THE SOUTHERN APENNINES CASE HISTORY: THERMAL CONSTRAINTS AND RECONSTRUCTION OF TECTONIC AND SEDIMENTARY BURIALS

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1 Atti Ticinensi di Scienze della Terra, S.S. 10 (2005) 45-53, 6 figg., 2 tabb. THE SOUTHERN APENNINES CASE HISTORY: THERMAL CONSTRAINTS AND RECONSTRUCTION OF TECTONIC AND SEDIMENTARY BURIALS IL CASO DELL APPENNINO MERIDIONALE: VINCOLI TERMICI E RICOSTRUZIONE DEI CARICHI TETTONICI E SEDIMENTARI L. ALDEGA ( 1 ), S. CORRADO ( 1 ), P. DI LEO ( 2 ), C. GIAMPAOLO ( 1 ), C. INVERNIZZI ( 3 ), C. MARTINO ( 4 ), S. MAZZOLI ( 5 ), M. SCHIATTARELLA ( 4 ) & M. ZATTIN ( 6 ) CONTENTS Abstract Riassunto Introduction Methods Data Apenninic Platform unit (APEP) Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene siliciclastics (OMS) Upper Lagonegro unit (UL) Lower Lagonegro unit (LL) Apulian Platform unit (AP) Modelling Conclusions References cited ABSTRACT The reconstruction of the thermal history of folded and thrust units is crucial to define the pattern of tectonic loading and the time-space evolution of an orogen where tectonic exhumation processes occurred at shallow crustal levels. In the present study, the combined use of different thermal indicators in diagenesis allowed the reconstruction of the thermal maturity in the axial zone of the southern Apennines. Our major results include: (i) the documentation of a break in thermal maturity from the Apenninic Platform derived tectonic unit (from immature to early mature stages of hydrocarbon generation) to the Lagonegro Basin derived tectonic units (late diagenetic stage). This jump may be attributed to different amounts of tectonic loading that were emplaced on top of the different stratigraphic-structural units during Neogene chain building; (ii) the documentation, within the Lagonegro units, of along-strike variations of thermal maturity (thus maximum burial temperatures). This can be related to changes in the amount of tectonic burial associated with lateral variations of thrust sheet thickness; (iii) the recognition of different ages of exhumation characterizing the southern and northern sectors of the study area. In the southern sector exhumation is younger, and post-dates the emplacement of the allochthonous units onto the Apulian Platform carbonates (here in the late mature stage of hydrocarbon generation) exposed in the Mt. Alpi area. The latter is interpreted as a sector of localized, intense exhumation within the orogenic chain. In the northern sector, exhumation is older, thus an independent tectonic evolution of the allochthonous units appears to have occurred prior to their final emplacement in the present position on top of the buried Apulian Platform carbonates. (1) Dip. Scienze Geologiche, Università Roma Tre, Roma (2) Ist. Metodologie per l Analisi Ambientale, C.N.R. Tito Scalo, Potenza (3) Dip. Scienze della Terra, Università di Camerino, Camerino (4) Dip. Scienze Geologiche, Università della Basilicata, Potenza (5) Dip. Scienze della Terra, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (6) Dip. Scienze Geologiche e Ambientali, Università di Bologna, Bologna RIASSUNTO La ricostruzione della storia termica delle unità deformate per pieghe e sovrascorrimenti rappresenta un elemento cruciale per definire l evoluzione spazio-temporale e la distribuzione dei carichi tettonici in un orogene ove i processi di esumazione hanno interessato livelli crostali superficiali. In questo studio, l uso congiunto di differenti tipi di indicatori termici nel campo della diagenesi ha permesso una ricostruzione opportunamente vincolata della maturità termica della porzione assiale dell Appennino meridionale. Tra principali risultati ricordiamo: (i) la documentazione di un salto di maturità termica dall unità tettonica derivata dalla deformazione della Piattaforma appenninica (dallo stadio di immaturità allo stadio di maturità incipiente di generazione degli idrocarburi) alle unità tettoniche derivate dalla deformazione del Bacino lagonegrese (stadio tardo diagenetico); (ii) la documentazione di deboli variazioni di maturità termica e quindi di massime temperature raggiunte nel passato lungo l asse della catena nelle unità lagonegresi. Questo può essere messo in relazione alle variazioni di carichi di origine tettonica legate alla variabilità laterale dello spessore delle unità sovrascorse; (iii) il riconoscimento di differenti età di esumazione che caratterizzano il settore meridionale rispetto a quello settentrionale dell area indagata. Nel settore meridionale l esumazione è più giovane e post-data la messa in posto delle unità alloctone sui carbonati della Piattaforma apula (qui nella stadio maturo in termini di generazione degli idrocarburi) affioranti a Monte Alpi. Quest ultimo è da considerare come un settore di esumazione intensa, localizzata all interno della catena. Nel settore settentrionale, l esumazione è più antica, per cui si è avuta un evoluzione tettonica indipendente delle unità alloctone, prima della loro messa in posto nella loro attuale posizione al di sopra dei carbonati della Piattaforma apula. KEY-WORDS: GEOTHERMOMETERS, CLAY MINERALOGY, VITRINITE RE- FLECTANCE, APATITE FISSION TRACK, FLUID INCLUSIONS, EXHUMATION, SOUTHERN APENNINES. PAROLE CHIAVE: GEOTERMOMETRI, MINERALOGIA DELLE ARGILLE, RIFLET- TANZA DELLA VITRINITE, TRACCE DI FISSIONE IN APATITE, INCLUSIONI FLUIDE, ESU- MAZIONE, APPENNINO MERIDIONALE. 1. INTRODUCTION Assessing the thermal evolution of an orogen is a major aspect of modern integrated basin analysis. Evaluation of organic maturation levels and timing of hydrocarbon generation is particularly important. In this framework,

2 L. Aldega, S. Corrado, P. Di Leo, C. Giampaolo, C. Invernizzi, C. Martino, S. Mazzoli, M. Schiattarella & M. Zattin thermal indicators play a crucial role. The greater the number of thermal indicators adopted, the more reliable the thermal reconstruction of the orogen, especially if each indicator has its own kinetically controlled response to the burial history. When data generated from different techniques are considered in the same geological context, different, but complementary data-sets are essential to produce more realistic basin history simulations. In this work, we employ different techniques (i.e. clay mineralogy, vitrinite reflectance, apatite fission tracks and fluid inclusions) in order to evaluate the thermal maturity of the tectonic units forming the axial zone of the southern Apennines (for the geological framework, see CASERO, 2005). 2. METHODS Clay mineralogy About 160 samples have been investigated by XRD analyses. The mineralogy of both bulk samples and <2 µm grain-size fraction was estimated using Siemens D5000, Rigaku miniflex, Scintag and Nonius PDS X-ray diffractometers (CuKα radiation, sample spinner). Illite crystallinity - expressed as Kübler Index, (hereafter KI, KÜBLER, 1967) and calibrated according to WARR & RICE (1994) - and the percentage of illite in illite/smectite mixed layers (hereafter % of I in I/S) were measured on the <2 µm grain-size fraction XRD tracings from both air dried and glycol solvated oriented mounts. To relate KI and the % of I in I/S to maximum temperatures and to the other thermal indicators, we adopted the basin maturity chart proposed in ALDEGA et al. (2003) and DI LEO et al. (2003). This chart was defined on datasets from a wide number of thermal constraints and is specific to the complex geological setting of the Lucanian Apennines. these measurements. We converted Rb values into vitrinite equivalent reflectance data (Ro eq ) using Jacob s formula (JACOB & HILTMAN, 1985). Apatite fission tracks Apatite fission-track (AFT) ages were measured on 8 samples using the external-detector and the zeta-calibration methods (HURFORD & GREEN, 1983). The observed grain-age distributions have been decomposed into different grain-age components using the binomial peak-fitting method (BRANDON, 1996). Fluid inclusions We analysed 32 samples, with 21 of them providing reliable results. Microthermometry on double polished wafers was performed using a U.S.G.S. gas flow heating/freezing stage, and following the method described in GOLDSTEIN & REYNOLDS (1994). 3. DATA Main results are described for the different tectonic units and are illustrated in Tab. 1 and Fig APENNINIC PLATFORM UNIT (APEP) Three (out of four) methodologies (clay mineralogy, vitrinite reflectance, fission tracks) provided results from different Miocene lithostratigraphic units unconformably Vitrinite reflectance We analysed 40 samples for vitrinite reflectance measurements, but only 25 of them provided reliable results. We prepared the samples according to standardized procedures described in BUSTIN et al. (1990). We measured random reflectance under oil immersion with a Zeiss Axioplan microscope, in reflected monochromatic non-polarised light. On each sample, we performed about twenty measurements on vitrinite or bitumen unaltered fragments never smaller than 5 µm and only slightly fractured. Mean reflectance values (Ro for vitrinite and Rb for bitumen) were calculated from the arithmetic mean of Tab.1 - Summary of mean values of organic and inorganic indicators of the studied tectonic units. Quadro sinottico dei valori medi (minimi e massimi, quando indicato) degli indicatori organici e inorganici misurati nelle unità tettoniche studiate. Università degli Studi di Pavia 46

3 The Southern Apennines case history: thermal constraints and reconstruction of tectonic and sedimentary burials Fig.1 - Geological sketch map (after SCANDONE, 1972 redrawn and modified) of part of the southern Apennines here investigated, showing sampling location and analytical data discussed in the text. Schema geologico (da SCANDONE, 1972 ridisegnato e modificato) della porzione dell Appennino meridionale investigata in questo studio in cui sono indicati i siti di campionamento e i dati analitici discussi nel testo. 47 Atti Ticinensi di Scienze della Terra - S.S. 10

4 L. Aldega, S. Corrado, P. Di Leo, C. Giampaolo, C. Invernizzi, C. Martino, S. Mazzoli, M. Schiattarella & M. Zattin resting on the top of the Mesozoic carbonate platform (Bifurto, Monte Sierio, Castelvetere and Gorgoglione Fms). Furthermore, fluid inclusions data derived from veins parallel to bedding sampled in the Mesozoic carbonate units directly underlying the uppermost Miocene covers of APEP. a. Clay mineral based geothermometers - The oldest sampled stratigraphic unit (Bifurto Fm) is characterised by % of I in I/S ranging from 50% to 70%, whereas younger Miocene deposits (Monte Sierio, Castelvetere and Gorgoglione Fms) show values in the 60-70% range. The slightly higher values in these latter units correlate to more pronounced levels of hydrocarbon maturation described by POLLASTRO (1993) when compared to other data collected for this tectonic unit. This can be due to a possible effect of non diagenetic I/S mixed layers in the siliciclastic sediments and cannot be considered to define the thermal history. b. Vitrinite reflectance - Ro% data indicate a range of hydrocarbon generation from immature to early mature with values between 0.25 and 0.55%. The Bifurto Fm (mean Ro%=0.55%) shows locally higher values than the Castelvetere and Gorgoglione Fms ( %) where organic matter of continental origin is much more abundant. c. Fluid inclusions - The samples collected in calcite veins parallel to bedding contain primary fluid inclusions with homogenisation temperatures (hereafter Th) in the range of C. d. Fission tracks - One sample analysed for AFT derives from Miocene siliciclastics of the Monte Sierio Fm. (site 34). It gave a single group of ages (7.5±1.8My) very close to the stratigraphic age of the sample (CASTELLANO & SGROSSO, 1996). Therefore apatites probably derive from a coeval volcanic activity. The euhedral shape of the grains confirms this hypothesis. Thus this value cannot be used to estimate either burial or exhumation, but rather as an indication of stratigraphic age. e. Interpretation - The main results on the tectonic evolution of the APEP unit indicate a very low annealing degree for AFT and a general low maturity level ranging from the immature to the early mature stage of hydrocarbon generation. This can be due to the scarce influence of tectonic loading that was exerted only by structurally overlying of inner tectonic units (e.g., Liguride and Sicilide) UPPER OLIGOCENE-LOWER MIOCENE SILICICLASTICS (OMS) Three out of four methodologies provided reliable results from Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene siliciclastics that are in contact (of unspecified type due to unfavorable outcrop conditions) with the deformed Lagonegro succession. These deposits derive from the northern sector of the study area (see sites 24, 36, 40, and top of Alli River section in Fig. 1). a. Clay mineral based geothermometers - Siliciclastics have been sampled for clay mineralogy in sites 24 and 36 and are characterised by % of I in I/S ranging from 75% to 80%. Moving to the east, at the top of Alli River section, values range between 60 and 65%. b. Vitrinite reflectance - Available data are from sites 24, 36 and the top of Alli River section. Unaltered fragments are generally scarce and show mean Ro values ranging from 0.79% to 0.47% decreasing from the west (site 24 and 36) to the east (top of Alli River section). c. Apatite fission tracks - Three samples analysed for AFT derive only from sites 24, 36, 40. Large analytical error and a single group of ages characterize all samples. All the ages are significantly younger than the stratigraphic age of the samples. Therefore, the maximum temperature that affected these samples was higher than the total annealing temperature of fission tracks in apatite. The cooling ages are of 5.1±0.9 for site 40, 5.0±1.2 My for site 36 and 9.2±1.0 My for site 24. d. Interpretation - For the Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene siliciclastics analysed in the northern sector of the study area, the data show a general decrease in thermal maturity comprised between the mature and the immature stage of hydrocarbon generation from the west [constrained by mineralogical, Organic Matter (OM) and AFT data] to the east (constrained by mineralogical and OM data) UPPER LAGONEGRO UNIT (UL) All the stratigraphic units of the Mesozoic Lagonegro successions have been sampled with special regard to the Monte Facito Fm, because of its suitable lithological characteristics for the application of the different analytical methods adopted and its outcrop distribution. a. Clay mineral based geothermometers - The Monte Facito Fm is characterised by % of I in I/S values ranging from 80% to 90% (site 11) and KI from 0.6 to θ; the Calcari con Selce Fm is represented by an average value of 80% and the Scisti silicei Fm shows values comprised between 75% and 80% (site 22); the Galestri Fm is characterised by % of I in I/S of 70-80%. b. Vitrinite reflectance - Available data for the Monte Facito Fm (site 11) come from four samples generally poor in organic matter. Both vitrinite and inertinite macerals are present with a general predominance of the first in the clayrich samples and of the second in the arenaceous ones. Ro% values range between 1.59 and 1.72%. c. Fluid inclusions - In the Monte Facito Fm (site 11) conjugate systems of calcite veins related to horizontal shortening contain primary fluid inclusions with Th in the range of C. d. Apatite fission tracks - Three samples analysed for AFT derives from the Monte Facito Fm (sites 11, 31). They are characterised by large analytical error and a single group of ages. All the ages are significantly younger than the stratigraphic age of the samples. Therefore, the maximum temperature that affected these samples was higher than the total annealing temperature of fission tracks in apatite. The cooling age is of ca. 2.5 My for site 11 in the southern area, and ca My for sites 31 and 39 in the northern area. e. Interpretation - All the adopted methodologies provided reliable results for the UL at site 11 indicating maximum temperatures in the range of the late diagenetic zone and, more precisely, the late mature stage of hydrocarbon generation. Further data collected in the northern part of the Università degli Studi di Pavia 48

5 The Southern Apennines case history: thermal constraints and reconstruction of tectonic and sedimentary burials study area indicate temperatures typical of the late diagenetic zone and total annealing zone LOWER LAGONEGRO UNIT (LL) All the stratigraphic units of the Lagonegro Mesozoic succession have been sampled along three sections (named Pignola-Abriola, Alli River, Mt. Sirino-Mt. Alpi, respectively A-A, B-B, C-C in Fig. 1) and at several scattered sites. a. Clay mineral based geothermometers - The Monte Facito Fm records KI values of about θ along the Pignola-Abriola section (A-A in Fig. 1) and of at site 31. The Calcari con selce Fm records KI values ranges from 0.70 to θ in Pignola-Abriola area and from 0.77 to θ at site 32. The percentage of I in I/S is around 80% in the samples from the Alli river section (B-B in Fig. 1) and about 100% in the Pignola-Abriola section. The Scisti silicei Fm, sampled along both the Pignola- Abriola, the Alli River and the Mt. Sirino-Mt. Alpi (respectively A-A, B-B and C-C in Fig. 1) sections, yields a % of I in I/S ranging from 75% to 95% and KI values (in sections A-A and B-B only) in the θ range. The Galestri Fm records a % of I in I/S in the 55-80% range. Samples collected along the Alli River section yield a mean KI value of θ. Samples from Cretaceous to Oligocene clay-rich units and Miocene sandstones show a mean KI value of θ and a % of I in I/S ranging from 60 to 70%. b. Vitrinite reflectance - Data related to the pre-orogenic succession are limited to the Cretaceous Oligocene clay-rich units cropping out along the Alli River (B-B section in Fig. 1). Here organic matter is generally scarce and Ro is nearly 1.00%. c. Fluid inclusions - Syn-tectonic quartz veins in the Scisti silicei Fm of the LL (Mt. Sirino area, site 1) gave temperatures between C in primary inclusions. About 40 km toward the north (site 26), the same LL recorded Th of C in primary inclusions from calcite crystals filling conjugate en-echelon vein arrays (Calcari con Selce Fm), related with a minor extensional event (MAZZOLI & DI BUCCI, 2003). Further samples were analysed from site 12, where Th ranges between C (from primary inclusions in calcite extension veins developed in the Monte Facito Fm). d. Interpretation - The most relevant results obtained from mineralogy for the different Mesozoic successions show burial temperatures in the late diagenetic zone with a decrease in maximum temperatures from the lowermost (Monte Facito Fm) to the uppermost (Galestri Fm) units, in general agreement with Th data of primary inclusions ( C) and organic matter maturity that reaches values in the mature stage of hydrocarbon generation APULIAN PLATFORM UNIT (AP) All adopted methodologies provided results from the Apulian Platform Unit exposed at Monte Alpi. Apatite fission tracks data derive from both the Messinian siliciclastic cover of the Monte Alpi carbonates and the tectonically overlying units (tectonic mélange; Liguride). a. Clay mineral based geothermometers - Available data from Messinian sedimentary rocks, resting on top of Mt. Alpi platform carbonates (site 5), show 70 to 80% illite layers in I/S mixed-layers. b. Vitrinite reflectance - The available Ro% value of 1.54% is from the Messinian transgressive cycle (site 5). Bitumen sampled from veins at the base of the outcropping Mesozoic carbonate platform succession provided Ro eq values higher than 2.60% (site 38). c. Fluid inclusions - The Messinian transgressive deposits stratigraphically overlying AP carbonates at Monte Alpi (site 5), provided a range of Th between 100 C and 130 C. These are from both primary and secondary inclusions sampled from en-echelon extension veins and veins parallel to bedding, presumably related both to tectonic loading caused by thrust emplacement and younger extensional deformation. d. Apatite fission tracks - Four samples have been analysed in the Mt. Alpi area: one from the Messinian transgressive cycle (site 5), two from the tectonically overlying mélange unit (site 4) and one from the allocthonous Liguride (site 37). The results are characterized by large analytical errors due mainly to the very young age of final cooling. As a consequence of the low amount of spontaneous tracks, no horizontal confined tracks could be measured. After decomposition by the binomial peak-fitting method, only one sample from the tectonic mélange (site 4) gave a single concordant group of ages, significantly younger than the stratigraphic age of the sample. Therefore, the maximum temperature that affected this sample was higher than the total annealing temperature. Its cooling age is of about 2.4 My. Data obtained from the other three samples show the presence of two peaks of concordant ages. Most of the grains (85-90%) belong to the youngest peak, whose age is comprised between 1.5 My (Liguride) and 3.2 My (Messinian transgressive cycle), whereas the remaining grains can be grouped in a much older peak. These data indicate that the maximum temperature during burial was very close to the total annealing temperature. The presence of older modes not fully reset is probably due to some variation in the composition of apatites but, since we do not model the data, any quantitative estimate of chemical composition is not necessary for the aims of this paper. Given the short heating time (about 1.5 My, because the stratigraphic age is Messinian, that is very close to the Pliocene exhumation age), the total annealing temperature was likely higher than the common estimate of 125 C (about 140 C given a heating time of about 1 My, LASLETT et al., 1987). Because of the large analytical error, we consider a mean age of about 2.3 My as the time of cooling through the closure temperature of fission tracks in apatite (110 ± 10 C) for the units sampled in the Monte Alpi area. e. Interpretation - Both published seismic reflection data and field geology reveal that the southern part of the study area, where Monte Alpi structure is located, has been anomalously exhumed when compared to the regional setting of the buried Apulian belt throughout the southern Apennines. This is in good agreement with AFT data, indicating a maximum burial temperature of about 140 C, 49 Atti Ticinensi di Scienze della Terra - S.S. 10

6 L. Aldega, S. Corrado, P. Di Leo, C. Giampaolo, C. Invernizzi, C. Martino, S. Mazzoli, M. Schiattarella & M. Zattin Tab. 2 - Main geological and thermal constraints and results of burial and thermal modelling for different areas of the Lagonegro Units. Acronyms: AC = Arenarie di Corleto Fm.; AV = Varicoloured Clays; Ga = Galestri Fm., SS = Scisti silicei Fm.; CS = Calcari con selce Fm.; MF = Monte Facito Fm. Principali vincoli e risultati geologici e termici della modellazione termica e di seppellimento per differenti settori appartenenti alle Unità lagonegresi. Acronimi: AC = F. delle Arenarie di Corleto Fm.; AV = Argille varicolori; Ga = F. dei Galestri, SS = F. degli Scisti silicei; CS = F. dei Calcari con selce; MF = F. di Monte Facito. primary inclusions in thrust-related vein arrays (showing Th of up to 130 C), Ro and %I in I/S values correlated to the late mature stage of hydrocarbon generation. 4. MODELLING Based on the data reported in the previous sections, a simplified reconstruction of the burial and thermal history of a few representative sections was performed using the software package Basin Mod 1-D (Basin Mod 1-D for WindowsTM, version 5.4 Software, 1996). Stratigraphic data such as thickness, lithologic composition, and age of formations are derived from regional studies (SCANDONE, 1972; PESCATORE et al., 1999 and reference therein; MAZZOLI et al., 2000 and reference therein). The main assumptions adopted for this reconstruction are that: (i) rock decompaction factors apply only to clastic units, according to the method of SCLATER & CHRISTIE (1980), whereas carbonate units are not decompacted; (ii) seawater depth variations in time are irrelevant in modelling, because thermal evolution is mainly affected by sediment thickness rather than by water depth (BUTLER, 1992); (iii) thermal modelling has been performed using LLNL Easy %Ro method based on BURNHAM & SWEENEY (1989) and SWEENEY & BURNHAM (1990); (iv) thrusting can be considered instantaneous when compared with the duration of deposition of stratigraphic successions, as generally suggested by theoretical models (ENDIGNOUX & WOLF, 1990); (v) for the sake of simplicity, exhumation is considered linear within given time intervals; and (vi) a variable geothermal gradient has been adopted, with variable pre-thrusting values (Tab. 2) and a syn-exhumation value of 45 C/km in case of fast exhumation rates (the latter estimate calculated according to BRANDON et al., 1998). We present a few modelled sections from the different tectonic units. Available measured indicators from clay mineralogy and organic matter studies constrained the experienced maximum burial. Apatite fission tracks data constrained the unloading path. Fluid inclusions data, when available, are located according to the timing and structural setting of the sampled vein systems. It becomes evident that modelling can honour thermal constraints assuming the emplacement of substantial tectonic loadings that took place on each section in Serravallian times onto the Lagonegro units and in Lower Pliocene times on Fig. 2 - Burial history of the base of the Monte Facito Fm in the UL in the last 20 My (Tempa di Rocca Rossa area, site 11 in Fig.1). Boxes show the thermal constraints provided by the four adopted methodologies. Esempio di diagramma di seppellimento della base della F. di Monte Facito negli ultimi 20 Ma (area di Tempa di Rocca Rossa, sito 11). Le aree nei riquadri indicano gli intervalli spazio-temporali del modello calibrati da dati prodotti dalle quattro metodologie d indagine. Università degli Studi di Pavia 50

7 The Southern Apennines case history: thermal constraints and reconstruction of tectonic and sedimentary burials Fig. 3 - A 1 : example of burial history of the outcropping Lagonegro succession in the LL in the last 15 My (Alli River section, B-B in Fig. 1). A 2 : thermal maturity vs. depth diagram calibrated with I-S data. The best fitting tectonic burial is 3,800 m thick. It has been exhumed at a constant rate of 0.63 mm/y since Messinian times (6-0 My). Thermal maturity is expressed in Ro% equivalent values. A 1 : esempio di diagramma di seppellimento negli ultimi 15 Ma, della successione Lagonegrese affiorante nell Unità tettonica LL (sezione del T. Alli, B-B in Fig. 1). A 2 : diagramma di maturità termica/ profondità calibrato con dati di I-S. Il valore di carico tettonico che soddisfa la distribuzione dei dati di maturità è pari a m. La successione è stata esumata a una velocità costante di 0.63 mm/a a partire dal Messiniano (6-0 Ma). La maturità termica è stata espressa in valori equivalenti di Ro%. Monte Alpi. On the other hand, modelling of the Apenninic carbonate platform derived unit provided much lower values of tectonic overburden that can be estimated in a maximum value of 2 km. In detail, for the Lagonegro sections, tectonic loadings are in the order of about 4 km (Figs. 2 and 3) due both to the internal stacking of the Lagonegro successions and the emplacement of the Apenninic carbonate platform and the overlying Internal units. A summary of the main constraints and modelling results is used here to depict the evolution of some Lagonegro sections. A differential age of closure temperature and slight differences in the calculated tectonic overburden (a few hundreds of meters) is evident moving from south to north (see Fig. 1). Furthermore, unloading paths have been detailed only for the southern area with an initial stage due to low-angle normal faulting. This mechanism caused a fast unloading of the allochthonous chain (comprising the stacked Lagonegro successions) and its footwall only after the emplacement onto the Apulian platform domain (represented by Mt. Alpi, Fig. 4). This hypothesis fits with the high thermal maturity of Monte Alpi area. For the northern sector not enough constrains are available to detail the unloading path, thus a mean rate is indicated. A more detailed reconstruction should be based on the thermal evolution and the geometry of the buried and productive Apulian carbonates underlying the Val d Agri. Finally, the Apulian carbonates of the Monte Alpi structure underwent significant tectonic burial as a result of thin-skinned thrusting in early Pliocene times. Simplified burial and thermal modelling suggests that the thickness of allochthonous material emplaced on top of Monte Alpi was probably in excess of 5 km (Fig. 5). Exhumation is envisaged to have started in the late Fig. 4 - Cartoon showing inferred Miocene- Quaternary evolution of Lagonegro basin derived tectonic units. Schema semplificato dell evoluzione miocenico-quaternaria dedotta per le unità tettoniche derivate dalla deformazione del bacino lagonegrese. 51 Atti Ticinensi di Scienze della Terra - S.S. 10

8 L. Aldega, S. Corrado, P. Di Leo, C. Giampaolo, C. Invernizzi, C. Martino, S. Mazzoli, M. Schiattarella & M. Zattin Fig. 5 - Modeled burial and thermal history of the Mt. Alpi Unit. A 1 ) in the last 6.0 My; A 2 ) Present-day thermal maturity data plotted against calculated thermal maturity curve. Depth for each sample is based on outcrop distribution. Modellazione della storia di seppellimento e termica dell Unità di M. Alpi. A 1 ) negli ultimi 6.0 Ma; A 2 ) Dati di maturità termica misurati e curva di maturità termica calcolata. La profondità per ciascun campione è basata sulla distribuzione di dati di superficie. Pliocene, when the tectonic load started to be removed off Mt. Alpi. A significant stage of exhumation is inferred to have taken place in uppermost Pliocene-early Pleistocene times as a result of thin-skinned extension within the overlying allochthon coeval with thick-skinned thrusting at depth. After shortening ceased throughout the whole southern Apennines, middle Pleistocene-Holocene tectonic exhumation of Mt. Alpi was essentially controlled by thickskinned extensional tectonics (Fig. 6). 5. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, we employed a multidisciplinary dataset of thermal indicators for the axial zone of the southern Apennines. As major results, the four methodologies gave similar estimates of thermal maturity when applied to the same site. Specifically, it can be concluded that: - In the Lagonegro tectonic units, slight differences in thermal maturity are detected along the strike of the chain. This can be related to changes in the amount of tectonic burial (ca. 4 km) associated with lateral variations of thrust sheet thickness. Fig. 6 - Cartoon showing inferred Pliocene-Quaternary evolution of Mt. Alpi area (grey ellipse shows schematic location of most of the rocks analyzed in this area). Schema semplificato dell evoluzione pliocenico-quaternaria dedotta per l area di M. Alpi (l ellissi in grigio indica l ubicazione schematica di gran parte delle rocce analizzate in questo settore). Università degli Studi di Pavia 52

9 The Southern Apennines case history: thermal constraints and reconstruction of tectonic and sedimentary burials - In the allochthonous chain, we recognize a general trend of decreasing thermal maturity from late diagenesis to immature-early mature stages, moving from the lower (Mesozoic Lagonegro basin derived) to the upper (Apenninic carbonate Platform derived) tectonic units respectively. This trend can be interpreted as caused by different amounts and timing of tectonic loadings and subsequent exhumation. In detail, higher values in the Mesozoic Lagonegro units may be due mostly to severe crustal shortening that caused tectonic thickening. - In the examined segment of the chain, exhumation of the Lagonegro units started earlier in the northern sector then in the southern one. In detail, in the southern sector, exhumation post-dates the emplacement of the allochthonous units onto the Apulian Platform carbonates exposed in the Monte Alpi area. The latter is interpreted as a sector of intense exhumation within the orogenic chain. We thank Giuseppe Cello and Gian Gaspare Zuffa for precious discussions and useful suggestions throughout the entire project. Organic matter analyses were carried out at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne: Richard Tyson is acknowledged for the use of facilities and Flavia Botti for collaboration in the lab. Thanks to Luca Mattioni and Ivo Giano for their help in the field. Fieldwork and lab analyses were supported by the C.N.R. grant Agenzia 2000 (coordinator: Gian Gaspare Zuffa). REFERENCES CITED ALDEGA L., CORRADO S., CUADROS J., DI LEO P., GIAMPAOLO C., INVERNIZZI C., MARTINO C., MASTANDREA G. & ZATTIN M. (2003) - Definition of a Basin Maturity Chart using clay minerals evolution and other different thermal indicators in complex geological settings: the Lucanian Apennine case. Euroclay 2003, Abstract volume, BASIN MOD 1-D for Windows TM, version 5.4 Software (1996) - A Basin Analysis Modelling System by Platte River Associates, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. BRANDON M.T. (1996) - Probability density plot for fission-track grain-age samples. Radiation Measurement, 26, BRANDON M.T., RODEN-TICE M.K. & GARVER J.I. (1998) - Late Cenozoic exhumation of the Cascadia accretionary wedge in the Olympic Mountains, northwest Washington State. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110, BURNHAM A.K. & SWEENEY J.J. (1989) - A chemical kinetic model of vitrinite maturation and reflectance. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 53, BUSTIN R.M., BARNES M.A. & BARNES W.C. (1990) - Determining levels of organic diagenesis in sediments and fossil fuels. In: I.A. McIleareath and D.W. Morrow (eds.), Diagenesis, Geoscience Canada Reprint, 4 th series, BUTLER R.W.H. (1992) - Hydrocarbon maturation, migration and tectonic loading in the Western Alps. In: W.A. England and A.J. Fleet (eds.), Petroleum migration, Geological Society Special Publication, 59, CASERO P. (2005) - Southern Apennines geologic framework and related petroleum systems. Atti Tic. Sc. Terra, S.S. 10, CASTELLANO M. & SGROSSO I. (1996) - Età e significato dei depositi miocenici della Formazione di M. Sierio e possibile evoluzione cinematica dell unità Monti della Maddalena nell Appennino Campano-Lucano. Memorie della Società Geologica Italiana, 51, DI LEO P., MARTINO C., MASTANDREA A. & PERRI E. (2003) - Kübler index and conodont Color Alteration Index as thermal indicators from lower Triassic to Jurassic pelagic successions of the Lucanian Apennine, southern Italy. IGCP 458 Workshop. Abstract volume, ENDIGNOUX L. & WOLF S. (1990) - Thermal and kinematic evolution of thrust basins: a 2D numerical model. In: J. Letouzey (ed.), Petroleum Tectonics in mobile belts. Technip, Paris, GOLDSTEIN R.H. & REYNOLDS T.J. (1994) - Systematics of fluid inclusions in diagenetic minerals. SEMP Short Course 31, Tulsa, USA, 199 p. HURFORD A.J. & GREEN P.F. (1983) - The zeta age calibration of fission track dating. Isotope Geoscience, 1, JACOB H. & HILTMANN W. (1985) - Disperse bitumen solids as an indicator for migration and maturity within the scope of prospecting for petroleum and natural gas A model for NW Germany. DGMK, Forschungsbericht, 267, KÜBLER B. (1967) - La cristallinité de l illite et les zones tout á fait supécieures du mètamorphisme. In: Étages Tectoniques. Collogue de Neuchâtel 1996, LASLETT G.M., GREEN P.F., DUDDY I.R. & GLEADOW A.J.W. (1987) - Thermal annealing of fission tracks in apatite 2. A quantitative analysis. Chemical Geology (Isotope Geoscience Section), 65, MAZZOLI S., CORRADO S., DE DONATIS M., SCROCCA D., BUTLER R.W.H., DI BUCCI D., NASO G., NICOLAI C. & ZUCCONI, V. (2000) - Time and space variability of thin-skinned and thickskinned thrust tectonics in the Apennines (Italy). Rend. Lincei, Sc. Fis. Nat., 9 series, 11, MAZZOLI S. & DI BUCCI D. (2003) - Critical displacement for normal fault nucleation from en-échelon vein arrays in limestones: a case study from the southern Apennines (Italy). Journal of Structural Geology, 25, PESCATORE T., RENDA P., SCHIATTARELLA M. & TRAMUTOLI M. (1999) - Stratigraphic and structural relationships between Meso- Cenozoic Lagonegro basin and coeval carbonate platforms in southern Apennines, Italy. Tectonophysics, 315, POLLASTRO R.M. (1993) - Consideration of the illite-smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbon-bearing rocks of Miocene to Mississipian age. Clays and Clay Minerals, 41, SCANDONE P. (1972) - Studi di geologia lucana: carta dei terreni della serie calcareo-silico-marnosa e note illustrative. Boll. Soc. Natur. Napoli, 81, SCLATER J.G. & CHRISTIE P.A.F. (1980) - Continental stretching: an explanation of post-mid Cretaceous subsidence on the Central North Sea Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research, 85, SWEENEY J.J. & BURNHAM A.K. (1990) - Evaluation of a simple model of vitrinite reflectance based on chemical kinetics. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bullettin, 74, WARR L.N. & RICE A.H.N. (1994) - Interlaboratory standardization and calibration of clay mineral crystallinity and crystal size data. Journ. Met. Geol., 9, Manoscritto definitivo consegnato il 15 aprile 2005 Finito di stampare il 10 giugno Atti Ticinensi di Scienze della Terra - S.S. 10

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