1 Beyond GDP and new indicators of well-being: is it possible to sum up objective and subjective data in the perspective of constructing new indicators? Filomena Maggino Università degli Studi di Firenze Elena Ruviglioni Università degli Studi di Firenze
2 Outline Introduction 1. Integrating objective and subjective dimensions: defining the conceptual framework i. Let s make clear ii. Let s define 2. Integration of objective and subjective information: analytical tools and strategies
3 Outline Introduction 1. Integrating objective and subjective dimensions: defining the conceptual framework i. Let s make clear ii. Let s define 2. Integration of objective and subjective information: analytical tools and strategies
4 Introdution The recent debate on new measures of well-being urged an important need Integration of objective and subjective information Integration requires the definition of: a solid conceptual framework a composite process, including different analytical tools and strategies.
5 Outline Introduction 1. Integrating objective and subjective dimensions: defining the conceptual framework i. Let s make clear ii. Let s define 2. Integration of objective and subjective information: analytical tools and strategies
6 Defining the conceptual framework (i) Let s make clear What is subjective? The term can be referred to a. What we are going to observe/measure? o. & s. b. How the characteristics are modeled? s. c. In which way data are analyzed? o.
7 Defining the conceptual framework (i) Let s make clear What is subjective? Quantitative macro micro macro O b j e c t i v e S u b j e c t i v e micro macro Qualitative
8 Defining the conceptual framework (i) Let s make clear What is subjective? Quantitative macro micro macro O b j e c t i v e what S u b j e c t i v e micro macro Qualitative
9 Defining the conceptual framework (i) Let s make clear What is subjective? Quantitative macro micro macro O b j e c t i v e in which way S u b j e c t i v e micro macro Qualitative
10 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What are the objective components? Demographic and socio-economic characteristics Observable acquired knowledge - sex - age - civil/marital status - household - educational qualification - skills - cognition - occupation - geographical mobility (birthplace / residence / domicile) - social mobility (original family status) - know-how - competences Micro level Individual living conditions (resources) Social capital Observable behaviours and life style - standards of living - financial resources (income) - housing - social relationships - freedom to choose one's lifestyle - working and professional conditions and status - state of health - activities (work, hobby, vacation, volunteering, sport, shopping, etc.) - engagements (familiar, working, social, etc.) - habits (schedule, using of public transport and of means of communication, diet, etc.) - public life (participation, voting, etc)
11 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What are the objective components? Social conditions Social exclusion Social inclusion Disparities, equalities/inequalities, opportunities Informal networks, associations and organisations and role of societal institutions Macro level Structure of societies Political setting Institutional setting Human rights, democracy, freedom of information, etc. Educational system Health system Energy system Economical setting Income distribution, etc. Environmental conditions Decisional and institutional processes
12 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What are the subjective components? - verbal comprehension and fluency - memory (rote, visual, meaningful, etc.) Abilities / capacities intellectual - numerical facility - reasoning (deductive and inductive) - ability to seeing relationships - special orientation - perceptual speed Micro level Personality traits special - social traits - motives - mechanical skills - artistic pursuits - personal conceptions - adjustment - physical adroitness - personality dynamics Interests and preference Values Sentiments Attitudes cognitive evaluations (beliefs, evaluations opinions) affective perceptions (satisfaction and emotional states i.e., happiness) behavioural intentions
13 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What is their relationship? Objective characteristics descriptive / background components Subjective characteristics evaluative components
14 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What is their relationship? Objective living conditions Subjective well-being Social and economic development Quality-of-life improvement
15 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What is their relationship? Comparison of objective conditions Subjective well-being Standards of comparison previous experiences with other people with aspirations Ambits of comparison Housing Work Family Friends
16 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What is their relationship? Comparison of objective conditions Subjective well-being smaller the perceived gap higher the subjective well-being through different comparators with reference to different ambits (housing, work, family, friends, etc.).
17 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What is their relationship? Multiple discrepancies approach Subjective well-being perceived gap between what one has wants what others have one has had in the past one expected to have one expected to deserve expected with reference to needs happiness not dependent on living conditions
18 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What is their relationship? Disposition approach Stable individual characteristics (personality traits) Subjective well-being
19 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What is their relationship? Causal approach (I) Subjective well-being = reactive state to the environment bottom-up The sum of the reactive measures for the defined ambits allows subjective well-being to be quantified
20 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What is their relationship? Causal approach (II) Individual stable traits Subjective well-being top-down
21 Defining the conceptual framework (ii) Let s define What is their relationship? Causal approach Subjective well-being Two components : a long-period component (top-down effect), a short-period component (bottom-up effect) up-down
22 Outline Introduction 1. Integrating objective and subjective dimensions: defining the conceptual framework i. Let s make clear ii. Let s define 2. Integration of objective and subjective information: analytical tools and strategies
23 Integration of objective and subjective information In order to evaluate how objective and subjective information can be integrated, we traced the whole process of indicators construction we defined a composite process
24 Integration of objective and subjective information The composite process is carried out through 1. subsequent/consecutive steps (Multi-Stage MS) pursuing different technical goals i. reducing data complexity ii. combining indicators iii. modelling indicators 2. different/alternative analytical approaches (Multi-Technique MT)
25 Integration of objective and subjective information Multi-Stage Multi-Technique approach Goals Stages Aims by Level of analysis Analytical issues Traditional approach Alternative approach 1. Reducing data structure: (a-i) (a-ii) reconstructing conceptual variables defining macro-units aggregating basic indicators aggregating single cases micro From basic indicators to synthetic indicators through different logics (reflective & formative) From micro units to macro units, by following different criteria (homogeneity, functionality). New methodolgies allowing discrete ordinal data to be dealt with (e.g., Partially Ordered SEt Theory (POSET theory).
26 Integration of objective and subjective information Multi-Stage Multi-Technique approach aggregation goes through the columns indicators each case a synthetic value with in order reference to to obtain the rows units each indicator a macro-unit Obtaining synthetic indicators condense and synthesize each dimension by referring to the multiple measures, by defining and adopting particular assumptions
27 Integration of objective and subjective information Multi-Stage Multi-Technique approach aggregation goes through the columns indicators each case a synthetic value with in order reference to to obtain the rows units each indicator a macro-unit Obtaining macro-units condensing values observed at micro/lower levels (usually, individual) to higher levels pre-existent / pre-defined partitions, such as identified groups (social, generation, etc.), areas (geographical, administrative, etc.), time periods (years, decades, etc.)
28 Integration of objective and subjective information Multi-Stage Multi-Technique approach aggregation goes through the columns indicators each case a synthetic value with in order reference to to obtain the rows units each indicator a macro-unit Reducing data structure does not lead to the integration of objective and subjective data.
29 Integration of objective and subjective information Multi-Stage Multi-Technique approach Goals Stages Aims by Level of analysis Analytical issues Traditional approach Alternative approach 2. Combining indicators: (b-i) joint representation of indicators (b-ii) benchmarking dashboards merging indicators macro Comparing over time / across units Composite indicators: useful approaches aimed at summarising indicators E.g., POSET theory can be fruitfully applied through getting over the methodological critical aspects shown by composite indicators
30 Integration of objective and subjective information Multi-Stage Multi-Technique approach A. Joint representation of indicators e.g. dashboards first approximate and rough idea of integration B. Merging indicators e.g. composite indicators could be carefully considered as one of the possible solutions for integration
31 Integration of objective and subjective information Multi-Stage Multi-Technique approach Goals Stages Aims by Level of analysis Analytical issues Traditional approach Alternative approach 3. Modelling indicators: (c) analysis of indicators exploring explanations macro Different solutions (consistently with conceptual framework)
32 Integration of objective and subjective information Multi-Stage Multi-Technique approach Modelling indicators Exploring possible explanations of the relationships among the indicators, in order to (i) conceptually model and (ii) hierarchically design the variables. In this perspective, a proper analytical approach should be identified according to the defined conceptual framework
33 Integration of objective and subjective information Multi-Stage Multi-Technique approach structural models approach multi-level approach life-course perspective Bayesian networks approach explorative approach (cluster, correspondences, )
34 Final remarks What clearly emerges from our works is that: - integration can be accomplished only at a late moment of the process (modelling indicators) - soundness of the selected integration approach and of its results relies on the identified and adopted conceptual framework, which assumes the correct perspective according to the pursued integration objectives.
35 Final remarks Integrating objective and subjective information is a difficult issue from the conceptual point of view from the methodological point of view because of data availability at different levels
36 Final remarks Need of more work.
37 Final remarks Need of more cooperative work.
38 Statistics for Research in Social and Educational field Presentation designer:
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