# A SURVEY OF RESULTS ON THE D.C.E. AND n-c.e. DEGREES

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1 A SURVEY OF RESULTS ON THE D.C.E. AND n-c.e. DEGREES STEFFEN LEMPP 1. Early history This paper gives a brief survey of work on the d.c.e. and n-c.e. degrees done over the past fifty years, with particular emphasis on work done by or in collaboration with the Kazan logic group founded and headed by Arslanov Definitions. The history of the subject dates back almost fifty years to the following Definition 1.1 (Putnam [Pu65]). For n > 0, a set A ω is n-c.e. (or n-r.e.) if there is a computable approximation {A s } s ω such that A 0 = and for all x, A(x) = lim s A s (x), and {s A s (x) A s+1 (x)} n. So a 1-c.e. set is simply a c.e. set, and a 2-c.e. set is a difference of two c.e. sets (also called a d.c.e. set). Putnam actually called the n-c.e. sets n-trial and error predicates (and did not require A 0 = ). On the other hand, Gold [Go65], in a paper published in the same volume of the journal, defined n-r.e. to mean Σ 0 n (and is sometimes falsely credited with the above definition). Ershov [Er68a, Er68b, Er70] expanded this definition into the transfinite, defining the α-c.e. sets for every computable ordinal α. He proved many of the fundamental results about this so-called Ershov hierarchy Σ 1 α. For α ω, his notion depends on the ordinal notation for α. E.g., given any fixed notation for any fixed computable α, Ershov showed that the α-c.e. sets do not exhaust all the 0 2-sets; on the other hand, varying over all notations for ω 2, even the ω 2 -c.e. sets exhaust all the 0 2-sets. In this paper, we will concentrate on the Turing degrees of the α-c.e. sets for α ω, and up to degree, one can define a set A to be ω-c.e. by replacing the second condition in the above definition by {s A s (x) A s+1 (x)} f(x) for some computable strictly increasing function f. A Turing degree is called α-c.e. if it contains an α-c.e. set Mathematics Subject Classification. 03D28. Key words and phrases. d.c.e. degrees, n-c.e. degrees. This paper is dedicated to Marat Mirzaevich Arslanov on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. This work was funded by the subsidy allocated to Kazan Federal University for the state assignment in the sphere of scientific activities. Also the author gratefully acknowledges support of his research by AMS-Simons Foundation Collaboration Grant

2 2 STEFFEN LEMPP 1.2. Questions and basic results. The main focus of this paper will be the answers that have been obtained over the past fifty years to some of the following Questions 1.2. What is the structure of the d.c.e. degrees? Of the n-c.e. degrees? Are they isomorphic, or at least elementarily equivalent, to the c.e. degrees? To the 0 2-degrees? To each other? What is the structure of the c.e. degrees inside the d.c.e. degrees? Of the m-c.e. degrees inside the n-c.e. degrees for m < n? In either case, does the former form an elementary substructure in the latter? Or at least a Σ 1 -elementary substructure? Is the first-order theory of the d.c.e. degrees decidable? Of the n-c.e. degrees? If not, which fragments are decidable? While Ershov s work focused on the n-c.e. sets and their m-degrees, the first result on their Turing degrees is probably the following Theorem 1.3 (Lachlan (1968, unpublished)). Every nonzero d.c.e. degree d bounds a nonzero c.e. degree a < d such that d is c.e. in a. More generally, every nonzero (n + 1)-c.e. degree d bounds a nonzero n-c.e. degree a < d such that d is c.e. in a. So, in particular, the n-c.e. degrees are downward dense for all n, giving an elementary, in fact a Σ 2 -elementary, difference to the 0 2-degrees. Proof (for n = 1): Use the Sacks Density Theorem if d is c.e. Otherwise, fix a d.c.e. set D = E F d (for c.e. sets E and F ) and let A = { x, s t (x E s F t )}. In his thesis, Cooper first separated the c.e. and d.c.e. Turing degrees: Theorem 1.4 (Cooper [Co71]). There is a properly d.c.e. degree, i.e., a non-c.e. d.c.e. degree. In fact, Cooper stated his theorem as There is a set btt-reducible to K whose degree is not recursively enumerable Related results. We digress to highlight some connections between n-c.e. degrees and relative enumerability: Theorem 1.5 (Cooper and Yi [CY71]). (1) There is an isolated d.c.e. degree d, i.e., there is a c.e. degree a < d such that any c.e. degree b d is actually a. (So, by Lachlan, d is c.e. in a.) (2) There is a nonisolated d.c.e. degree d, i.e., one for which the c.e. degrees d have no maximal element. This theorem was later strengthened as follows: Theorem 1.6 (Ishmukhametov [Is99]). (1) There is a d.c.e. degree d for which there is a unique c.e. degree a < d such that d is c.e. in a. (2) There is a d.c.e. degree d for which there are c.e. degrees a < b < d such that d is c.e. exactly in the c.e. degrees in the interval [a, b]. The following theorem gives an early hint at a difference between d.c.e. degrees and n-c.e. degrees for n > 2:

3 A SURVEY OF RESULTS ON THE D.C.E. AND n-c.e. DEGREES 3 Theorem 1.7 (Arslanov, LaForte and Slaman [ALS98]). (1) Every ω-c.e. degree d which is c.e. in a c.e. degree a < d is actually 2-c.e. (2) On the other hand, there is a d.c.e. degree a such that for every n > 2, there is a degree d > a c.e. in a which is (n + 1)-c.e. but not n-c.e. 2. A survey of results and open questions We now return to the main theme of this paper, answers and partial answers to the questions posed above: 2.1. Elementary differences. The first elementary difference between the c.e. and the d.c.e. Turing degrees was found by Arslanov: Theorem 2.1 (Arslanov [Ar85, Ar88]). Every nonzero d.c.e. degree d cups to 0 in the d.c.e. degrees, i.e., there is an incomplete d.c.e. degree e such that d e = 0. (The same holds for the n-c.e. degrees for all n 2.) By Yates (1973, unpublished), the above fails for the c.e. degrees, so there is a Σ 3 -elementary difference between the c.e. degrees on the one hand, and the n-c.e. degrees (for n 2) on the other hand. A sharper elementary difference was given by Downey soon afterwards: Theorem 2.2 (Downey [Do89]). There are nonzero d.c.e. degrees d and e such that d e = 0 and d e = 0. Of course, the Lachlan Nondiamond Theorem shows that the above fails for the c.e. degrees, which gives a Σ 2 -elementary difference between the c.e. degrees on the one hand, and the n-c.e. degrees (for n 2) on the other hand. A third elementary difference was given by the following D.C.E. Nondensity Theorem (Cooper, Harrington, Lachlan, Lempp and Soare [CHLLS91]). There is a maximal incomplete d.c.e. degree d, so the d.c.e. degrees are not dense. (In fact, d is also maximal in the α-c.e. degrees for all α [2, ω], so the α-c.e. degrees are not dense.) This shows that the c.e. degrees on the one hand, and the α-c.e. degrees (for α [2, ω]) on the other hand, are not Σ 2 -elementarily equivalent, whereas they are clearly Σ 1 -elementarily equivalent (since any finite partial order can be embedded in any of them). Downey [Do89] conjectured, more as a challenge to the research community than as a firm belief, that the 2-c.e. degrees and the n-c.e. degrees are elementarily equivalent for all n > 2. However: 3-Bubble Theorem (Arslanov, Kalimullin and Lempp [AKL10]). The following holds in the 3-c.e. degrees but not in the 2-c.e. degrees: There are degrees c > b > a > 0 such that any degree x c is comparable to both a and b. (The above statement is actually a slight improvement of the original statement due to Wu and Yamaleev [WY12].) This leaves open the following Conjecture 2.3. For any distinct m, n > 2, the m-c.e. degrees and the n-c.e. degrees are not elementarily equivalent. (We suspect that an n-bubble Theorem holds.)

4 4 STEFFEN LEMPP 2.2. Non-elementary substructures. After studying elementary differences, we next turn to the study of elementary substructures: Theorem 2.4 (Slaman (1983, unpublished)). There is a Slaman triple, i.e., there are c.e. degrees a, b, c such that there is a nonzero 0 2-degree x a such that c b x, and there is no such c.e. degree x. By Lachlan s result, this implies that the n-c.e. degrees do not form a Σ 1 - elementary substructure of the 0 2-degrees for any n. Theorem 2.5 (Yang and Yu [YY06] for n = 1; Cai, Shore and Slaman [CSS12]). There are n-c.e. degrees a, b, c, e such that there is a nonzero (n + 1)-c.e. degree x a such that x e and c b x, and there is no such n-c.e. degree x. This implies that the m-c.e. degrees do not form a Σ 1 -elementary substructure of the n-c.e. degrees whenever 1 m < n. (For m = 2, this result was also claimed by Arslanov and Yamaleev (unpublished).) 2.3. Undecidability. Finally, degree structures are very complicated from an algebraic point of view, so it is natural to make this precise: Theorem 2.6 (Cai, Shore, Slaman [CSS12]). Given n and a computable partial order (ω, ), there are c.e. degrees b, c and (uniformly) n-c.e. degrees a and d i (for i ω) such that each d i is maximal in the n-c.e. degrees with the property that d i j ω d j and c b d i, and d i d j a iff i j. By Taitslin s result [Ta62] that the theory of partial orders and the complement of the theory of finite partial orders are effectively inseparable, this implies that the first-order theory of the n-c.e. degrees is undecidable for all n. Undecidability had been established before by Harrington and Shelah [HS82] for the c.e. degrees, and by Epstein [Ep79] and Lerman [Le83] for the 0 2-degrees. This leads to the final Conjecture 2.7. For all n, the first-order theory of the n-c.e. degrees is as complicated as true first-order arithmetic. The above was shown by Harrington, Slaman and Woodin (1980 s) for the c.e. degrees, and by Shore (1981) for the 0 2-degrees. References [Ar85] [Ar88] [Ar00] [AKL10] Arslanov, Marat M., Lattice properties of the degrees below 0, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 283 (1985), no. 2, Arslanov, Marat M., The lattice of the degrees below 0, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Mat., 1988, no. 7, Arslanov, Marat M., Open questions about the n-c.e. degrees, in: Computability theory and its applications (Boulder, CO, 1999), Contemp. Math. 257, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, Arslanov, Marat M.; Kalimullin, Iskander Sh.; Lempp, Steffen, On Downey s conjecture, J. Symbolic Logic 75 (2010),

5 A SURVEY OF RESULTS ON THE D.C.E. AND n-c.e. DEGREES 5 [ALS98] Arslanov, Marat M.; LaForte, Geoffrey L.; Slaman, Theodore A., Relative enumerability in the difference hierarchy, J. Symbolic Logic 63 (1998), [ALS96] Arslanov, Marat M.; Lempp, Steffen; Shore, Richard A., On isolating r.e. and isolated d-r.e. degrees, in: Computability, enumerability, unsolvability, London Math. Soc., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1996, pp [CSS12] Cai, Mingzhong; Shore, Richard A.; Slaman, Theodore A., The n-r.e. degrees: undecidability and Σ 1 substructures, J. Math. Log. 12 (2012), no. 1, , 30 pp. [Co71] Cooper, S. Barry, Degrees of Unsolvability, Ph.D. Thesis, Leicester University, Leicester, England, [CHLLS91] Cooper, S. Barry; Harrington, Leo; Lachlan, Alistair H.; Lempp, Steffen; Soare, Robert I., The d.r.e. degrees are not dense, Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 55 (1991), [CY71] Cooper, S. Barry; Yi, Xiaoding, Isolated d.r.e. degrees, preprint, [Do89] Downey, Rodney G., D.r.e. degrees and the nondiamond theorem, Bull. London Math. Soc. 21 (1989), [Ep79] Epstein, Richard L. Degrees of unsolvability: structure and theory, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 759, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, [Er68a] Ershov, Yuri L., A certain hierarchy of sets I, Algebra and Logic 7 no. 1 (1968), [Er68b] Ershov, Yuri L., A certain hierarchy of sets II, Algebra and Logic 7 no. 4 (1968), [Er70] Ershov, Yuri L., A certain hierarchy of sets III, Algebra and Logic 9 no. 1 (1970), [Go65] Gold, E. Mark Limiting recursion, J. Symbolic Logic 30 (1965), [HS82] Harrington, Leo; Shelah, Saharon The undecidability of the recursively enumerable degrees, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S.) 6 (1982), [Is99] Ishmukhametov, Shamil T., On the r.e. predecessors of d.r.e. degrees, Arch. Math. Logic 38 (1999), [Le83] Lerman, Manuel, Degrees of unsolvability. Local and global theory, Perspectives in Mathematical Logic, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, [Pu65] Putnam, Hilary, Trial and error predicates and the solution to a problem of Mostowski, J. Symbolic Logic 30 (1965), [Sa61] Sacks, Gerald E., A minimal degree less than 0, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 67 (1961), [Sa64] Sacks, Gerald E., The recursively enumerable degrees are dense, Ann. of Math. (2) 80 (1964), [So87] Soare, Robert I., Recursively enumerable sets and degrees, Perspectives in Mathematical Logic, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, [Ta62] Taitslin, Mikhail A. Effective inseparability of the set of identically true and the set of finitely refutable formulas of the elementary theory of lattices, Algebra and Logic 1 (1962), no. 3, [WY12] Wu, Guohua, Yamaleev, Mars M., Isolation: motivations and applications, Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskogo Univ. 154, no. 2, [YY06] Yang, Yue; Yu, Liang On Σ 1 -structural differences among finite levels of the Ershov hierarchy, J. Symbolic Logic 71 (2006), Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI , USA address: URL:

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