1 JCE4600 Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering Safety Types of Safety Analysis Infrastructure Based System Planning Project Implementation User Based (Demographics) Vehicle Based 1
2 BASICS: CRASH FREQUENCY VERSUS RATE Frequency: Number of Crashes Rate: Crashes per Exposure Crash Rates Rate per Million Entering Vehicles (RMEV) (within 100 of an intersection) RMEV crashes approach ADT / * year days / year 6 * 10 Rate per Hundred Million Vehicle Miles (RHMVM) (section of roadway) RHMVM ADT * crashes / year * 10 8 days / year * miles in section 2
3 Crash Rates A four-leg intersection, two-way ADT: 9000,2000,9500,2500, 30 crashes in 2 years. A 6 mile roadway section, 12 crashes in two years, ADT=800. Area Analysis Frequency Based 3
4 Area Analysis Rate Based System-Wide Studies Crashes are Rare and Random Events Rare crashes represent a small proportion of total roadway events Random function of both controlled and unpredictable factors Overlapping Contributing Causes Human (93%) Vehicle (13%) Roadway/Environment (34%) 4
5 Crashes are Random Events Crashes are Random Events 5
6 Crashes are Random Events Crashes are Random Events 6
7 Understanding the Numbers Understanding the Factors Human Factors Age Sex Attention Alcohol/Drugs Mental State (Depression/Sleepiness) Seat Belt Speed, Traffic Control Violation 7
8 Understanding the Factors Vehicle Factors Type (truck, pickup, motorcycle, pass car) Understanding the Factors Roadway Factors Type (Freeway, Arterial) Rural/Urban Intersection/Traffic Control Route/Location 8
9 Understanding the Factors Environmental Factors Pavement Conditions (wet/dry) Day of week, Date Time of day/light conditions Visibility Raining/snowing/dry Crash Types Head on Rear end Side swipe Right angle Out of control/off road Pedestrian Animal 9
10 Attacking a Problem Type of Facility Type of Crash Time of Day Type of Driver System-wide Tools and Counter Measures Education My last text video stracted-driving.html Engineering Median Guard Cables (Video) Rumble Stripes 10
12 MEMBER INSURERS 21st Century Insurance AAA Mid-Atlantic Insurance Group Affirmative Insurance AIG Agency Auto AIG Direct Alfa Insurance Alfa Alliance Insurance Corporation Allstate Insurance Group American Family Mutual Insurance American National Property and Casualty Ameriprise Auto & Home Amerisure Insurance Amica Mutual Insurance Company Auto Club Group Auto Club South Insurance Company Bituminous Insurance Companies Bristol West Insurance Brotherhood Mutual California State Automobile Association Capital Insurance Group Chubb Group of Insurance Companies Concord Group Insurance Companies Cotton States Insurance COUNTRY Insurance & Financial Services Countrywide Insurance Group Erie Insurance Group Esurance Farm Bureau Financial Services Farm Bureau Mutual Insurance Company of Idaho Farmers Insurance Group of Companies Farmers Mutual of Nebraska Florida Farm Bureau Insurance Companies Frankenmuth Insurance Gainsco The GEICO Group General Casualty Insurance Companies GMAC Insurance Georgia Farm Bureau Insurance Grange Insurance The Hartford Hanover Insurance Group High Point Insurance Group Homeowners of America ICW Group Indiana Farm Bureau Insurance Kemper, a Unitrin Business Kentucky Farm Bureau Insurance Liberty Mutual The Main Street America Group Markel Corporation Mercury Insurance Group MetLife Auto & Home Michigan Insurance Company MiddleOak MMG Insurance Mutual of Enumclaw Insurance Company Nationwide Insurance N.C. Farm Bureau Mutual Insurance Company Nodak Mutual Insurance Norfolk & Dedham Group Ohio Casualty Group Oklahoma Farm Bureau Mutual Insurance Company Oregon Mutual Insurance Palisades Insurance Pekin Insurance PEMCO Insurance The Progressive Corporation Response Insurance Rockingham Group Safeco Insurance Samsung Fire & Marine Insurance Company S.C. Farm Bureau Mutual Insurance Company SECURA Insurance Shelter Insurance Sompo Japan Insurance Company of America State Auto Insurance Companies State Farm Insurance Tennessee Farmers Mutual Insurance Company Tokio Marine Nichido The Travelers Companies Unitrin USAA Virginia Farm Bureau Mutual Insurance West Bend Mutual Insurance Company Zurich North America FUNDING ASSOCIATIONS American Insurance Association National Association of Mutual Insurance Companies Property Casualty Insurers Association of America
13 PROTECTING people from harm in vehicles Crashing cars to test them for safety is the main work conducted at the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety s Vehicle Research Center (VRC). The violence of the crash tests give them an undeniable wow! factor, but the more serious side of this work is its contribution to the Institute s mission of preventing harm from crashes by improving driver behavior and roadway design as well as vehicle crashworthiness. It s important to improve all three, so the Institute s research program is balanced. Yet the crash tests are the high-profile work. They grab attention worldwide. Most VRC testing is conducted for consumer information. Vehicles are rated for safety based on performance in front, side, and rear tests. Consumers compare the results, which often differ dramatically, even among vehicles that are similar in size and price. Auto manufacturers heed the ratings, too, and improve the designs of their vehicles to earn higher marks than the competition. Then the automakers improve on the improvements. The result is that motorists now travel in safer vehicles than they used to. Lives are being saved because of this work, which is wholly sponsored by the nation s auto insurers. Injuries are being prevented. This is why the VRC exists.
15 ENTER THE VRC As soon as you step inside, you know the VRC is anything but ordinary. Like an automobile showroom, the lobby displays cars. But in this case the cars are crumpled and crashed. They re from the first collision in the world involving two vehicles in which airbags inflated in both. Despite the severity of this frontal crash, the drivers walked away, in large part because of the airbags. The VRC is a world-class center for research and testing. Except for the facilities of auto companies, few places in the world are equipped for the same range of tests. And unlike virtually anywhere else that vehicle-related research is conducted, the VRC invites visitors to view the tests. More than 1,000 people including insurers, automakers, and government officials come each year to tour the facility and see a crash test. The presence of the crashed cars in the lobby introduces visitors to the purpose of this work, which is to find and communicate ways to protect people in serious crashes. DISPLAY HALL Prominent displays inform visitors to the VRC about the principles of vehicle safety such as crumple zones and safety cages. These principles are illustrated and explained using vehicles that have undergone crash tests. Advanced systems like innovative seat/head restraints also are displayed. So are front and side airbags. Other displays focus on child protection, vehicle bumpers, and the array of dummies used in VRC tests.
16 CRASH HALL Described by a newspaper reporter as a cross between a Hollywood sound stage and a NASA clean room, the VRC s huge crash hall with its three runways accommodates a range of test configurations including not only single-vehicle but also head-on and front-to-side tests in which both vehicles are moving. A pair of balconies overlooking the hall s crash area provide safe vantages from which VRC visitors and staff view test vehicles as they re propelled toward impact and then as they crash in a shatter of metal and glass. The system that propels the vehicles to impact can accelerate full-size pickup trucks to 50 mph on the VRC s two 600-foot runways or to 25 mph on a 200-foot runway situated perpendicular to the longer ones. This propulsion system, the first of its type in North America, uses compressed nitrogen to run hydraulic motors that, in turn, drive the cables that tow the vehicles to their designated impact speeds. A unique VRC feature is the system that provides up to 750,000 watts of illumination without glare to film crash tests at multiple angles. The resulting pictures are so clear and dramatic that video of VRC tests attracts wide coverage on television news. So extensive is the media coverage that the tests, captured in both real time and slow-motion, have become familiar images in millions of households. This is how most people identify the Institute and its contribution to highway safety.
18 SLED simulates a crash Tests don t always involve crashing entire cars. Components like head restraints and car-related gear including child restraints can be tested on a sled that runs on fixed rails to simulate a crash. The components are attached to the sled, and for most tests dummies are positioned in or on the components. Then the sled is programmed to create accelerations or decelerations mimicking those in a vehicle s occupant compartment during the fraction of a second of a real-world crash. The sled can be programmed to simulate a range of crash types at both high and low speeds. This method is useful to study components whose performance in a crash wouldn t be influenced by the deformation of the vehicle itself. When crash forces alone are sufficient to evaluate a component, sled tests make sense because they re faster and less expensive than full-scale vehicle tests.
19 DUMMIES used in crash tests Biofidelic dummies are calibrated and then positioned in vehicles for crash tests. The dummies mimic the movement of humans in real crashes and record the forces that would be inflicted on the body. There s not just one dummy for VRC testing. There s a whole family of Hybrid III dummies for frontal crash tests, from one representing a large man to another that s like a three-month-old child. BioSID and its smaller cousin, SID-IIs, are the dummies designed specifically for side testing. For the VRC s rear tests, there s BioRID with its complex spinal column. Each dummy includes 25 to 40 sensors to record forces on the head, chest, abdomen, legs, and other body parts. Careful dummy calibration ensures that the measurement of the forces can be compared with what s measured in crash tests conducted at other facilities worldwide. PHOTOS Still photos of vehicles after crash tests aren t as dramatic as motion pictures recorded during the tests, but the photos provide important documentation. The studio in which these photos are snapped features a turntable that floats on a cushion of air to display vehicles from various angles. Specially designed lights permit highquality images of vehicle details. TEST TRACK The VRC s outdoor track, at 1,000 feet in length, accommodates both vehicle research and demonstrations. When wet, part of the track simulates an icy road. It was on this venue that VRC researchers demonstrated the effects of antilock brakes and, more recently, electronic stability control.
21 CRASHING vehicles all kinds of ways Even before the opening of the VRC in 1992, the Institute conducted crash tests to demonstrate safety differences among vehicles. This work expanded with the opening of the VRC, where tests produce vehicle crashworthiness ratings of good, acceptable, marginal, or poor. Such tests wouldn t provide car buyers with much useful information if they didn t reflect what actually happens in real collisions. This is why all VRC test programs are preceded by study of crash and injury patterns in the real world, followed by recreation of on-the-road crashes in tests. The result is a protocol ensuring that the tests reflect real collisions. The VRC s front, side, and rear tests conducted for consumer information are the most familiar, but they re not the only crash tests conducted at this facility. Others are run for research and investigative purposes. For example, one test mimicked a real-world crash in which an unbelted driver in an airbag-equipped van died of chest injuries. When investigators of the crash couldn t establish why the driver died, a VRC test suggested that upward rotation of the van s steering wheel left the driver s chest unprotected. Other VRC tests have helped researchers assess what could happen to people, especially children, riding very close to frontal airbags at the onset of inflation. Results led the Institute to recommend that drivers sit away from steering wheels and buckle children into back seats. At the request of the Institute and others, the government also agreed to allow automakers to use airbags that inflate with less power. These steps have all but erased the formerly serious problem of injuries from airbags.
22 FRONTAL crash testing The VRC s frontal test program, underway since the mid-1990s, was preceded by studies of real-world crashes and tests involving various degrees of overlap between colliding vehicles in front-to-front crashes. Additional studies helped researchers design a barrier that allows simulation of a front-to-front crash between two vehicles in a single-vehicle test. The outcome is the VRC s 40 mph/40 percent overlap frontal test into a deformable barrier. It s the first use of this test to supply consumers with crashworthiness comparisons among vehicles. Automakers also pay attention to the results of these tests. As a Ford executive said, the tests provide information we have to address. Our customers are paying attention. In fact, automakers have paid so much attention that there has been a turnaround since this program began. Most cars in recent years have earned good frontal crashworthiness ratings, which were rare in the 1990s. So consistent are these ratings that the VRC has virtually declared victory, allowing automakers who have earned good ratings for their vehicles in previous years to conduct the tests on which the VRC bases ratings of new designs of the same vehicles.
24 SIDE crash testing Next to frontal crashes, side impacts are the most serious, so the VRC launched consumer information tests in 2002 to rate and compare passenger vehicles side crashworthiness. The research underlying this program of tests included analyses of real-world crashes and injury data that revealed the risks when highriding vehicles like SUVs hit cars. Another finding was that women in side-struck vehicles are at higher risk than men. From this research, VRC staff developed a moving barrier with a front end like a pickup truck or SUV. During tests, this barrier is propelled into vehicles sides. The protocol is the first in the world to use such a barrier and to use side impact dummies representing small women. The vehicle ratings based on performance in the test attract the same widespread media attention as the VRC s frontal offset test results.
25 WINNERS Top Safety Pick Every year the Institute recognizes the safest cars, minivans, and SUVs with TOP SAFETY PICK awards. Qualifications include good front, side, and rear crashworthiness ratings plus electronic stability control. The idea is to give consumers a short-cut to finding the safest vehicles overall. The award also puts pressure on automakers, who are so keen to earn TOP SAFETY PICK that they have improved the designs of many vehicles specifically to win. The Institute toughened the qualifications for this award after the first year and will continue doing so to spur further crashworthiness improvements.
26 REAR testing Seats and head restraints are intended to reduce neck injuries in rear crashes. In 1995 VRC researchers began measuring the geometry of the restraints, rating them according to how well they could be positioned to prevent injury. Since then restraint geometry has been improved, but this was only the first step. Seatback characteristics also influence neck injury likelihood, so VRC researchers worked with insurer-sponsored groups worldwide on a dynamic test to assess seat as well as restraint performance in crashes. Automakers have responded with more design changes that improve neck protection in rear impacts.
27 BUMPER tests at slow speeds For more than 30 years, the Institute has conducted low-speed crash tests to assess and compare how well vehicle bumpers resist (or fail to resist) damage in the kinds of minor impacts that frequently occur in commuter traffic and parking lots. Attention to these tests prompted some automakers to equip their vehicles with stronger bumpers, and after the government rolled back federal bumper requirements in the early 1980s these tests provided virtually the only pressure on automakers to use stronger bumpers. Now VRC researchers have revised this program, working with international partners on tests that better reflect what happens in real impacts. In particular, the new tests produce the patterns of damage to sheet metal and other expensive-to-repair parts that occur when vehicles over- and underride each other. No vehicles earn commendation for performance in the VRC s new series of four bumper tests, although some perform reasonably well in some tests. This program will continue until automakers pay more attention to bumper design. The goal is for every vehicle to perform at least as well as the best ones tested.
29 MISMATCH of vehicles in crashes Passenger vehicles aren t all alike. Some are bigger and heavier than others, and they ride higher than smaller, lighter vehicles. This mismatch can compromise safety when vehicles collide, especially when cars collide with SUVs or pickup trucks. The risks for the car occupants are elevated in both front and side crashes with the bigger, heavier vehicles. Crash tests conducted at the VRC reveal the consequences of vehicle incompatibility, and the results have been instrumental in a cooperative effort by automakers to reduce mismatch in both front and side collisions. Nearly every auto manufacturer is participating in this voluntary effort, conducted in conjunction with the Institute, so that vehicle incompatibility in crashes is diminishing faster than the federal government s rulemaking process ever could have addressed the problem.
30 SHOW IT in a demonstration Sometimes there s nothing like a picture to drive home a point, so the VRC conducts some crash tests specifically for demonstration purposes. This is a good way to introduce a new vehicle safety technology or warn people about a hazardous practice. Before many vehicles were equipped with side airbags, for example, VRC tests demonstrated what can happen to people s unprotected heads in side crashes and how side airbags can prevent intruding structures from striking the head. These tests showed the importance of side airbags more clearly than a description alone ever could, and media coverage of the tests helped spur the introduction of head-protecting side airbags. A different kind of demonstration, conducted on the VRC s test track, showed how children riding in the cargo beds of pickup trucks may be injured or killed, even in the absence of a crash. All it takes is a sudden evasive maneuver for a child to be thrown from a vehicle and hit the pavement or an object alongside the road. While it s useful to warn people about this hazard, the warnings become far more persuasive when they re accompanied by pictures of the dire consequences. Video of child-size dummies spilling from pickup beds on the VRC s track attracted the interest of media nationwide.
33 ENHANCING public health and safety Tucked into the foothills of central Virginia, the VRC is situated off the beaten path. However, the work that insurers sponsor at this facility attracts lots of attention and contributes directly to changes for the better in vehicle designs. The result is a major contribution to public health and safety. VRC researchers aren t going it alone in this work. They re collaborating with others worldwide to improve vehicle crashworthiness. Protocols for crash testing and other research are being established cooperatively and used internationally. Researchers at the VRC also have cooperated with automakers to identify safety improvements. As Institute President Adrian Lund points out, We watch the manufacturers, working with them when we can and when necessary admonishing them to do a better job of protecting the people who buy their vehicles. The main measure of VRC success is that lives are being saved and injuries prevented. The health and safety of everyone who drives or rides in a car is thus enhanced.
34 The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is a nonprofit research and communications organization funded by auto insurers N. Glebe Rd., Arlington, Virginia / or visit
39 Introduction and Background June 2010 HSM Introduction & Overview Webinar Introduction to the HSM Ray Krammes FHWA Office of Safety R&D 1-1 Introduction to the HSM Outline What is the HSM? Why should we use the HSM? 1-2 HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-1
40 Introduction and Background June 2010 What is the HSM? An AASHTO Publication that Provides information and tools to conduct quantitative safety analyses. Facilitates explicit consideration of safety throughout the project development process. 1-3 A compilation of: What is the HSM? Methods for developing an effective roadway safety management program and evaluating its benefits. Predictive methods to estimate crash frequency and severity to support project level decision making. Catalog of crash modification factors for estimating the effect of a variety of geometric and operational treatments. 1-4 HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-2
41 Introduction and Background June 2010 What is the HSM? Akin to the HCM, but for safety It s the product of: What is the HSM? $7 million, 10-year research program funded by NCHRP, AASHTO & FHWA Thousands of hours of effort in reviewing the research results: TRB Task Force on Development of the HSM AASHTO Joint Task Force on the HSM, with members from Safety, Design, and Traffic Engineering 1-6 HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-3
42 Introduction and Background June 2010 Why should we use the HSM? We need quantitative estimates of safety performance for many planning and project development decisions. More reliable estimates lead to more safety cost-effective decision making. The estimation methods in the HSM are based upon good science/research and improve upon much of current practice. 1-7 Why should we use the HSM? Decisions requiring quantitative safety estimates: Identifying sites with the most potential for crash frequency or severity reduction Identifying crash patterns and treatments to address those patterns Conducting economic appraisals of projects Evaluating the crash reduction benefits of implemented treatments Estimating the effects of design decisions on crash frequency and severity 1-8 HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-4
43 Introduction and Background June 2010 Why should we use the HSM? Quantifying safety facilitates tradeoff analysis Environment Safety Operations 1-9 Why should we use the HSM? HSM methods complement design guidelines Examined in reference to compliance with standards, warrants, guidelines and sanctioned design procedures The expected or actual crash frequency and severity for a highway or roadway *Ezra Hauer, ITE Traffic Safety Toolbox Introduction, HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-5
44 Introduction and Background June 2010 Why should we use the HSM? HSM estimates the safety effects of design decisions 1-11 Why should we use the HSM? Better methods improve the bottom line Better safety analysis tools to support decision making More safety cost-effective investments More lives saved and injuries avoided per dollar invested 1-12 HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-6
45 Introduction and Background June 2010 Why should we use the HSM? HSM methods improve upon current practice: Safety is measured in terms of expected (long-term) average crash frequency Alternative ways to estimate: Crash counts Statistical (predictive) methods Combination of crash counts and predictive methods (Empirical Bayes method) 1-13 Why should we use the HSM? HSM predictive methods: Apply appropriate statistical methods to: Model the variability in crash data Compensate for regression to the mean Account for changes in traffic volumes Include the following components: Safety performance functions (SPFs) Crash modification factors (CMFs) State/local calibration factors Empirical Bayes weightings 1-14 HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-7
46 Introduction and Background June 2010 Why should we use the HSM? Short-term crash counts do not reliably estimate expected average crash frequency Number of Accidents Crashes Accidents Mile Point 1-15 Why should we use the HSM? Short-term crash counts do not reliably estimate expected average crash frequency Number of of Accidents Crashes Accidents Mile Point 1-16 HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-8
47 Introduction and Background June 2010 Why should we use the HSM? Short-term crash counts do not reliably estimate expected average crash frequency Number of Crashes Number of Accidents Accidents Mile Point 1-17 Why should we use the HSM? Short-term crash counts do not reliably estimate expected average crash frequency Accidents Number of Crashes Number of Accidents Mile Point 1-18 HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-9
48 Introduction and Background June 2010 Why should we use the HSM? HSM predictive methods help us estimate expected (long-term average) crash frequency Number of Accidents Crashes Accidents Mile Point Mile Point 1-19 Why should we use the HSM? Short-term crash counts are subject to regression to the mean bias Utility pole locations with at least 4 occupants exposed to impact, Data Source: Virginia Tech Center for Injury Biomechanics 1-20 HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-10
49 Introduction and Background June 2010 Why should we use the HSM? Short-term crash counts are subject to regression to the mean bias For the same pole locations, the change in the # of occupants exposed to impact, Data Source: Virginia Tech Center for Injury Biomechanics Why should we use the HSM? HSM predictive methods account for regression to the mean bias Probability All Utility Poles Hot Spots Hot Spots Number of Exposed Occupants 1-22 HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-11
50 Introduction and Background June 2010 Why should we use the HSM? In summary: We need quantitative estimates of safety performance for many planning and project development decisions. More reliable estimates lead to more safety cost-effective decision making. The estimation methods in the HSM are based upon good science/research and improve upon much of current practice HSM Application to Rural Two-Lane Intersections 1-12
51 Home work Due next class Calculate the crash rate for a four-leg intersection with the following characteristics: Two-way ADT per leg: 10,000, 3000, 5000, 15, (8 crashes), 2006 (7 crashes), 2007 (1 crash), 2008 (15 crashes), 2009 (4 crashes), 2010 (10 crashes). Calculate the crash rate for a 15 mile roadway section 2007 (12 crash), 2008 (18 crashes), 2009 (22 crashes), 2010 (10 crashes). ADT= 18,500 vpd Chose the most correct answer. The HSM Automates the process of calculating historical crash rates Is driver education program Provides a predictive safety tool for roadway planning and design. Is used widely by law enforcement professionals to improve roadway safety Create an intersection crash diagram for the data ed to you after class. 15
MEMBER INSURERS 21st Century Insurance AAA Mid-Atlantic Insurance Group Affirmative Insurance AIG Agency Auto AIG Direct Alfa Insurance Alfa Alliance Insurance Corporation Allstate Insurance Group American
KIDS Airbags Airbags are a success. They ve inflated in millions of crashes, saved thousands of lives, and prevented many more serious injuries. But like some medications and other public health successes,
About Your Airbags Virtually all new cars have airbags, and they re saving lives. They re reducing driver deaths by about 14 percent, and passenger bags reduce deaths by about 11 percent. People who use
teen BEGINNING drivers INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY BEGINNING DRIVERS AND CRASH RISK Getting a license is an important milestone for teens and parents, but being a beginning driver carries special
1005 N Glebe Road Arlington, VA 22201 USA IIHS 703/247-1500 HLDI 703/247-1600 iihs.org iihs.org/rss youtube.com/iihs @IIHS_autosafety m.iihs.org teen BEGINNING drivers MeMber groups Acceptance Insurance
www.iihs.org Measuring Crash Avoidance System Effectiveness with Insurance Data 2013 Government/Industry Meeting Washington, DC January 30, 2013 Matthew Moore, Vice President, HLDI The Insurance Institute
Statement before the Committee on Energy and Commerce U.S. House of Representatives Approaches to achieving vehicle safety improvements Brian O Neill INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY 1005 NORTH GLEBE
NEWS RELEASE July 24, 2008 Contact: Adrian Lund at 703/247-1500 (home at 703/898-6618) or Russ Rader 703/247-1500 (home at 202/785-0267) VNR: Thurs. 7/24/2008 10:30-11 am EDT (C) AMC 1/Trans. 23 (dl4160h)
Vol. 45, No. 10, Sept. 28, 2010 Alarmed by drivers doing this, legislators in state after state have enacted laws that BAN TEXTING by all drivers. As well intentioned as they are, these laws haven t accomplished
Vehicle Safety: Where It s Been and Where It s heading Washington Automotive Press Association Washington, D.C. January 15, 2015 Adrian K. Lund, Ph.D. President, IIHS and HLDI 50 th Anniversary crash test
Vol. 46, No. 2, March 1, 2011 can be catastrophic for people in passenger vehicles that run into the backs of heavy trucks. The steel guards on the backs of big rigs are supposed to stop smaller vehicles
Vol. 45, No. 11, Nov. 3, 2010 That s the question many consumers ask at the collision repair shop. Aftermarket parts are easier on the wallet, but debate has swirled for years over whether these third-party
Drivers and Driver Assistance Systems: How well do they match? 2013 Driving Assessment Conference Lake George, NY June 18, 2013 Adrian Lund, Ph.D., President The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety,
Stopping the Crash Before it Happens: Collision Avoidance Technology & More Evaluations of Collision Avoidance Systems Using Insurance Data Lifesavers 2015 Chicago, IL March 15, 2015 Matthew Moore, Vice
SPECIAL ISSUE: TEENAGE DRIVERS Vol. 44, No. 5, May 7, 2009 WHEN PARENTS ARE WATCHING their teenage children drive differently than when they re alone or with friends. Unsupervised teens take more risks
So you ve decided to buy a car, minivan, SUV, or pickup. Now the question is, which one? If you factor safety into your choice (most people do), then you probably want to know, what s the safest vehicle
Status Report Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Highway Loss Data Institute Minivans with a major flaw 3 models have dire results in small overlap crash test ALSO IN THIS ISSUE Vol. 49, No. 10 November
tensioners irbags S R S UNDERSTANDING YOUR CAR S SAFETY FEATURES THE INFORMATION IN THIS BOOKLET IS INTENDED TO BE SUPPLEMENTARY TO THAT PROVIDED IN THE OWNER S MANUAL. IT WAS PREPARED TO ANSWER YOUR QUESTIONS
European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) and Crash Test Ratings of New Vehicles Car safety is now an important issue that many people consider when buying a new car. There are crash test standards
Statement before Massachusetts Legislature s Joint Committee on Insurance Institute Research on Cosmetic Crash Parts Stephen L. Oesch INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY 1005 N. GLEBE RD. ARLINGTON,
Bulletin Vol. 30, No. 7 : April 2013 IIHS crashworthiness evaluation programs and the U.S. vehicle fleet The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) conducts several different vehicle crashworthiness
General facts regarding the driver: Talking Points About Roadway Users Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the U.S. for people ages 6-33. They annually account for more than 1 million
Status Report Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Highway Loss Data Institute Stopping power IIHS rates 19 new models for front crash prevention ALSO IN THIS ISSUE Vol. 50, No. 7 August 26, 2015 4Evidence
Vol. 46, No. 10, Nov. 17, 2011 HYBRID ADVANTAGE Hybrids have a safety edge over their conventional twins when it comes to shielding their occupants from injuries in crashes, new research by the Highway
Defensive Driving: Managing Visibility, Time and Space Motor vehicle travel is the primary means of travel in the United States. With all the benefits that come along with mobility, there are thousands
An Example of the Crash Protection Provided by a Driver Airbag in an Offset Frontal Crash Test David S. Zuby Joseph M. Nolan Susan L. Meyerson July 1997 ABSTRACT A comparison of two severe frontal offset
Tomorrow Today Safe-Driving Technologies of Tomorrow, Here Today Co-Sponsored by the CPCU Personal Lines Interest Group & the Information Technology Interest Group Learning Objectives Learn about technologies
NEW CAR SAFETY INNOVATIONS ANCAP RATINGS Michael Paine - ANCAP Technical Manager Outline Background on crash testing by ANCAP Improvements in vehicle occupant protection Technologies to avoid serious crashes
20 Tips for Safe Driving www.libertymutualinsurance.com Liberty Mutual 20 Tips What s Your Driving Skill Level? As you can see, this national survey 1 found that drivers rated themselves highly. The tendency
Helping People Live Safer, More Secure Lives Since 1912 Thank you for considering Liberty Mutual for your insurance needs. As one of the leading providers of auto, home and life insurance in the United
Characteristics of Motorcycle Crashes in the U.S. Jeya Padmanaban, M.S. JP Research Inc., USA. 7 West El Camino Real, Suite 2 Mountain View, CA, 944 firstname.lastname@example.org Vitaly Eyges, PhD., JP Research,
MODULE 3 National Child Passenger Safety Certification Training Program Injury Prevention & Crash Dynamics OBJECTIVES Describe challenges to crash survival. Explain the concept of crash forces. Describe
Status Report Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Highway Loss Data Institute Quick work Better autobrake helps more models earn top IIHS ratings for front crash prevention ALSO IN THIS ISSUE Vol. 49,
Auto Insurers Adventure in US Highway Safety Global NCAP Malacca, Malaysia May 23, 2012 Adrian K. Lund, Ph.D. President, IIHS and HLDI The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, founded in 1959, is an
Vol. 45, No. 7, Aug. 3, 2010 but many states fall short when it comes to the most effective graduated licensing systems for young beginners. In a new national survey, parents of 15-18 yearolds told the
CASE STUDY Volvo Cars Safety Centre Accelerometers Help Improve Car Safety Sweden Automotive Transducers The name of Volvo is synonymous with car safety. The new Volvo Cars Safety Centre at Gothenburg,
Make the right choice Vehicle safety advice for older drivers Why is it important to buy a safe car? Older drivers are the most likely of all driver age groups to sustain serious or life threatening injuries
http://www.iii.org/media/hottopics/insurance/motorcycle/ Motorcycle Crashes THE TOPIC APRIL 2009 Motorcycle riding has become more popular in recent years, appealing to a new group of enthusiasts consisting
Page 1 of 7 Auto Insurance AAA s 2010 Your Driving Costs study found that the average cost to own and operate a sedan rose by 4.8 percent to $8,487 per year, compared with the previous year. Rising fuel,
Column1 Column2 1ST AUTO & CASUALTY COMPANY 04/27/2009 AAA - IDAHO 04/13/2009 AAA MOUNTAIN 04/08/2009 AAA TEXAS COUNTY MUTUAL INS CO 04/13/2009 ACCC INSURANCE COMPANY 05/03/2009 ACCEPTANCE INDEMNITY INS
In This Issue: FMCSA Webinar Nov.18th to Examine Large Truck Crash Fatalities Involving Pedestrians & Bicyclists Help Prevent Roadway Accidents involving Pedestrians How to Steer Clear of Accidents with
Unit 3: The Effect of Natural Forces on your Vehicle Page 1 of 11 Purpose: Acquaint the student with some of the natural forces acting on a vehicle while stopping, maneuvering, and during a crash. Explain
DMV OREGON TRAFFIC ACCIDENT AND INSURANCE REPORT Tear this sheet off your report, read and carefully follow the directions. ONLY drivers involved in an accident resulting in any of the following MUST file
d Homeowners' Writers in Virginia in 2014 Rank Company Name Premiums Written 1 0176 25143 STATE FARM FIRE AND CASUALTY COMPANY $398,480,752 19.13% 19.13% 2 0200 25941 UNITED SERVICES AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION
Reports: Auto Insurance Customer Satisfaction Declines Compared with 2012 Primarily Due to Higher Rates Insurers Achieve Higher Satisfaction Scores When They Discuss Rate Increases with Customers Prior
SAMPLE VEHICLE FLEET SAFETY & USAGE POLICY Policy The purpose of this policy is to ensure the safety of those individuals who drive company vehicles and to provide guidance on the proper use of company
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 070 September 2014 Passenger A passenger vehicle is a motor vehicle weighing less than 10,000 pounds; the category includes passenger cars and light trucks (pickup
Introduction Bicycle Safety Enforcement Action Guidelines People ride bicycles for many different reasons: fitness, recreation, or for transportation. Regardless of the reason for riding, bicyclists young
Gesamtverband der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e. V. The Increasing Role of SUVs in Crash Involvement in Germany Dr. Axel Malczyk German Insurers Accident Research ICROBI Dublin, 12.09.2012 Gesamtverband
INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY NEWS RELEASE November 25, 2008 72 WINNERS OF 2009 TOP SAFETY PICK AWARDS ALMOST EVERY CATEGORY FROM MINICAR TO LARGE PICKUP HAS A WINNER ARLINGTON, VA Seventy-two
AHIS Road safety project Student Council 2013 THINK! Today, we drive safer cars on safer roads; decades of advertisements and public information campaigns have made most of us safer drivers. Improvements
NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Public Meeting of August 11, 2015 (Information subject to editing) Multivehicle Work Zone Crash on Interstate 95 Cranbury, New Jersey June 7, 2014 This is a synopsis
w J.D. Power Reports: Auto Insurance Satisfaction Reaches All-Time High, Fewer and Smaller Premium Increases Cited Auto-Owners Insurance, and Each Rank Highest in Two of the 11 Regions WESTLAKE VILLAGE,
Accident Analysis of Sheridan Road between Isabella Street and South Boulevard Prepared for TranSystems Corporation for the City of Evanston Submitted by Regina Webster & Associates, Inc. Date: 08/15/2008
Virginia's Child Passenger Safety Laws Updated July 2010 VIRGINIA'S CHILD RESTRAINT DEVICE LAW (Code of Virginia Article 13 - Section 46.2) The major requirements of Virginia's Child Safety Seat Law: Child
Exhibit C Kane Legal Motor Vehicle Product Defect Handbook Volume No. 1 David Kane, R.Ph, J.D. Professor of Pharmacy Law, Rutgers University Table of Contents Section 1 Auto Defects... 2 Section 2 SUVs
INJURIES TO RESTRAINED OCCUPANTS IN FAR-SIDE CRASHES Kennerly Digges The Automotive Safety Research Institute Charlottesville, Virginia, USA Dainius Dalmotas Transport Canada Ottawa, Canada Paper Number
Intersection Cost Comparison Spreadsheet User Manual ROUNDABOUT GUIDANCE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Version 2.5 i Virginia Department of Transportation Intersection Cost Comparison Spreadsheet
Special issue: what works and doesn t work to improve highway safety Vol. 36, No. 5, May 19, 2001 Education alone A billboard message by itself won t improve drivers or yield other safety benefits. Such
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS Research Note DOT HS 812 101 December 2014 2013 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview After an increase in motor vehicle crash fatalities in 2012, fatalities on U.S. roadways in 2013 resumed
Air bags AIR BAGS AND ACTIVE HEAD RESTRAINTS 1. Air bag warning information is printed on the driver and passenger sun visors. 2. On some vehicles, both front seats are equipped with Active Head Restraints
Chapter 4 DEFENSIVE DRIVING Chapter 4 Table of Contents Chapter 4 DEFENSIVE DRIVING... 4-1 DEFENSIVE DRIVING... 4-3 Positioning The Bus... 4-3 When Making a Turn at an Intersection... 4-3 Making the perfect
UNDERSTANDING YOUR VEHICLE S What every driver and passenger should know This booklet was prepared to answer questions about seat belts, airbags, and other safety equipment in newer Honda and Acura vehicles.
Level 1 Award in Health and Safety in a Construction Environment Student notes (sample) www.britsafe.org Membership Training Qualifications Audit and Consultancy Audit and Policy Consultancy and Opinion
Report #13 - Motorcycle Accidents and Injuries Some quick tips on motorcycle safety: $ Ride assuming that you and your motorcycle are totally invisible to motorists. $ Leave plenty of space in front and
Decelerating Safely Activity 25 TEACHING SUGGESTIONS GETTING STARTED 1. Review the concept of deceleration as it relates to acceleration. Ask the class to think about their experiences as passengers in
CHAPTER 5: LAWS AND RELATED ISSUES This chapter will provide information you need to know about Pennsylvania laws and important related issues. For more information on Pennsylvania laws please visit www.dmv.state.pa.us,
Auto Insurance Sample Premium Tables 2014/15 Prepared by Commonwealth of State Corporation Commission Bureau of Insurance P.O. Box 1157 Richmond, 23218 (804) 371-9185 (877) 310-6560 Website: www.scc.virginia.gov/boi
Back to School Car Safety Direct Buy Warranty Staff September 19, 2014 It s back to school season, and that means kids are picking out new clothes, putting on their backpacks, and hitting the road to get
Airbags and Pretensioners Emergency Response Guide 1 This guide specifically addresses Airbags and Pretensioners in GM Vehicles. We will provide information on vehicles equipped with frontal, door mounted,
special edition volume three, issue two February, 2008 research news Collision Avoidance The car we couldn t crash! During the low speed bumper crash test of the new Volvo, its automatic braking system
www.hldi.org Ohio Association of Mutual Insurance Companies Columbus, OH Feb 17, 2011 Matt Moore, Vice President HLDI The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, founded in 1959, is an independent, nonprofit,
Alaska Consumer Guide to Auto Insurance State of Alaska Department of Commerce, Community, and Economic Development DIVISION OF INSURANCE About the Alaska Division of Insurance The Alaska Division of Insurance
Bulletin Vol. 28, No. 26 : April 2012 Predicted availability of safety features on registered vehicles Introduction In 2008, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) estimated the potential benefits
12 & 15- Passenger Van Defensive Driver Training NHTS-national Highway Traffic Safety Administration Recognizes that 12-15 passenger vans (include driver) are similar type vehicle and offer the same hazards
EMBAROED UNTIL 12:01 A.M. EDT, THURSDAY, JULY 30, 2015 Status Report Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Highway Loss Data Institute Safety mettle Ford F-150 crew cab aces IIHS evaluations, but extended
Survey of Volvo Dealers about Effects of Small Overlap Frontal Crash Test Results on Business October 2012 Jessica B. Cicchino Insurance Institute for Highway Safety 1005 N. Glebe Rd., Arlington, VA 22201
CHAPTER 2 CAPACITY AND LEVEL-OF-SERVICE CONCEPTS CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION...2-1 II. CAPACITY...2-2 III. DEMAND...2-2 IV. QUALITY AND LEVELS OF SERVICE...2-2 Service Flow Rates...2-3 Performance Measures...2-3
New York State Insurance Department 2008 Annual Ranking of Automobile Insurance Complaints David A. Paterson Governor Eric R. Dinallo Superintendent This Annual Ranking of Automobile Insurance Complaints
CRASH PROTECTION FOR CHILDREN IN AMBULANCES Recommendations and Procedures* Marilyn J. Bull, M.D., Kathleen Weber, Judith Talty, Miriam Manary A joint project of the Indiana University School of Medicine
SAFETY CULTURE CONNECTION INSIDE Motorcycles Crashes Aren t Accidents What s Trending Buckle Up Nevada! Your Decision, but Who Pays? 1 2 3 4 5 Always Buckle Up Don t Drive Impaired Focus on the Road Stop
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS Research Note DOT HS 811 856 November 2013 2012 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview Motor vehicle crashes and fatalities increased in 2012 after six consecutive years of declining fatalities
Vehicle Mismatch: A Critical New Safety Defect Issue by Byron Bloch, Auto Safety Expert Auto Safety Design, Inc. 7731 Tuckerman Lane, Potomac, Maryland 20854 Published in New Jersey Lawyer March 8, 2004