1 Corporate Social Responsibility and Greening of Supply Chain in Textile Industry in Turkey Ferda Ulutaş Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV) Bahrain International Green Tech-Expo & Forum March 2012
2 CONTENT Technology Development Foundation of Turkey UN Joint Programme: Harnessing Sustainable Linkages for SMEs in Turkey s Textile Sector Textile Industry in Turkey Joint Programme and Environment Situation Analysis Context and Results Recommendations Training and Counselling Activities
3 Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV)
4 TTGV TTGV was founded in 1991 as an example of publicprivate partnership. It is not for profit It is a Foundation. Its mission is to support technological innovation towards increasing the competitiveness of Turkish industry in global markets. Innovation Research and Development Entrepreneurship Competitiveness Technology development Etc. Eco-innovation Cleaner Production Sustainability Eco-efficiency Environmental technologies Etc.
5 TTGV AND ENVIRONMENT - Ozone Depleting Substances - Project/ programme development - Climate Change - Project/ programme - Cleaner Production management Eco-efficiency - Audits - Sustainable - Industry applications Consumption and - Finance Production - Monitoring - Energy Efficiency - Training - Industrial Symbiosis - Capacity building (Ecology) - Situation/ needs analysis - Green Entrepreneurship - National and international - Corporate Social publications (academic, etc.) Responsibility - Support to national initiaives
6 TTGV AND ENVIRONMENT - Montreal Protocol - Ozone Depleting Substances Project - UNIDO Eco-efficiency (Cleaner Production) Programme - EU FP 7 Sustainable Consumption and Production Project - Determination of Framework Conditions for Cleaner Production Project (Ministry of Environment) - GEF Industrial Energy Efficiency Improevement Project - Industrial Symbiosis in Iskenderun Bay Project - RAC-CP Green Entrepreneurship Project - UNIDO Textile Industry Project - Eco-efficiency (Cleaner Production) Project in İzmir (Regional Development Agency) - EU CIP Better Environment Better Business Project (BEBB) -
7 UN Joint Programme: Harnessing Sustainable Linkages for SMEs in Turkey s Textile Sector
8 TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN TURKEY The Turkish Textile and Garment Industry is one of the most critical sectors in Turkey in terms of contribution to GDP, employment generation and net exports, etc. There are approximately 40,000 companies in the sector, which employ an estimated 2 million workers. In 2007 the sector accounted for 22.7 billion USD worth of exports. Turkish companies are exposed to lowcost competition from Asian countries. The sector suffers from increased input costs.
9 TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN TURKEY The Government has taken a number of measures to transform the industry, within the framework of the WTO rules. National Textile, Garment and Leather Sector Strategy foresees that the manufacturing capacity in the Western regions of the country would move to the eastern (less developed) regions.
10 TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN TURKEY Large enterprises (multinational corporations and other Tier-1 companies) are increasingly putting pressure on SMEs, to not only meet quantity, quality and price-cost requirements, but to also demonstrate that they are meeting minimum environmental and social requirements. While some of the Turkish suppliers are aware of these pressures, they often lack the understanding, skills and managerial capacity to respond to these pressures.
11 UNITED NATIONS JOINT PROGRAMME Harnessing Sustainable Linkages for SMEs in Turkey s Textile Sector ( ) Implementing Partners: Istanbul Textile and Apparel Exporter Associations (ITKIB) UN Agencies (UNDP, UNIDO, ILO) Funding: MDG-F (Millenium Development Goals Fund) / Spanish Government
12 UNITED NATIONS JOINT PROGRAMME Harnessing Sustainable Linkages for SMEs in Turkey s Textile Sector ( ) Aim: To enhance the international competitiveness of SMEs in the textile and garment industry of Turkey, especially those located in poor and vulnerable regions (with a focus on Gaziantep, Kahramanmaraş, Malatya and Adıyaman), in order to integrate them into the domestic, regional and global value chains.
13 UNITED NATIONS JOINT PROGRAMME United Nations and Global Goals UN Global Compact (UNGC) 10 universally accepted principles in the areas of - Human rights - Labour - Environment - Anti-corruption UN Millenium Development Goals.environmental sustainability.
14 UNITED NATIONS JOINT PROGRAMME, Two main focuses (objectives): Strengthening the productivity and innovation capabilities of the SMEs in the Turkish textile industry Integrating sustainable development, social and environmental principles into the business processes and practices of the Turkish SMEs in the textile industry. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) Social, Economical, Environmental Aspects: Sustainability
15 UNITED NATIONS JOINT PROGRAMME The Sub-project for the Environment Aspect: Environmental Management and Cleaner Production Under the responsibility of UN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION (UNIDO) Implemented by TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION OF TURKEY (TTGV) Situation analysis Training and counselling programmes
16 SITUATION ANALYSIS/ APPROACH Development and implementation of a survey, covering minimum 10 large enterprises (multinational corporations and Tier-1 companies), 116 producers and 17 relevant business organizations (company workshops and direct interviews, core focus on the target region of the project). Collection and analysis of 5 business models or best practice case studies on environmental management and/or cleaner production practices in textile sector SMEs (Tier-2 or lower). Analysis of the findings from the survey, company visits, direct interviews and business models and detailed assessment.
17 SITUATION ANALYSIS/ METHODOLOGY Business Models Setting-up the Analysis Framework Analyzing the Existing Situation Micro Scale - Survey Study #1: Producers (SMEs) Meso Scale - Survey Study #2: Large Enterprises Macro Scale - Survey Study #3: Institutions Determining Strengths/ Weaknesses and Defining Problems Developing Recommendations
18 CONTEXT/ MICRO SCALE Textile Producers Particularly SMEs General environmental policies and management practices Perspective on the environmental legislations General waste management practices Selection of production processes, systems and technologies for resource saving Monitoring and management of resources/ wastes for minimization at source Effect of markets and customers on the environmental performance Specific focus on wet processing companies Benchmarking with companies from more developed regions
19 RESULTS/ MICRO SCALE General environmental policies and management approaches are not sufficiently established in most of the companies. Companies are relatively good at complying with national regulations, however they are not taking proactive measures to adapt to potential regulations (e.g. EU harmonization process). General waste management (solid waste disposal, etc.) is rather good due to both legislative pressures and customer demands (CSR standards).
20 RESULTS/ MICRO SCALE Main environmental problem is related with resource efficiency and cleaner production. Resource efficient technologies and effective monitoring/ management of resources/ wastes are not implemented sufficiently. Customer demands and market pressures force companies to produce ecological products. Companies focus is on environmentally-friendly products rather than environmentally friendly production processes.
21 CONTEXT/ MESO SCALE Large Enterprises (multinational corporations and Tier-1 companies) General corporate social responsibility approach and the environmental management Environmental issues addressed within the corporate social responsibility standards Impact on the environmental performance of suppliers with different tier levels Long-term visions and sustainability measures
22 RESULTS/ MESO SCALE Environmental management is seen by large enterprises as a driver for competitiveness of their suppliers, the textile producers. The codes of conduct of large textile firms are signed with only main producers and their important subcontractors (does not include the whole supply chain). Multinational corporations started shifting their focus from checklist-type of evaluations to an approach where resource efficient and cleaner production applications prevail.
23 RESULTS/ MESO SCALE CSR Pillars Consumer Pressure Large Enterprises Suppliers Social Complaince Environmental Manag. Economical Sustainability Wastewater treatment Solid/hazardous waste disposal Waste minimization Water recycle and reuse Energy efficiency Environmental-friendly chemicals Ecological/organic products
24 RESULTS/ MESO SCALE Code of Conduct Environmental Manegement Compliance Approach Regular compliance audits Checklist-type evaluations Environmental standards (e.g. BSR) National rules/regulations End-of pipe treatment of wastes Certified ecological products Next Step Project/Target Based Approach Technical/financial support Resource efficiency (e.g. water) Energy and carbon management Chemical substitution Environmental benchmarking Feasibility studies *BlueSign, Oeko-tex 100, Business for Social Responsibility- BSR, Business Social Compliance Initiative-BSCI, vb. *Chemicals management - REACH
25 CONTEXT/ MACRO SCALE Legislative framework (national regulations, strategies, etc.) Financial support schemes for textile producers Research, development and demonstration activities Informative and technical assistance for textile producers
26 RESULTS/ MACRO SCALE The existing situation of resource efficiency and cleaner production in Turkey is not at a desired level, however in recent years very important developments and achievements have taken place. A framework legislation on cleaner production or a similar concept such as SCP is still lacking (except for energy efficiency). Very recently (December 2011) of the Communiqué of Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control in Textile Sector was adopted. In terms of environmental issues, textile industry has been regarded as one of the priority sectors in Turkey, in various studies and evaluations.
27 RESULTS/ MACRO SCALE There are several financial supports and incentives which are applicable for all industries for general type of R&D, export, investment, infrastructure, etc. projects. Existing incentives and financial supports directly related with cleaner production are not sufficient. Since the institutional capacities on cleaner production services are not developed, a critical mass cannot be reached to create a market of tailored cleaner production services to textile companies.
28 RECOMMENDATIONS Policy and Strategy Reforms Financial Mechanisms Top to Bottom Interaction Information Networks Building Partnerships Capacity Building (Source: UNEP) Awareness Raising Bottom to Top Interaction
29 RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations Policy and Strategy Reforms Financial Mechanisms Information Networks and Building Partnerships.. Capacity Building and Awareness Raising.. Relevant Scale(s) Macro Meso Micro General/ Sectoral/ Regional Focus General Target Region Textile industry New strategies, governmental institutions
30 RECOMMENDATIONS Capacity Building and Awareness Raising.. Macro, Meso, Micro Textile Industry, Target Region Particularly the textile companies in the target region should be provided with specific services (training, counselling, audits, etc.) for general environmental management, new and potential regulations and cleaner production approach including monitoring, benchmarking and environmental performance indicators.
31 TRAINING ACTIVITIES Training Programme for executives, white and blue collar employees in textile production companies (majority in target region, but also in more developed regions) Training Programme for national consultants in textile industry.
32 COUNSELLING ACTIVITIES
33 THANK YOU. Ferda Ulutaş Environmental Projects Group Technology Development Foundation of Turkey Cyberplaza B-Blok Kat: 5-6 Bilkent/Ankara/ TURKEY
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