1 Mobilizing Finance for Private Sector Clean Energy Innovation in LAC GREGORY WATSON Head, Strategic Planning and Partnerships Team Leader, Environment and Clean Energy Tufts University March 8 th, 2014 Medford
2 RELATION WITH THE IDB GROUP The main source of development finance for Governments in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) The main source of x technical assistance for micro-tomedium enterprises, MFIs and NGOs in LAC Private sector window of the IDB Group, provides financing for the development of medium-sized private enterprises in LAC 2.
3 THE MULTILATERAL INVESTMENT FUND The largest provider of technical assistance to the private sector in LAC An innovation laboratory, testing and scaling new business models Flexible with tools including technical assistance (grants), loans, and equity investments. Loans 10% Equity 19% Grants 70% Committed to rigorously measuring and evaluating results and impact, and to disseminating knowledge. Leverage. In 2012, every 1$ of MIF investment was matched with 3$ from partners 3.
5 ENGAGING THE PRIVATE SECTOR The MIF plays a key role in facilitating access to green finance in LAC From international climate investment funds: FIP, SREP, CTF Providing TA and loans to green anchor companies supply chain Developing green (micro)finance for MSMEs and low-income households Creating green technology funds that provide equity to green MSMEs Works in: Clean and Efficient Energy, Adaptation, Leveraging Natural Capital 5.
6 COMPETITIVENESS: GREENING SME VALUE CHAINS Greening the supply chains of FEMSA and Walmart in Mexico Context Global emissions: SMEs account for 60% Anchor firm emissions: supply chain accounts for up to 86% Investor and shareholder pressure, CSR, cost/competitiveness, and government compliance are key motives for greening supply chains Customers in Latin America and the Caribbean increasingly want green products: 63% would pay 10% premium 6.
7 COMPETITIVENESS: GREENING SME VALUE CHAINS 1: FUNDER $ 2: EXECUTING AGENCY 5: FINANCIAL INSTITUTION $ 3: ANCHOR FIRMS 4: SMEs GREEN TECH PROVIDERS 1. FUNDER: funds platform for training efficiency experts. 2. EXECUTING AGENCY: develops online tools; provides SME training; hires energy use auditors. 3. ANCHOR FIRMS: encourages SMEs in their value chains to participate in training. 4. SMEs: receive training; identify energy savings to obtain credit. 5. FINANCIAL INSTITUTION: analyzes cases; provides SME credit. MAIN EXPECTED RESULTS 3,000 MSMEs implement sustainable practices Reduced energy, water use Reduced CO2 emissions FINANCING MIF $2.3 M Others $2.2 M 7.
8 ECOMICRO: GREEN FINANCE FOR ALL The Program is a US$ 7 M TA co-financed by MIF and NDF Demand-driven projects to reach sustainable business models: 12 projects selected in a 3 round competitive process Merging Adaptation/Mitigation concepts in practice: Three module approach: (i) greening the institution, (ii) analysis of MFI portfolio risks to climate change, (iii) developing green finance products Green finance includes: clean energy, energy efficiency or adaptation 8. 8
9 ECOMICRO: GREEN FINANCE FOR ALL First Round Results 54 applications from 15 different countries Highest interest: Mexico and Peru Selected entities : Te Creemos (Mexico) Caja Arequipa (Peru) Diaconia(Bolivia) FDL (Nicaragua) Second Round Results 64 applications from 17 different countries Highest interest: Colombia and Peru, increased participation of Caribbean Selected entities : Bancamia (Colombia) El Comercio (Paraguay) Apoyo Integral (El Salvador) Surfuturo (Republica Dominicana) 9
10 ECOMICRO: GREEN FINANCE FOR ALL Interest per category of green finance product Interest inrenewable energy finance products: 30% in individual credits 50% in productive credits 20% in both Interest in energy efficiency finance products: 70% in productive credits 15% inindividual credits 15% in both Interest in adaptation 12% of eligible participants in 2012 were interested in adaptation, in 2013 this number increased to 28% Interest in adaptation per country Dominican Republic, Colombia and Bolivia presented almost the majority of eligible applications with interest in adaptation Interest in adaptation per type of institution Interest in adaptation products: 50% in loans to support clients adjustments to new climate condition 42% in microinsurance for crops 8% in both 10
11 ENGAGING THE PRIVATE SECTOR 11.
12 CLEAN ENERGY: LUZ EN CASA In isolated areas, micro-grids and individual systems are more cost effective than traditional grids In Cajamarca, Peru, 22% of people are below the poverty line, and there is little access to electricity. Acciona Microenergy created a PPP program that creates community photovoltaic electrification committees, trains locals to be technicians, and implements a cross-subsidy where families pay according to their income, and the government subsidizes the remainder of the cost of the system. Uses a pay-for-service model where families pay a lease that covers system, consumption, maintenance, depreciation. Pilot reaches 3,000 families, which is the level at which this social enterprise becomes sustainable. 12.
13 CLEAN ENERGY: QUETSOL 18% of Guatemalan population outside of range of grid. 2.5M without access to lighting or electricity. Consumers cannot access credit to purchase clean technology solutions. Quetsol installs solar systems and charges only for the electricity used, allowing customers to buy electricity in hourly, daily, or weekly increments. Quetsol s clients currently spend more than US$15.75 a month on candles and phone charging. Quetsol charges US$11.43 for a monthly PAYG code, a savings of 27.4%. Pilot reaches 1,500 families, which is the level at which this social enterprise becomes sustainable. 13.
14 CLEAN ENERGY: SOGEXPRESS AND ARC FINANCE 10% of Haitians do not have access to energy. 35% of Haitians receive remittances, use funds for kerosene, candles. Arc Finance and SogExpress teamed to substitute purchases of solar lanterns and home systems for kerosene. Use distribution network of remittance company to overcome logistical challenges. Diaspora can purchase product to send, or local family can purchase. 10,708 systems sold at market rate as of 12/31/13, benefitting 53,540 people. 99% customer satisfaction. US$220,390 energy cost savings in first year, $759,000 projected by April tons CO2 reduced in year 1, 1,221 tons projected by April Significant productive, safety, education benefits. _JohMQ1U8 14.
16 WHAT IS CLIMATESCOPE? Climatescope: Report, Index and Interactive Online Tool providing comprehensive information for low-carbon clean energy stakeholders across respective value chains Developed by Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) and Bloomberg New Energy Finance Second edition: top 5 countries in 2012 in LAC: Brazil, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, Mexico 16.
17 WHAT DOES CLIMATESCOPE MEASURE?
19 CLIMATESCOPE 2013: RANKING AND SCORES 19.
20 LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN TOTAL RENEWABLE CAPACITY ADDITIONS, (GW) Source: Climatescope 2013 In 2007, LAC added 1.5GW of renewable capacity. Since then, 19 countries in the region have introduced government-sponsored reverse auctions, tax incentives, renewable energy targets, feed-in tariffs and other policies. These have led to a 296% compound annual growth rate for installed renewable capacity, which jumped from 11.3GW in 2006 to 26.6GW in
21 CLIMATESCOPE 2013: RANKING AND SCORES, INVESTMENT & CREDIT LAC: -3.8%, Global: -11% (First significant drop BNEF has recorded since it began tracking figures in 2004) Uncertain subsidy environment in key markets, e.g. US, India, Spain, Italy Falling unit costs for solar, wind equipment Green Microcredit: 63 MFIs in LAC have disbursed close to $400 M in green microloans (Peru, Chile, leaders) 21.
22 LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN TOTAL INVESTMENT BY COUNTRY, ($BN) Investment in non-br LAC: +45%: More policy incentives & declining system costs for solar and wind Investment rose in 20 countries, top performers in 2012: ME (+450%), DR (+431%), UR (+327%), PE (+325%), CH (+314%) BR alone -36%, due to slowing economy & long disbursement cycles tied to BNDES Note: Caribbean includes Bahamas, Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. Other Central America includes Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. Other South America includes Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela Source: Climatescope
23 LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN TOTAL INVESTMENT BY SECTOR, ($BN) Wind and solar now over 50% and 7%, respectively, of total LAC investment Biofuel market share now smaller than solar: Shrinking Brazilian ethanol industry (ethanol became economically uncompetitive with gasoline) Concerns in global demand markets over sustainability of second generation biofuels Source: Climatescope
24 CLIMATESCOPE 2013: RANKING AND SCORES, VALUE CHAINS Value Chains: A total of 35 out of 40 value chain segments from six renewable sectors are fulfilled in LAC Biofuels, biomass & waste, small hydro sectors all have complete value chains in at least one country Larger economies (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico) leaders in this area 24.
25 CLIMATESCOPE 2013: RANKING AND SCORES, GHG MANAGEMENT Project registrations: 927 GHG projects registered under four protocols in LAC 790 CDM projects More than 50% focused on generation 25.
26 CLIMATESCOPE 2014 GOES GLOBAL Latin America Africa Asia Together with UK s DFID and USAID, the MIF and BNEF will expand the Climatescope 2014 to Africa and Asia The global index will cover, in addition to the 26 countries in LAC, 29 more countries, thereby expanding the coverage of Climatescope 2014 to a total of 55 countries Argentina Botswana Bangladesh Bahamas Cameroon China Barbados Cote d'ivoire 15 Chinese provinces Belize Democratic Republic of India Congo Bolivia Ethiopia 10 Indian provinces Brazil Ghana Indonesia Chile Kenya Nepal Colombia Liberia Pakistan Costa Rica Malawi Sri Lanka Dominican Republic Mozambique Tajikistan Ecuador Nigeria Vietnam El Salvador Rwanda Guatemala Sierra Leone Guyana South Sudan Haiti South Africa Honduras Tanzania Jamaica Uganda Mexico Zambia Nicaragua Zimbabwe Panama Senegal Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Uruguay Venezuela 26.
27 THANK YOU! ACCESS TO BASIC SERVICES & GREEN GROWTH
CLIMATESCOPE 2 3 4 What is Climatescope? An initiative to provide timely, accurate, and actionable data that informs smart investment, corporate, and policy decision making. Ultimate goal: mobilize capital
Guidelines for DBA Coverage for Direct and Host Country Contracts An Additional Help document for ADS Chapter 302 New Reference: 06/14/2007 Responsible Office: OAA/P File Name: 302sap_061407_cd48 BACKGROUND:
Page 1 of 5 Note: This OP 3.10, Annex C replaces the version dated September 2013. The revised terms are effective for all loans that are approved on or after July 1, 2014. Countries Ranked by Per Capita
FROM: The President May 29, 2013 Per Capita Income Guidelines for Operational Purposes The Gross National Income (GNI) guidelines covering the Civil Works Preference, IDA Eligibility, IBRD Terms and the
Proforma Cost for international UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2016 Country Of Assignment International UN Volunteers (12 months) International UN Youth Volunteers (12 months) University Volunteers
Appendix A. Crisis Indicators and Infrastructure Lending APPENDIX A Table A.1. Crisis Indicators (Case Study Countries) Country % as Share of GDP Share of in Bank Crisis Severity Score (principal factor
FDI performance and potential rankings Astrit Sulstarova Division on Investment and Enterprise UNCTAD FDI perfomance index The Inward FDI Performance Index ranks countries by the FDI they receive relative
Global Fund Country Allocations: 2014-2016 12 March 2014 In 2014, the Global Fund is implementing a new funding model. As partners in the response to HIV, tuberculosis and malaria, we expect to reach more
Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings Below please find the complete rankings of all 75 markets considered in the analysis. Rankings are broken into overall rankings and subsector rankings. Overall Renewable
4 Mineral Industry Surveys For information contact: Robert L. Virta, Asbestos Commodity Specialist U.S. Geological Survey 989 National Center Reston, VA 20192 Telephone: 703-648-7726, Fax: (703) 648-7757
INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION ICGEB-TWAS-UNESCO/IBSP Joint
The Global Fund adopted an allocation-based approach for funding programs against HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria in 2013. The Global Fund policy states that countries can receive allocation only if their components
International Mains Voltages Edition 01/97 0921 271X / 0197 The international low voltages used in industry, business and domestically. Listed in continents and countries. Status April 1996 The following
International Fuel Prices 212/213 8 th Edition Published by International Fuel Prices 212/213 8 th Edition Disclaimer Findings, interpretation and conclusions expressed in this document are based on the
CLIMATE SCOPE Mapping the Global Frontiers for Clean Energy Investment Multilateral Investment Fund Climatescope Member of the Report IDB by Group Bloomberg New Energy Finance THE MULTILATERAL INVESTMENT
ICC 177 22 August 211 Original: English E Study International Coffee Organization 17 th Session 26 3 September 211 London, United Kingdom The effects of tariffs on the coffee trade Background In the context
Senate Committee: Education and Employment QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016 Outcome: Higher Education Research and International Department of Education and Training Question No. SQ15-000549
Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2389480/ The World Market for Medical, Surgical, or Laboratory Sterilizers: A 2013 Global Trade Perspective Description: This report
0 0 GLOBAL 0 Country Rankings 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : >0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.0% A Country s global rank B in three or more elements of well-being C (% thriving) D (% thriving) E
Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Prepared by The Office of International Affairs Nova Southeastern University Nova Southeastern University International Student Statistics Fall 2015 International
Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1836899/ Technical & Trade School Lines World Report Description: TECHNICAL & TRADE SCHOOL LINES WORLD REPORT The Technical & Trade
Fiscal Affairs Department Effects of Good Government, by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Siena, Italy, 1338-39 Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Responsibility Frameworks for Growth in Emerging and Low-Income Countries Martine
CLIMATE SCOPE 2012 Assessing the Climate for Climate Investing in Latin America and the Caribbean Multilateral Investment Fund Member of the IDB Group THE MULTILATERAL INVESTMENT FUND Established in 1993,
Ministry of External Relations Immigration Division Padip Holders of diplomatic passports Pasof Holders of official or service passports Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on July 08, 2014) Caption Vitem
Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1836438/ Directory & Mailing List Publisher Lines World Report Description: DIRECTORY & MAILING LIST PUBLISHER LINES WORLD REPORT
United States Department of Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation (DLHWC) Defense Base Act
Providing global technology solutions for: Carriers Systems Integrators Resellers Outsource Manufacturers International Ltd Government agencies Financial sector Global Technology Solutions Providing global
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE Governing Body 309th Session, Geneva, November 2010 Programme, Financial and Administrative Committee GB.309/PFA/1 PFA FOR INFORMATION FIRST ITEM ON THE AGENDA Programme and
Updated 22/06/2016 מדינת ישראל Tourist Visa Table Tourist visa exemption is applied to national and official passports only, and not to other travel documents. Exe = exempted Req = required Press the first
- 5 - Status on July 15, 2016 Latest Act 1 of the to which is party Albania... October 4, 1995 Stockholm: October 4, 1995 Algeria... March 1, 1966 Stockholm: April 20, 1975 2 Andorra... June 2, 2004 Stockholm:
Total (Transfer Consolidated cross-border claims in all currencies and local claims in non-local currencies Up to and including one year Maturities Over one year up to two years Over two years Public Sector
CDM Loan Scheme DNA Help Desk CDM Help Desk Regional DNA Training for Latin America and the Caribbean Best Western Belize Biltmore Plaza Hotel Belize City, Belize 23 October 2012 Fatima-Zahra Taibi, Programme
Issue Brief March 2008 Center for Economic and Policy Research 1611 Connecticut Ave, NW Suite 400 Washington, DC 20009 tel: 202-293-5380 fax:: 202-588-1356 www.cepr.net The Economic Impact of a U.S. Slowdown
Obtaining Finance in Latin America and the Caribbean 1 World Bank Group latin America and the Caribbean Series Note No. REV. 8/14 Basic Definitions Countries surveyed in and how they are grouped for analysis:
OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Republic of Albania People s Democratic Republic of Algeria Principality of Andorra Republic of Angola Antigua and Barbuda
Status of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, of the Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the Convention and of the Agreement for the implementation of the provisions
Ministry of External Relations Immigration Division Padip Holders of diplomatic passports Pasof Holders of official or service passports Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on November, 24, 2015) Caption
COMPANY PROFILE C O M P A N Y P R O F I L E Albania Argentina Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chile China
Recommendations for implementing sustainable energy activities in the regions: LAC NESTOR LUNA DIRECTOR OF STUDIES AND PROJECTS ICSU: GLOBAL REGIONAL INTEGRATION WORSHOP ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY April 9th,
FACT SHEET 1. Overview 1.1 Developed by an Italian statistician Corrado in the 1910s, is commonly used to indicate income inequality in a society. is a number which has a value between zero and one. As
2015 Global Feed Survey 2015 ALLTECH GLOBAL FEED EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2015 marks the fourth consecutive year that Alltech has conducted this global feed survey. This undertaking has required a significant
A pilot index and study by the Economist Intelligence Unit Commissioned by About this report This report outlines the findings of the Economist Intelligence Unit s in-depth analysis of the microfinance
1 Brandeis University International Student & Scholar Statistics 2014 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENT & SCHOLAR POPULATION 3 DETAILED INFORMATION ON INTERNATIONAL STUDENT POPULATION
AID FOR TRADE: CASE STORY THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE CENTRE Modular learning system Supply chain management 1 AID FOR TRADE CASE STORY: ITC MODULAR LEARNING SYSTEM SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT 2011 AID FOR TRADE
Agrimonitor: PSE Agricultural Policy Monitoring System in LAC INE/RND WHAT POLICY MONITORING IS,WHY IS IMPORTANT AND WHAT HAS ALREADY BEEN DONE IN OUR COUNTRIES? Monitor and evaluate developments in agricultural
POVERTY WITHIN CONTINENTS The poverty maps we used to identify hunger hotspots throughout Africa were the main source of data for identifying the Millennium Villages. The maps acted as an organizing principle
Demographic and socioeconomic statistics Demographic and socioeconomic factors are major determinants of health. As fertility declines, income rises, populations age and become more urbanized, and epidemiological
New Technologies and services - Cable Television WORLD: AFRICA provide service Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi applications. Cameroon The relevant licence must be obtained. Cape Verde Central
EMERGENCIES 911 ABROAD If you re in an emergency situation abroad, you ll need to know how to contact the police, an ambulance, or even the fire department. Not every county uses 911 as its emergency contact
100/2015-9 June 2015 EU Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) summit CELAC represents the fifth most important trading partner of the EU More than 200 bn total trade The 28 Member States
INTERNATIONAL FACTORING November 3, 2011 1 L. Gabriel Segura President and founding officer of CVCredit Inc, a Miami-based company which focuses in USA-domestic and international factoring services. Nine
Visa Information New Document To request for an invitation letter for visa application, please email your name, company/affiliation, country, and registration number to email@example.com Visa-Exempt
The ISO Survey 2005 ISO and The ISO Survey ISO is the world s largest developer of voluntary international standards for business, government and society. Its portfolio at the beginning of June 2006 comprised
Annexure Table indicating country-wise data on asylum seekers (LS Starred Q No. 232 for answer on 5.8.2015 on Political Asylum ) S.No. Name of Country (a) the total number of Indians who have sought political
New Zealand =============================== Standard Courier NZD$5.00 Rural Delivery Courier NZD $5.00 + $4.50 = $9.50 Australia (Zona A) Option 1: Airmail economy - 2-6 working days, no tracking NZD $11.50
Page 1 of 7 Note: This OP 3.10, Annex D replaces the version dated September 24, 2014. The financing terms below are effective for all loans that are approved by the Executive Directors on or after July
One billion digital TV households About 455 million digital homes were added around the world between end-2010 and end-2014, according to a new report from Digital TV Research. This took the digital TV
THE MULTILATERAL INVESTMENT FUND (MIF) CLEAN & EFFICIENT ENERGY: BUSINESS CASES JENNIFER BALDWIN Georgetown, Guyana April 18, 2012 1. WHAT IS THE MIF? 2. LESSONS FROM CHILE 3. OPORTUNITIES 4. MIF PROJECTS
Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2214904/ Directory of Global Professional Accounting and Business Certifications Description: Praise for Directory of Global Professional
ADVOC the international network of independent law firms About ADVOC ADVOC is an international network of independent law firms, sharing international expertise in jurisdictions across the globe Our member
- 10 - Status on July 15, 2016 Albania... March 6, 1994 Paris: March 6, 1994 Algeria... April 19, 1998 Paris: April 19, 1998 2,3 Andorra... June 2, 2004 Paris: June 2, 2004 Antigua and Barbuda... March
Scholarships and Loans UC College of Law offers scholarships based on need and merit. A prospective LL.M. student should indicate his or her interest in being considered for a scholarship with the application
financial aid at Average - $, financial aid is comprehensive, covering books, health insurance, study abroad costs, travel, and personal expenses % % % % cost met by average % of with demonstrated need
Excerpt Sudan Fixed Telecommunications: Low Penetration Rates Get a Boost from Broadband Internet and VoIP Services This report is part of Pyramid Research s series of Africa & Middle East Country Intelligence
Social Security Systems in the Global South and the Case of Brazil MPI Workshop Soziale Sicherung und die Post-2015 Agenda Munich, 30 June 2014 Helmut Schwarzer Social Protection Department International
POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU FAMILY PLANNING WORLDWIDE 2013 DATA SHEET INFORM EMPOWER ADVANCE www.prb.org FAMILY PLANNING WORLDWIDE 2013 Women s Decisionmaking Relates to Contraceptive Use. Percent of Married
1 SUBSISTENCE ALLOWANCE FOREIGN TRAVEL 1.1 LIST OF DAILY MAXIMUM AMOUNT PER COUNTRY WHICH IS DEEMED TO BEEN EXPENDED Albania Euro 97 Algeria Euro 112 Angola US $ 322 Antigua and Barbuda US $ 220 Argentina
Pursuant to Section 104 of the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000 (IAA) (Public Law 106-279), the U.S. Department of State submits the FY 2014 Annual Report on Intercountry Adoption. IAA 104(b) Report Elements:
EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 24.5.2016 C(2016) 3040 final COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION of 24.5.2016 amending Commission Implementing Decision C(2015) 8936 of 15.12.2015 on the financing of humanitarian
BREAKING NEWS MEETING THE INVESTMENT CHALLENGE TIPPING THE DEPENDENCY BALANCE Domestic investments exceed international investments total reaching US$ 8.6 billion. 40 countries fund more than 70% of their
Education and Training Education The William J. Harrington Medical Training Programs for Latin America and the Caribbean 1967 August 2011 Total 3939 Residency Program for Internal Medicine 397 Elective
250000 200000 Millions (USD) 150000 100000 50000 0 AFR EUR MENA NAC SACA SEA WP India China USA Russian Federation Brazil Germany Pakistan Japan Indonesia Mexico Bangladesh Egypt France Italy Turkey Thailand