevalence by Gender Table 11. Correlations between Acculturation Strategies and Time in Canada Table 12. Acculturation Strategy Prevalence Table 13. Correlations among the Acculturation Strategies subscales (n = 110) Table 14. Summary Models of Regression for Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms Table 15. Frequency Distribution of Acculturation Strategies (n = 114) vi
7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Acculturation Strategies. Adapted from Berry (2001) Figure 2. Sample Selection Procedure Figure 3. Acculturation Strategies Scale - Multilevel Structure Figure 4. Distribution of Recruitment Sources Figure 5. Distribution of Satisfaction with Life in Canada Scores Figure 6. Median Comparison among Acculturation Strategies Figure 7. Distribution of Depressive Symptomatology Scores Figure 8. Depressive Symptomatology by Assimilation Scores Figure 9. Depressive Symptomatology by Separation Scores Figure 10. Moderating variables across Acculturation Strategies and Depression Figure 11. Multifaceted Role of Mental Health Professionals vii
8 LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix A. Telephone Screening Script Appendix B. Research Measures English Version Appendix C. Research Measures Portuguese Version Appendix D. Acculturation Strategies Scale Domain Chart Appendix E. Recruitment Materials English Version Appendix F. Recruitment Materials Portuguese Version Appendix G. Additional Research Package Documents: Hard copy - English Appendix H. Additional Research Package Documents: Hard copy - Portuguese Appendix I. Additional Research Package Documents: Online - English Appendix J. Additional Research Package Documents: Online - Portuguese Appendix K. Correlation Matrix Acculturation Strategies and Mediating Variables viii
9 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms CHAPTER 1 Introduction My research will focus on the relationship between acculturation strategies and the occurrence of symptoms of depression in the context of the immigrant Brazilian community living in the Greater Toronto Area. A recent publication by Statistics Canada states that the net international migration continues to be the main engine of population growth in Canada, accounting for about two-thirds of the annual increase in 2005/2006 (Statistics Canada, 2006, para. 1). Toronto is the main destination of immigrants brought into the country through Canada s immigration policy, receiving thousands of immigrants each year (Statistics Canada, 2003). As immigration is an important strategy for Canada s development as a nation, the adaptation of newcomers to the country has become a central focus of attention for government agencies and academic communities alike. At the government level, leaders have strived to design policies to deal with the inequities involved in the immigration scenario. At the academic level, social scientists have focused their research on the difficulties immigrants face upon landing and living in Canada (e.g. Khan & Watson, 2005; Ward & Kennedy, 1994). Among several difficulties associated with immigration, the acculturation process has been recognized as one of the main stressors and it is known as one of the major risk factors associated in the incidence of mental disorders (e.g. Lee & Chen, 2000; Miranda & Umhoefer, 1998; Yeh, 2003). In the United States, for example, several studies involving immigrant populations have been analyzed by the Report of the Surgeon General (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001). The results suggest that mental health problems appear to depend on the level of acculturation and point to the importance of understanding the 1
10 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 2 acculturation process for the prevention of mental disorders (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001). In Canada, research reviewers have shown that acculturation and resettlement context have a greater impact on the development of mental health problems than the migration itself (see Beiser, n.d.; Hyman, 2001). Further investigation is needed in order to understand what aspects of the acculturation process are related to the occurrence of mental health problems. One of these aspects refers to the strategies adopted by individuals in order to deal with the acculturation process (Berry, 1999), that is, the extent to which immigrants interact with their own culture and with the dominant culture, and how these strategies influence their adaptation to the new reality. Researchers have studied the relationship between acculturation strategies and mental health in many cultural groups in Canada, such as French, Portuguese, Korean, Hungarian (Berry, Kim, Power, & Young, 1989), and Chinese (Costigan & Su, 2004; Ryder, Alden, & Paulhus, 2000). However, no studies were found involving Brazilian immigrants residing in Toronto. The scarcity of research involving this community, despite its growth of 60% in the past 10 years 1 (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2006b), has contributed to the apparent discontentment and criticism by local Brazilians 2 (Shirley, n.d.). The present study is a response to this lack of empirical knowledge involving the Brazilian immigrant community. The absence of studies and information on the experience of Brazilian immigrants in Canada poses a limitation to the adaptation of these individuals and to the preparation of 1 In the 1990s it was estimated that there were 14,976 living in Canada; however, when considering refugee claimants and undocumented individuals the total number of Brazilians was around 12,000 in Ontario alone (Shirley, n.d.). Citizenship and Immigration Canada (2006a) indicates that around 7,600 Brazilians immigrated to Canada between 1996 and 2005, suggesting that Brazilian immigration to Canada is an ongoing phenomenon. Considering that Toronto receives the largest number of immigrants, it seems reasonable to assume that most Brazilian also choose Toronto as their place of settlement. 2 Even though there has been an increase in publications by Canadian scholars, these focus mostly on Brazil as a country or on residents of Brazil; moreover, these studies are often in fields other than psychology (see Hewitt, 1995).
11 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 3 community agencies to help them in the process. Therefore, this community may benefit from the results of this study in what concerns the encouragement of debates on multicultural counselling and mental health promotion in their community and in the services available to them. In this study, the mental health of Brazilian immigrants will be assessed by examining levels of depression symptoms. This choice follows a trend in academia to use depression as an indicator of immigrant mental health (see Beiser, n.d.; Hyman, 2001), perhaps due to its pervasiveness in society as a whole. Depression is considered one of the most prevalent diseases globally and an important cause of disability is responsible for as many as one in every five visits to primary care doctors; it occurs everywhere and affects members of all ethnic groups. (Kleinman, 2004, p. 951). Depression occupies the second position among the causes of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for both sexes and ages from 15 to 44 (World Health Organization, 2007). In Canada, depression is a highly prevalent disorder, equivalent to other leading chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes (Statistics Canada, 2003). Given the high prevalence of depression and the overlap of some of its symptoms and triggers with acculturation experiences, it seems to be paramount that continuous efforts be made to fully understand the relationship between these two constructs in the experience of immigrants. This study will utilize a quantitative, correlational design to investigate the relationship between acculturation strategies (Berry et al., 1989) and the incidence of depressive symptoms in a sample of adult Brazilian immigrants living in the Greater Toronto Area. Specifically, this study will investigate: a) whether specific strategies are better predictors of depression symptoms; b) if there are patterns of strategies and incidence of depression symptoms in the community, and c) relate them with demographic characteristics and immigration context.
12 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 4 This thesis is organized in four chapters: review of literature, research method, results, and discussion. In the review of literature, I will explore studies and theories regarding the concept of culture, acculturation, acculturation strategies, and how culture and acculturation are associated with depression. In the research method chapter, I will detail the research question, describe standard instruments, and outline the procedures from recruitment of participants to data analysis and ethical considerations. The results chapter will describe the findings for each measure administered and the relationships among variables in order to answer the main research question of this study. In the discussion chapter, I will examine the results obtained in light of the existing literature, describe the limitations of this study, discuss its implications for mental health promotion and clinical practice, and propose areas of future research.
13 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 5 Review of Literature This research will develop within the framework of acculturation theories and its impact on the incidence of depression symptoms. In order to understand acculturation it is necessary to lay the groundwork from which acculturation emerges, that is the notion of culture itself. For the understanding of depression in the context of acculturation, it is vital to understand the cultural context of depression. Therefore, this chapter will expound on issues such as culture, acculturation, and how they relate to depression. Culture and acculturation Culture We live in a time of blurred socio-political boundaries, global economy, shared languages, and widespread electronic communication in which diversity and multicultural relations are a norm. Located within this global reality are countries such as Canada the United States of America. These are formed by immigration and multiple-intersecting cultures, where discourses about culture, multiculturalism and cultural pluralism are serving not only political speeches but also becoming jargons in everyday conversations, although without a critical examination of its meanings. In this context, it is imperative to clarify our understanding of the definition of culture, and increase our awareness of its usage to perpetuate oppression or promote empowerment. In order to critically understand the concept of culture, it is important to revisit studies in the field of anthropology. Early anthropological studies on cultures were associated with fieldwork and exploration of remote groups, which inspired the curiosity, awe, and puzzlement of anthropologists and laypeople alike. Circumscribed by this magical atmosphere, the concept of culture followed the ideas of Tylor (1871, as cited in Wright, 1998, p. 8) in his work Primitive
14 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 6 Cultures, which states that Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man [sic] as a member of society. According to this concept, culture is bound, a-historical, static, timeless, predictable, and shared homogenously by all individuals who belong to it (Wright, 1998). Studies based on the above notion of culture and on the principals of comparative studies common to social sciences, initiated a tradition that permeates the foundation of several areas of knowledge: the understanding of culture from an Us versus Other perspective. Lévi-Strauss (1985) contends that Even early anthropology did not hesitate to place the peoples it was studying into categories separate from ours. It put them closer to nature, as implied by the etymology of the term savage or else it put them outside history by calling them primitive or archaic, which was simply another way of denying them a name that would make them part of the human condition. (p.26). Although the work of Lévi-Strauss has also been target of criticisms (e.g. Wright, 1998), his above comment demonstrates how the Us vs. Other stance has been used in anthropology. This has become known as the process of othering 3 (Pickering, 2001), through which anthropology, psychology and other social sciences have been studying and trying to define culture by ways of essentialism, ethnocentrism and oppression. These studies are conducted by an Us, represented by a western scholar, who is studying the Other (another culture), comparing it with the West, based on western assumptions, values and habits (Duncan & Duncan, 2004; Wright, 1998). This posture is so ingrained in academic discourse that even From Latin silva, woods, forest. (Trans.), (Lévi-Strauss, 1985, p.26). Note and italic from the original. 3 Pickering (2001) compares the process of othering with stereotyping in that it is an evaluative form of naming or labelling, which defines someone or some cultural grouping in reductive terms, and in this fashion, functioning as
15 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 7 recent publications use terms such as primitive or less-developed cultures to refer to remote or non-western societies. Sometimes authors use qualifiers such as so-called before the inbetween-quotes primitive (e.g. Leeson, 2007; Pedersen, 1984; Roots, 2005). In this case, although the quotes may suggest a certain level of contestation, it seems rather surprising that authors have avoided to search for or failed to provide a conceptually more accurate and balanced term. Conversely, there are instances of non-western scholars who undertake studies in their own countries and still use the device of comparison (the tradition of comparative studies in the social sciences) with other cultures to create a framework to understand their own culture. In the process of doing so they incur the same pitfalls of othering western cultures and sometimes, their own culture (e.g. DaMatta, 1991; Hess & DaMatta, 1995). Pickering (2001) argues that the translation of difference into Otherness is a denial of dialogue, interaction and change (p. 49). In turn, this denial and the stereotypes it makes possible, are sheltered in a culturally encapsulated, essentialist, and hierarchical worldview (Arthur & Collins, 2005; DaMatta, 1986) that gives rise to oppression (Wright, 1998) and perpetuates the systems that legitimize its power relations (Pickering, 2001). The intense criticism of such approaches led to the development of a new concept of culture that was once again appropriated as a tool of hegemonic power. For instance, Wright (1998) points out that Margaret Thatcher s New Right in England used the new notion of cultural differences in an essentialist concept to reassert boundaries: the distinctiveness of Englishness must be defined (p. 10). Wright presents this reflection based on the principle that culture is political as it serves specific ideologies through institutions and everyday life. This notion of the politicization of culture and its use to the extreme is analysed by Edward Said (e.g. a strategy of symbolic expulsion, a mundane exorcistic ritual, used to control ambivalence and create boundaries. (pp )
16 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 8 Said, 1995; 2004). For example, he analyses the American war on Iraq and the role of American mass media in disseminating an understanding about middle-eastern affairs and culture that legitimized the war. In his words, without a well organized sense that these people over there were not like us and didn t appreciate our values the very core of traditional Orientalist dogma there would have been no war (Said, 2004, p. 872). In recognizing the politicization of culture as a concept and as a process that is dynamic, permeable, ever-changing and circumscribed to a socio-political and historical context (Moodley & Palmer, 2006, p. 15), not only can we understand domination and marginalization imbued in the concept and experience of culture but also contest them. This has been a challenge in psychology, a field that has a tradition of applied essentialism (Arthur & Collins, 2005; Holdstock, 1999; Pedersen, 1984) evident in all domains of the field. Psychological tests are normed for certain groups, based on a restricted reality, but used to classify individuals from all groups and legitimize the use of demographic data to explain differences in performance (Craig, 2003). Psychotherapeutic models reflect Western values and ways of being that are applied to all clients even those who live under conflicting value system (Arthur & Collins, 2005; Pedersen, 1984). Traditional multicultural approaches to counselling focus on homogeneous notions of culture (see Arthur & Collins, 2005 for a discussion on 'Emic' approach). Psycho-diagnostic codes and tools compartmentalize and reduce individuals difficulties to a set of labels that are questionable even in the society within which they were created (Ehntholt & Yule, 2006). Combined, these manifestations of essentialism, othering and politicization of culture in psychology create real systemic barriers to mental health promotion and access to mental health care (Arthur & Collins, 2005).
17 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 9 A critical view of the concept of culture in psychology is indebted to recent perspectives in critical multicultural counselling and the discussions about a Third Space in counselling (e.g. Dalal, 2000; Moodley, 2007; Moodley & Palmer, 2006). These perspectives treat culture as a historical, political and multifaceted concept by acknowledging its dynamic changes over time and social context, by incorporating the notion of power relations and integrating the notion of multiple identities. The notion of multiple identities confers to culture a broader sense, encompassing notions of gender, age, religion, ethnicity, race, and dis/ability (Arthur & Collins, 2005). To this end, it clarifies the impossibility of culture as a static, homogenous construct, since each individual conceptualizes and negotiates their multiple identities in the context of their unique and fluid socio-historical context (Moodley & Palmer, 2006; Robinson, 2005; Wright, 1998). In practical terms, the power to define (Wright, 1998) in the dynamic meaningmaking process of culture is critically addressed, contested and given back to each individual by acknowledging their agency in construction and appropriation of culture. The perspectives brought forward by critical multicultural counselling, may contribute to reducing inferences about an individual based on essentialist notions of culture, therefore closing the field to oppression in the form of generalizations, stereotypes, and othering. They present a notion of culture that is flexible enough to encompass diversity within itself (Arthur & Collins, 2005) and provide the framework, together with socio-constructionist perspective, to resolve another problem minimally addressed in anthropology but critical for psychology: the dichotomy between individual and culture (Craig, 2003). The compartmentalization of existence in psychology is a legacy of a Cartesian paradigm that supports culture-individual or social-psychological dichotomies. This polarization conceptualizes psychological phenomena as occurring in the mind/brain of an individual,
18 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 10 and culture as outside the individual (Craig, 2003, p. 641) and views the individual as a possessor or as being possessed by culture (Tatar & Bekerman, 2002, p. 379). If we accept that psychological phenomenon occurs inside the individual, dissociated from a socio-historical context we close the doors to the notion of power relations in culture and mental health. Similarly, if we agree with individuals being possessed by culture, we withdraw agency from individuals and succumb to the notion of culture as a homogenous construct. Therefore, to be coherent with the critical multicultural counselling perspective, we must avoid the above dichotomies. Socio-constructivist formulations provide a sound contraposition to those polarized views by clearly articulating how human actions or activities are shaped and shape culture (Craig, 2003). According to this perspective, the dichotomy between individual or psychological realm and culture is no longer a plausible construct since individuals evolve through action-incontext, context being the intertwined mixture of cultural, biological, psychological and historical factors (Craig, 2003). Tatar and Bekerman (2002) suggest to look at culture and the individual as two sides of the same coin (p. 379) and point to the contextually embodied nature of human activity that, through daily social interaction, fabricates and sustains our version of knowledge (Tatar & Bekerman, 2002, p. 378). The socio-constructionists propose an integration between the individual and the cultural. In doing so, they critique the old definitions of culture as a compound of institutions, symbols and values, by expanding the definition in two important ways. They take into account power relations, structured inequalities, and oppression as well as highlight individuals potential to interpreting and challenging these ways of relating (Duncan & Duncan, 2004, p. 394).
19 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 11 A synthesis of the above discussion lends to an understanding of culture as a heterogeneous construct, a process that is not inside or outside the individual, but that informs and is informed by each individual s multiple identities, within the ever-changing sociohistorical context of power relations, in which the individual is an agent to contest the power to define. This return to the individual in the understanding of culture allows for differences and similarities within and between cultural groups, so that we can move from totalitarian views of cultural homogeneity to a view of coexisting diversities. As Said (2004) points out, rather than the manufactured clash of civilizations, we need to concentrate on the slow working together of cultures that overlap, borrow from each other, and live together in far more interesting ways than any abridged or inauthentic mode of understanding can allow (p. 878). This is a challenge faced every time contact between cultures occurs, a reality of everyday life, especially if we take in consideration the above discussion that proposes that each individual is a unique intersection of multiple cultural identities. However the challenge becomes even more pronounced when people relocate to a socio-cultural context different from that in which they have developed as individuals (Berry, 1997). This is the focus of the next section: Acculturation. Acculturation A definition of acculturation that is currently being used was proposed by Redfield, Linton, and Herskovits (1936, as cited in Berry, 1997). According to their definition, acculturation comprehends those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact with subsequent changes in the original culture patterns of either or both groups (p. 7). Based on this concept it is possible to think of acculturation as a generic process of change caused by intercultural contact. This
20 Acculturation Strategies and Depressive Symptoms 12 concept is rather neutral, in that it presupposes that all groups may be changed by the intercultural contact (Berry, 1997). However, it appears vague, static, and essentialist. It is vague in that it does not specify what the term phenomena comprises, thus allowing different and even polarized interpretations, from loss of identity to struggles in power relations. It seems static in that it suggests that there is a set of resulting phenomena, without mentioning that it happens in a continuum of time. Finally, it appears essentialist in that it treats culture as a homogenous construct that describes groups, without mentioning the experience and choices of each individual when in contact with other cultural individuals (Padilla & Perez, 2003). The individual sphere came to the fore in Graves (1967) suggestion to differentiate between group-level and individual acculturation, naming the latter as psychological acculturation. This distinction also fails to incorporate the notion that each individual appropriates their cultural experience in a unique way, therefore, reintroducing the discussion against the homogenization of culture. Although it is undeniable that there might be impacts at the group level during acculturation, these impacts would still be processed by each individual. Therefore, it seems prudent to refrain from this in-out, group-psychological polarizations. Instead, a straightforward approach may solve the problem, by re-writing the initial definition according to the critical multicultural counselling notion of culture: Acculturation is the change process that takes place when groups or individuals from different socio-historical contexts come into continuous contact affecting the original culture patterns and creating new power dynamics for all and between groups and individuals involved. Acculturation, as it has been presented, may occur in everyday life for example, when a white, protestant, lesbian, middle-aged woman interacts on a daily basis with an Asian, atheist, heterosexual, youth, male co-worker. It may occur virtually, without geographical movement or
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