Home Home Safety Safety Community Action Kit: A Guide for Health Professionals CONTENTS

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1 Home Home Safety Safety Community Action Kit: A Guide for Health Professionals MAJOR TYPES BACKGROUND OF CHILD ON INJURIES KIDSAFE IN WA THE HOME CONTENTS Kidsafe WA (Kidsafe Western Australia Inc.) is leading non-government, notfor-profit, charitable organisation dedicated prevention of unintentional Each year about 300 Australian children (aged 0-14 years) are killed 60,000 hospitalised by unintentional injuries kind often referred as accidents. 8 childhood injuries in Western Australia. Kidsafe WA is WA member affiliate of Child Accident Prevention Foundation of Australia, a national organisation Many accidental injuries deaths are predictable preventable. Researchers estimate Background first established on Kidsafe in WA that 90 per cent of unintentional injuries could be prevented by implementing strategies that Our are focus known is on preventing be effective. deaths 9 Young reducing children from incidence birth age severity five, are of among injuries How most children vulnerable use this aged Resource injuries less than in 15 years. home. Our Research underpinning shows that principle education, is Children environment First enforcement safety all have protection a role of play children in making is homes primary safer consideration. for children. 9 Many researchers PART advocate ONE that INJURY taking advantage & PREVENTION of early intervention may provide a foundation for long Our Vision term application of safety behaviour in preventing injuries. Section A Safer 1: Major World Types for Kids of Child Injuries in Home 25 Our Region Mission Specific Injury Data In ir own homes, young children are most likely be injured in living room, To Falls lead action minimise unacceptable risk consequence of unintentional bedroom kitchen. In or people s homes, children are most likely be injured in injury children in our adult focused world. living room or yard. Children are vulnerable in homes because homes are designed for Our Values adults. Heights, space structures are built for adult use comfort, but se often Concern for well-being of children Evidence Based Best Practice present Burns hazards & Scalds children. 9 Prevention is better than cure Recognising valuing our people The Programs Driveway most common Run Services cause overs of injuries in home are falls, burns, poisoning, choking, strangulation Homes Choking, Safety Suffocation drowning. Falls Strangulation account for more than half of all injuries can occur The Crush from Safety Injuries furniture, Demonstration from down Furniture stairs through windows. Burns are most often caused by House located within Kidsafe WA highlights potential danger areas hot around liquids home tap water some that of is o prevention hot. Scald measures burns available can lead reduce longer hospitalisations risk of injuries Section occurring. lifelong 2: Injury A treatment. range Risks of safety 9 by Stage products of are Child available Development for purchase both at centre through Stages Online shop of Child on Development Kidsafe WA website Infants is most (up often 1 year) from medication, household cleaning products personal care products. Playground Choking Safety is most often from food, while strangulation of ddlers preschoolers The Toddlers Playground (1-2 Advisory years) is most often caused by Service entanglement offers technical, in window safety blind cords. design information most frequently all groups in WA. Preschoolers Services include: (3-5 Training, years) On-site inspection services, a range of reference resources. occurs in bathtubs home swimming pools. 9 Road Safety Each Adolescents (13-15 years) Kidsafe of WA injuries operates included only in comprehensive this resource ongoing will have child car following restraint sections: fitting, checking, hiring information service in WA. The hire service has a large range of restraints available for Section short Current 3: Child Data long-term Injury hire. Prevention The Child by Car Location Restraint within Fitting Home Checking Service includes instruction on correct use adjustment of restraint. Bookings are Essential. School Safety Kidsafe WA co-ordinates an annual event, Safety in Schools week which aims raise awareness in whole of school communities about importance of safety injury prevention at home, school, Living on Area road or in playground. Research Injury Surveillance Kidsafe WA produces a quarterly WA Childhood Injury Surveillance Bulletin in conjunction with Princess Margaret Hospital Emergency Department in additional conducting relevant child injury prevention research projects. Section 4: Community Activities How get started Kidsafe WA 2007 Home Safety Community Action Kit Kidsafe Tasmania Home Safety Community Action Kit 1

2 FALLS A combination of developmental, sociological behavioural facrs influence nature of falls for each age group. 11 The severity of falls is strongly related height of fall nature of material/surface struck. 12 For children aged less than 4 years fall injuries are cusmarily related CONTENTS nursery furniture, benches stairs; while fall injuries for children aged 5 14 years are linked playgrounds, bicycles & sport. 11 Childhood falls are a significant health issue Background for young on children Kidsafe WA have refore been designated a National Injury Prevention Plan Priority for years 2004 beyond.13 How use this Resource During re were 24,206 hospital PART separations ONE due INJURY falls for & children PREVENTION aged less Section than 151: years Major in Australia. Types of 14 Overall, Child falls Injuries account in Home for 41% Region of all Specific child injury Injury admissions Data 42% of Emergency Falls Department Presentations for children aged 0-14 years in Australia. 15 Burns & Scalds DROWNING Driveway is Run most overs common cause of preventable death in Australian children aged between Choking, 0-4 years. Suffocation An international Strangulation comparison of drowning rates indicates that Australia has Crush second Injuries worst from record Furniture in world for ddler drowning. 29 Section Infant 2: Injury Toddler Risks drowning by Stage has been of identified Child Development as number one Key Priority Area by National Stages of Water Child Safety Development Plan based on data collected over past decade, one child Infants under five (up years 1 drowns year) every week in Australia. 30 In 2005/06, 37 children drowned in Australia, Toddlers which (1-2 is years) a 4% increase on 5 years average. 31 Natural bodies of fresh water such as ponds, lakes, dams, creeks, rivers ditches are location of drowning for children in rural areas. The location of drowning varies Adolescents (13-15 years) with age of child. Swimming pools accounted for 35% of drowning deaths in 0-4 year olds in Australia. Section 3: Child Injury Toddlers are particularly vulnerable domestic swimming pool Prevention by Location within Home drownings, however as children get older gain more independence, public waterways beaches become most common drowning location. 12 Pools figure prominently in drownings of young children. The pool hazard should be completely isolated by child resistant fencing. This is extremely effective in preventing drowning of young children when used correctly. 12 For this reason it is imperative that all pool owners (including domestic) be trained in CPR. 12 Section 4: Community Activities How get started Kidsafe Tasmania Home Safety Community Action Kit 2

3 POISONING is a major cause of injury children under 5 years of age. Children at highest risk are aged 1 3 years. For se children poisoning is second largest cause of hospital admissions after falls. Medications are most common cause of childhood poisonings nearly all childhood poisonings CONTENTS take place in home. 19 The National Injury Prevention Plan prioritised poisoning among children. 13 Most child poisonings occur in child s own home, in living sleeping areas. The kitchen, bathroom, laundry, shed garage can also be dangerous locations. 20 Background on Kidsafe WA In 2003/04 2,194 children under 5 years in Australia were hospitalised as a result of poisoning. This accounted for 21% of all poisoning hospitalisations for this time. The How use this Resource majority of se occurrences were due accessing drugs medication. 14 Calls Poisons Information Centre following poisoning Section ingestions 1: Major by children Types under of Child 5 years Injuries of in age reflect Home Region availability Specific of hazardous Injury Data substances in children s environments. Falls 12 In 2002, nearly three quarters (70%) of poisoning calls Poisons Information Centre involved a child (<18 years); Of which 65% were for children aged between 1-4 years 19. Burns & Scalds BURNS AND SCOLDS Driveway Run overs Hot Choking, food Suffocation beverages are Strangulation most frequent cause of scalds are rarely life threatening. Crush Injuries 24 Hot tap from water Furniture scalds are however, life threatening. 24 They are more severe because body immersion scalds cover a larger body surface area, burns are deeper Section frequently 2: Injury require Risks skin grafting. by Stage 24 A of baby Child or ddler s Development skin burns more deeply quickly, at Stages lower temperatures, of Child Development than adults thicker skin. Scalds cause pain, require long-term treatments Infants (up result 1 in year) lifelong scarring. 24 Toddlers (1-2 years) Injuries resulting from burn scald injuries were especially high for young children aged 4 years under, with 12,159 children hospitalised during period % of burn related hospital admissions for children in this age group occurred Adolescents as a direct (13-15 result years) of scalding, with majority of se injuries occurring in home. 22 Section 3: Child Injury Prevention by Location within Home Within this age group, 84% of injuries infants aged under 12 months occurring from 7 months onwards which reflects increasing mobility ability reach grasp objects characteristic of infants this age. 23 For children aged 5 under, accidents indoors are extremely common. Burns scalds are a frequent source of accidental injury in young children. Section 4: Community Activities How get started Kidsafe Tasmania Home Safety Community Action Kit 3

4 Background on Kidsafe WA How use this Resource DOG ATTACKS Every year children are bitten by dogs usually ir own or one belonging a friend or neighbour. More often than not, se bites occur on face, head neck because of child s height in relation CONTENTS dog type of play child engages in. A lot can be done minimise risk of dog bites in home. 35 Section 1: Major Types of Child Injuries in Home Region Specific Injury Data In Australia, National Injury Surveillance Unit (NISU) recorded a tal of 2,198 cases of dog-related hospitalisation during , 1,963 (89.3%) injuries had resulted from being bitten by a dog. 26 The highest rates of dog-related injury were in youngest age group (0 9 years). These children were almost exclusively injured as result of being bitten. 26 Falls DRIVEWAY RUN OVERS Most driveway accidents occur at child s home where both parent child may feel Burns that & Scalds child is safe. Driveway accidents mainly involve ddlers who are old enough Dog Attacks be mobile but are o small be easily visible from driving position when close Driveway vehicle. Run overs Majority of vehicles involved in driveway accidents are 4WD s, utility Choking, vehicles, Suffocation delivery vans, heavy Strangulation trucks even family sedans. 53 Crush Injuries from Furniture Sadly one child is run over in driveway of its own home every week in Australia. More Section than one 2: Injury third of Risks children by under Stage six of years Child of Development age killed in mor vehicle accidents were killed Stages off road of in Child yards, Development car parks driveways. 53 Infants (up 1 year) Children Toddlers aged one (1-2 years) two years are most likely be killed or injured in home driveways. The vehicle is usually only moved slowly is often being driven by a parent, Adolescents relative or (13-15 friend. years) A slow moving vehicle reversing down a driveway can Section trap a 3: child, Child causing Injury fatal Prevention crush injuries. by Location within Home Children who survive are often left with severe long-term injuries. Section 4: Community Activities How get started Kidsafe Tasmania Home Safety Community Action Kit 4

5 STRANGULATION, CHOKING & SUFFOCATION Choking most commonly occurs because of food blocking airway. However, people in particular children also choke on a variety of or objects. 51 CONTENTS Hard foods like peanuts, bones, raw carrot apple are main cause of choking in young children. While babies are at stage of putting everything in ir mouths, all Background small objects on Kidsafe need be WA kept out of reach. 51 How Boys are use most this at Resource risk: two thirds of those who choke on non-food items are boys. It appears re is an equal risk that boys girls will choke on food. 51 Section A number 1: Major of household Types items of Child are Injuries potential suffocation in Home hazards. Thin plastic bags, plastic Region wrap Specific are particularly Injury dangerous Data along with balloons, pillows, mattresses, selected clothing, Falls disused refrigerars ys boxes. 51 Curtain blind cords can be a danger children. Children can get caught in cords be Burns strangled. & Scalds This can happen when cords are o long or y end in a loop, when furniture or bedding is o close windows. 52 Driveway Run overs CRUSH INJURIES BY FURNITURE Choking, Suffocation Strangulation Children Crush don t Injuries always from use furniture Furniture in way that it is intended. Furniture can be used as a ladder reach something above, for example a bookcase, televisions drawers. Section All it 2: takes Injury is Risks weight by of Stage a small of child Child climbing Development on furniture it could easily pple Stages over. Furniture of Child falling Development on children can cause serious injuries like fractures, head injuries Infants in (up worst, 1 year) death. 54 Toddlers (1-2 years) Falls Preschoolers or collisions involving (3-5 years) tables, chairs sols can cause eye injuries, fractures, cuts sprains. Most injuries can be avoided by choosing safer furniture, securing unstable furniture, by simple changes environment. Adolescents (13-15 years) 54 Section 3: Child Injury Prevention by Location within Home Section 4: Community Activities How get started Kidsafe Tasmania Home Safety Community Action Kit 5

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