1967: The Year that Created 68 Media Perspectives and Student Outcries

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1 1967:TheYearthatCreated 68 MediaPerspectivesandStudentOutcries by RyanStrong,B.A AThesis In History SubmittedtotheGraduateFaculty oftexastechuniversityin PartialFulfillmentof therequirementsfor thedegreeof MASTEROFARTS Approved AlizaWong,Ph.D. ChairofCommittee StefanoD Amico,Ph.D. LynneFallwell,Ph.D. PeggyGordonMiller,Ph.D. DeanoftheGraduateSchool May2011

2 Copyright 2011, Ryan Strong

3 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 Acknowledgements Iwouldliketothankthoseindividualswhomadethecompletionofthis projectpossible.first,tomyadvisorandmentordr.alizawong,iconveymy sincerethanks.withoutherhelpandtutelage,iwouldhaveneversurvivedthe depthsofthisprojectorthechallengesofthemaster sprogram.overthecourseof threeyearstherehavebeenmanyupsanddownsanddr.wongwasabletokeep everythinginperspectiveforme.shechallengedmetopursueaprojectthatmany graduatestudentwouldnot.dr.wongtrulyisatreasureinthefieldofhistory.she isawonderasateacherandaperson.icannotarticulatetheamountofgratitude andappreciationthatihavefordr.wong. Second,thereadersonmycommitteemustreceivetheirduepraise.Dr. Fallwellchallengedmeateveryturn.EventhoughIwasnotsuccessfulatevery aspectduringmymaster scareer,shewasabletofindeffortsworthyof commendation.dr.fallwell sapprovalsandcriticismshelpedmedevelopintoa strongerresearcherandwriter.sheremindedmeattimesthat1968affectedplaces otherthanitaly.whichbroughtmebacktorealitywheniwasimmersedinmy project.immensethanksgoestodr.stefanod Amico.Sincehewasbornandlived muchofhislifeinmilan,italy,hisknowledgeofthesubjectandcultureofitalywere invaluable.ispentmanyhoursinhisofficetakingadvantageofthewealthof knowledgehepossesses.iamtrulyindebted. ii

4 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 IneedtothankallthepeoplethroughoutItalyinclassrooms,libraries, archivesandcoffeeshopsthatmademyresearchafunandtrulylifealtering experience.withoutexperiencingthecountrywiththeirhelpiwouldhavenever grownafoundappreciationfortheirculture,imighthavegivenupontheentire project.onthesamenote,thanksgoesouttothedepartmentofhistoryattexas Tech,whogavemethefundingandopportunitytogotoItalynotonce,buttwicefor researchandculturalexploration. Finally,myfamilyandfriendshavebeenasafetynetfilledwithloveand support.yourkindwordsofencouragementhavemadeeverythingattainableand worthwhile.aspecialthanksgoesouttomyfiancéeandsoontobewife.your ideas,editing,patience,knowledgeofdeadlines,perseverance,andconstantsupport willneverbeforgotten.thankyouforstickingbymysidethroughthickandthin. IwouldliketoacknowledgesomedownfallsofthisprojectnowthatIhave reacheditsnearcompletion.aswithmostundertakingsofthisdepth,the conclusionbringsasenseofclaritythatcannotbeachievedfromthestart.1967:the YearthatMade1968wasthefirstmajorhistoricalresearchprojectofmyyoung academiccareer.lookingbackonitnow,therearemanythingsiwouldhavedone differently.primarily,thescopeofmyprojectwastoolargeandallencompassing. TryingtodescribeindepththepresscoverageofthreecitiesinItalyoveraone year spanwastoomuchtocoverinamaster sthesis.abetterproject,andonethatwill hopefullybemynextundertaking,willcoverthecityofmilan.thiswouldallowfor morespecificityandaccuratetheorizingonthestudentmovementinmilan. iii

5 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 Onthisproject,however,thereareanumberofpitfallsthatarebest addressedatbeforeanyanalysis.first,thereisalackofsources,bothsecondary andprimary.thelackofprimarysourcesisdueinlargeparttotheinabilityto researchinitalianinstitutionswithanyfrequency.thelackofsecondarysources wasaresultofnothavingthoroughknowledgeoftheitalianlanguage.thereforei wasnotabletodiveintoallthepossibleitalianlanguagesources.second,sincethe projectrevolvesaroundtheperspectivethemediagavetotheitalianpublicduring 1967,thenewspapersarethetruefocusoftheprojectandtheircomplimenttoeach wasaratheroddone.inhindsight,astrongerargumentcouldhavebeenmadeifi wouldhaveeitherusedthetopthreepapersinitaly,ilgiorno,lastampaand CorriereDellaSera.Icouldhavethenhypothesizedmoreaccuratelyaboutthe influencetheprintmediahadovertheentirecountry.l Unitawasalwaystheodd madout.nottotakeanythingawayfromtheinfluenceandpersuasivenessthat L Unitahadovertheirreadership,butitwasapoliticaljournalandthereforewas notinthesamecategoryasthethreeaforementionedpapers.lastly,asmyproject evolved,sotodidthetheoriesandtheoriststhatisampledtoexplainandjustifymy arguments.therefore,bytheend,thereareclearlylargeholesinmytheoriesthat willbefilledasthisresearchcontinuestogrowandsolidifyintoamorewellround manuscript. Inspiteofthemanytribulations,itismyhopethatthisresearchcanstill servetoinformandinspirescholarlydebatesaboutatimethathasbecome increasinglymoreresearchedbytheacademiccommunity.itismyhopethat iv

6 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 readerswillbeleftwithasenseofthedifferencethateachcity sstudentmovement hadfromeveryothercity.amongallthesimilarities,eachuniversityhadunique causesfromrevoltandvoicedthemloudlytotheircommunity.revoltmayappear similarfromafar,butisalwaysrootedindifference. v

7 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 TableofContents Acknowledgments.ii Chapter I.Introduction..1 Gramsciand ItalianHistory:Partigianiastudenti.5 ItalianStudents :WesternEuropeandtheUnitedStates...12 Historiography...15 TheoreticalApproach..18 ChapterBreakdown..23 II.LaStampa...24 IntroducingLaStampa 24 Spring Summer Fall Analysis.42 III.IlGiorno..45 IntroducingIlGiorno 45 Spring Summer Fall Spring Analysis.64 vi

8 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 IV.L Unita..67 IntroducingL Unita 67 Spring Summer Fall Analysis.82 V.Conclusion.85 Bibliography 88 Appendix A.Chronology..101 vii

9 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 ChapterI Introduction OnacoolnightinNovember1967,Italianswitnessedhistoryinthemaking. PolicewereorderedtoenterandevacuatestudentsfrominsideL Universita CattolicadelSacroCuore. 1 Students,faculty,parents,andpressallsurroundedthe schoolgroundswhilepoliceblockedoffeveryexit.lawenforcementofficerswere madeupofworkingclassitaliansfromalloverthecountry.youngmenwhohad floodedtomilantoescapetheeconomichardshipsthatconsumedmuchofthesouth werenowforcedtoevacuatetheirkinsmenduringthistumultuousevent. 2 There werenumerousuniformedmenwhohadoncedesiredtostepinsidetheuniversity classrooms. 3 Nowtheywouldemptytheestablishment sinhabitantsontothe 1MichaelDavid Fox, ItalianUniversitiesunderFascism. UniversitiesunderDictatorship.Editedby JohnConnellyandMichaelGruttner(UniversityPark,Pa.:PennsylvaniaStateUniversityPress,2005). MichaelDavid FoxhasaninformativearticleontheroleofItalianuniversitiesduringfascism.From thisarticleitispossibletodrawsomeconclusionsonwhyuniversitieswereslowinmovingtowards progressafterthefalloffascism. 2Iamtryingtoconveytheideaoftheclassstrugglethatwascompletelyentwinedinthestudent movementofthe60s.manyofthesouthernerscouldnotaffordhighereducation.theyworkedmany ofthejobsthatuniversitystudentsweretryingtoavoid.furtherreading:giorgioamendola,lottadi classeesviluppoeconomicadopolaliberazione(roma:editoririuniti,1962). 3Thefailureoftheagrarianreformsonthe1950sand60sleftnearlyhalfofSouthernItalians unemployedandmanysawthenorthhalfofthepeninsula,aswellas,thenortherncountriesof Europeandplacetorestarttheirlivesandfindworkandeducation.FollowingtheendoftheSecond WorldWar,Italywitnessedamassexodusthatspawnedfromthesouth.Thetensionscausedbythe migrationfueledanalreadyvolatilerelationshipbetweennorthernitaliansandsouthernitalians. Formoreinformationonthemigrationduringtheeconomicmiracleandthetensionsthose migrationscausedbetweennorthernersandsouthernersreferto:johnfoot,milansincethemiracle: City,Culture,andIdentity(Oxford,UK:Berg,2001);DonaldSassoon,ContemporaryItaly:Economy, Society,andPoliticssince1945(NewYork:Longman,1997);AndreaNemiz,ItaliaRepubblicana: 1

10 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 streets.newsmenfromalloverthecountrywaitedwithbaitedbreathin anticipationofeventsthatwouldunfold.thenextdaythecountrywouldreadabout theforcedflightoftheprotestors.thiseventandmanyothersjustlikeitclearly showedthedichotomyoftheitalianstudentmovement.notonlywerestudents rebellingagainsttwoimportantstructuresofsociety,lawenforcementand universityadministration,butalsotheitalianstudentmovementbroughttoheart issuesofclassandprivilegethathadplaguedthecountryforages. 4 StudentrepresentativesfromeveryuniversityinMilancametothiscomplex inthecenterofthecity.l UniversitaCattolicadelSacroCuoreisnestlednexttothe AbbeyofSt.Ambroseandonlyminutesfromtheheartofthecity,theDuomo. 5 Milanesestudentsmadeahistoricstand.Itwouldbeoneofthedefiningmomentsin themovimentistudenteschi. 6 Aftermuchanticipationandrisingtensions,Rector (Roma:EditoriRiuniti,1998);FaustoColombo,Boom:StoriadiQuellichenonHannoFatto il 68(Milano:Rizzoli,2008). 4Itisimportanttonotethatstudentsdidn tseetheuniversityadministrationandlawenforcement astheironlyopponentsinthestruggleforacademicliberationandfreedomfromcapitalisticsociety. Ijusthighlightthesetwobecausetheyweremostoftendirectlyreferencedinconflictinthepress coverageoftheevents.amoreindepthcoverageofthestudentsandtheirmotivationsforthe movementreferto:stuartj.hilwig,italyand1968:youthfulunrestanddemocraticculture(new York:PalgraveMacmillan,2009);FrancoCatalano,IMovimentiStudenteschielascuolainItalia: (Milano:IlSaggiatore,1969);,AlessandroOrsi,IlNostroSessantotto: ,I MovimentiStudenteschieoperaiinValsesiaeValsessera(Varallo,Vercelli:Istitutoperlastoriadella ResistenzaedellasocietacontemporaneanelleprovincediBiellaeVercelliCinoMoscatelli,2008);I MovimentiPoliticidegliStudenti.Torino, LifeinMilan,likemostcitiesinEurope,revolvedaroundtheoriginalcenterofthecity.TheDuomo, alongwiththegalleriaandthecastillo,aregenerallyconsideredthecenter.therefore,thelocationof SacroCuorewouldhavemadetheoccupationclearlyvisibletothepublic. 6 TheoccupationthatstartedinNovemberof1967hasbeendescribedineveryscholarlypublication thatdiscussedmovimentistudenteschi:stuartj.hilwig,italyand1968:youthfulunrestand DemocraticCulture(NewYork:PalgraveMacmillan,2009);Gerd RainerHorn,TheSpiritof 68: RebellioninWesternEuropeandNorthAmerica, (Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,2007), p.36;imovimentistudenteschielascuolainitalia: (Milano:IlSaggiatore,1969);Robert 2

11 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 EzioFranceschiniorderedthepoliceintothecampustoclearthetrespassers.Lines ofuniformedpolicemenrushedthroughthegatesandquicklystormedthedoor, findinglessresistancethanhadbeenpredicted.l universitacattolicadelsacro Cuorehadneverallowedthestate slawenforcementtosetfootonitsgrounds previously.thestudentstheyhadpromisedtomoldandeducatewereforcibly removedbytheorderoftherector.theuniversitywasonunfamiliarground.they hadtakenastepthatcouldnotbetakenback.thenationwascaptivated. TheItalianstudentmovementof1968wasnotaspontaneousexplosionof youthandangst.norwasitaprofoundgestureofsolidaritywithstudentsandnew leftistsoftheworld.italianstudentsdevelopedacomplexplatformofissuesthat originatedfromlocal,regional,national,andinternationalissues.manyoftheissues hadtroubledyoungintellectualsforsometimeandcrossedgenerational boundaries.theseissuesrangedfromproblemswithovercrowding,thelackof effortproducedbytheirprofessors,increasedamericanconsumercapitalist tendencies,andthewarinvietnam. 7 Studentswantedafundamentalchange startingfromthegrassrootsuptothearistocraticadministration.theyfeltthey Lumley,Dal 68agliAnnidiPiombo:StudentieOperainellaCrisiItaliana(Firenze:Giunti,1998).I havenamedonlyafewofthenumerouspublicationsthatcovertheoccupationatsacrocuore. 7Sincethescopeofthisprojectrevolvesaroundtheperceptionofthepress,theissuesbehindthe studentmovementarediscussedintheirfullbreadth.forfutherreadingsontheissuesand motivationsreferto:imovimentipoliticideglistudenti(torino,1969);giannistater,storiadiuna Utopia:AscesaeDeclinodeiMovimentiStudenteschiEuropei(Milano:RizzoliEditore,1973); DocumentidellelotteStudentesche,Universita:L IpotesiRivoluzionaria(Marsilio:EditoriPadova, 1968);AnnaBravo,AColpidiCuore:StoriedelSessantotto(Roma:GLFEditoriLaterza,2008). 3

12 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 werethespearheadthatwouldtoppleacorruptsociety.theyfeltitwasfinallytime tofulfillthefantasiesofleftisttheoristsbeforethem. Gramsciand1968 Theoriginsofthemovementistudenteschiitalianiwerefirmlygroundedin theearlytwentiethcenturyphilosophiesofgramsci. 8 Inparticular,Gramsci s philosophyofculturalhegemonyfoundappealamongstitalianstudentsofthenew left.studentsbelievedtherulingclassofitaly,thebusinesstycoonsandpoliticians, usedamericanconsumerhabitsasameanstocontrolandpromoteeconomic growthinthelate1950 sand1960 s. 9 AccordingtoGramsci stheory,intellectuals wouldwagethefirstwaragainstcapitalism.oncetheywontheintellectualcrusade, thephysicalwarcouldbegin.studentsbelievedtheywerepartoftheintellectual campaign.theirgoalwastowinovertheheartsandmindsofthepopulaceby preachingrevolutionaryideologyintheiroccupations.thiswastheirplatformfor educatingthenation.theyoungscholarsadmiredchegueveraandother revolutionariesinafricaandsouthamerica. 10 TheyhadgrowntiredoftheItalian communistparty,whochosetoreformwithinthegovernmentinsteadoffightingto takeitdown.intheopinionoftheseyoungadultsrevolutionneededtobe 8Gramsci,likemanyotherleftistphilosophersofthetime,foundgreatappealforuniversitystudents inthe1960s.gramsciandotherphilosophersexemplifiedadeparturefromclassicaleducationand thestructuresthatplaguethemodernuniversityinthe1960s.beyondthetheories,publicationwas anactofrebellioninitofthemselves,whichaddedtotheallure. 9Thisisanideathathasbeendevelopedbymanyintellectualsstudyingthisperiod.Gerd Rainder Horn,JohnFoot,StuartHilwig,MarkKurlansky,AndreRaphaelClucksmanninSessantotto,Enzo PesericoinGliannideidesiderioedelpiombo,andmanyothersallcontributethetulmutoustimesto thegrowingconsumerhabitsofthewesternworldanduniversitystudentsawarenessofthisgrowth inconsumerism. 10 4

13 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 uncompromisingandbrash.thestudentsthoughdidnotalwayslivethelifeofa leftistrevolutionary.manyhadgrownaccustomedtotheluxuriestheneweconomic growthinitalyhadprovided. Acounter argumentthatwasoftenvoicedwasthatthestudentsweremostly fromwell to dobackgrounds,whichaffordedthemtheopportunityforaliberal education. 11 Therewerealsomanycontradictionswithinthestudentmovement itself.whilenumerousstudentspreachedanti capitalistideals,manywerehard pressedtorelinquishtheircapitalisticpractices.theirlifeofluxuryaffordedthem theprivilegeofacollegeeducation.despitetheirflawsandhypercriticisms, studentsreadandbelievedtheteachingsofgramsci,marcouse,marxandothers. ManystudentssawinspirationinthelifeofGramsciandthehardshipshe encountered.gramscibecamepartofhistoryoftheitalianresistance.althoughhe neverhadthechancetofightalongsidethepartigianiagainstthefascists,gramsci remainedsteadfasttotheend. ItalianHistory:Partigianiastudenti Afterthefasciststookcontrolofthecountry,Gramsciandmanyotherleftist intellectualswentundergroundorwereimprisoned.manyoftheworksofgramsci andotherswerenotprintedandwerenotlargelyreaduntilafterthefascistswere defeatedandremovedfromoffice.thisonlyfurtheredthemajesticnature surroundinggramscitostudentsinthe1960s.hisprisonnotebookswereanactof 11ThisisclearlyshowninthearticlesfromLaStampa,inwhich,reportersinterviewedacademic authorityfigures.thiswasafactofthetime,thatgenerallyyouthfrommiddleanduppermiddle classbackgroundswereaffordedtheluxuryofanuniversityeducation. 5

14 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 defianceandresistancetothebitterend.hisspiritsurvivedduringthesecond WorldWarthroughthePartigiani,whobravelyfoughtagainstthefascists. 12 Bythe endofthewar,italianactivistswerefamiliarwithboththeintellectualandphysical resistancetotheestablishedorder. OnJanuary1,1948,theItalianrepublicapprovedthenewconstitutionand electionswerescheduledforthatspring.thecommunistpartyhadgreatsupport sincemanyofthemhadservedintheresistance.theunitedstates,however,was gearingupforaconfrontationwiththesovietunionandwasafraidofthe consequencesofhavingawesterneuropeancountryturnintoacommunistpower. TheUnitedStatesinstitutedavastpropagandacampaignaimedatinstallingtheDC, DemocraziaCristiana,therulingpartyinthenewlyestablishedItalianrepublic. 13 ThiswouldmarkthebeginningofnumerousAmericaninterventionsinItalian politicstoensurethatcommunistsneverassumedfullcontroloverthecountry.the ChristianDemocrats,undertheleadershipofAlcideDeGasperi,wontheelection andimmediatelyexpelledthecommunistsandsocialists.theythenformeda coalitionwiththecentristsandrightists. 14 TheDCquicklyalignedItalywiththerest 12 FormoreonthePartigianireferto:BeppeFenoglioandLorenzoMondo,AppuntiPartigiani: (Torino:Einaudi,1994);UgoMoretti,LaRagazzaconlaBicicletta:RaccontiPartigiani(Roma: Carucci,1982);MauroGalleni,IPartigianiSovieticinellaResistenzaItaliana(Roma:EditoriRiuniti, 1967). 13WendyL.Wall, America s BestPropagandists :ItalianAmericansandthe1948 LetterstoItaly Campaign ColdWarConstructions:ThePoliticalCultureofUnitedStatesImperialism, , EditedbyChristianG.Appy(Amherst,MA:TheUniversityofMassachusettsPress,2000),p JanKurzandMaricaTolomelli, Italy. 1968inEurope:AHistoryofProtestandActivism, , EditedbyMartinKlimkeandJoachimScharloth(NewYork:PalgraveMacmillan,2008),p.84. 6

15 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 ofthewest,joiningnato,andtakingaidfromthemarshallplan. 15 Bythelate 1950s,thebackwardItalianeconomystartedtoturnitselfaroundandindustryin thenorthbegantopickup.thesouth,however,didnotbenefitfromthenewfound prosperitythenorthenjoyed.ilboom,ortheeconomicmiracleofthelate1950s, broughtnewcomfortstotheitaliansociety. 16 Thestrugglesofday to daysurvival werepassingandneweconomicstabilityusheredinnewsocialattitudes.a newfoundloveforconsumerism,especiallyamericanconsumerism,took offas familieswereabletoaffordluxuryitemsthatseemedunattainablebefore. 17 TheDC wasabletoretaintheirdominanceoverthegovernmentthroughoutthisperiod sincethesocialistandcommunistwerestillnotallowedanofficialroleinthe government.butahushedpoliticalundercurrentwasgrowingamongsttheyouth, intellectualsandartists. ThelargeindustrialcitiesoftheNorthwerehotbedsforthenew counterculture.massiveamountsofmigrantsleftthesouthinordertofindjobsand economicsecurityinthenorth.milan,especially,wasthedestinationfor upper and upper middle classdropouts,aswellasasafehavenforrunawaysfromthe dissolutesouth. 18 Thevastanddiversecityofferedanespeciallyattractiveappeal 15AntonioVarsori, Italy spolicytowardseuropeanintegration ItalyintheColdWar:Politics, Culture,andSociety, ,EditedbyChristopherDugganandChristopherWagstaf.(Oxford,UK: Berg,1995),pp JohnFoot,MilanSincetheMiracle:City,Culture,andIdentity(Oxford,UK:Berg,2001). 17VictoriaDeGrazia,IrresistibleEmpire:America sadvancethrough20 th centuryeurope(cambridge, MA:TheBelknapPressofHarvardUniversityPress,2005). 18JohnFoot,MilanSincetheMiracle:City,Culture,andIdentity,37 70.Thedescriptionsusedhereare actuallyfromhorn sspiritof 68,butIfeltitwasmoreappropriatetocitefoot,becausethatiswhere IfirstreadofthemassmigrationtoMilan. 7

16 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 foryoungpeoplejusttryingtoblendinandescapethe burden ofanewlythriving Italiansociety. 19 TheNorthernhalfoftheItalianbootwitnessedrapid diversificationamongitspopulation.aswellingnumberofyouthwascominginto contactwithradicalideologieswithintheinstitutionsofsociety. Twoareasofsocietythatwereimpactedheavilybytheneweconomic prosperityandgrowingyouthculturewereeducationandindustry.withthe increaseinthenumberofyouthgoingtouniversities,thepopulationofthe universitiesquicklyincreasedpastthepointofcapacity. 20 Professorswhohadnot dispensedwiththedutiesofeducatingupperclassmenwererapidlyoverwhelmed bythesurplusofincomingstudents.muchoftheexcesswasduetothefactthat thereweremanystudentswhowereunabletofindemploymentintheworkforce andthereforedecidedtostayinschool.factoriesalsosawarapidincreasein employment. 21 WiththeItalianeconomythriving,jobsinthenorthbecamehot commoditiesforresidentsinthepoorsouth.universitiesandfactoriesweresoon burstingattheseamswithyoungimpressionableitalianswhoweresurroundedby ahighlyelectrifiedpoliticalclimate. Italianswerebecomingmorefamiliarwiththecoldwar.Theyreadaboutthe Soviets invasionofhungryin1957andwatchedtelevisionreportsofamerica s continuousconflictswithfirstkorea,thencuba,andfinallyvietnamandtheir 19Gerd RainerHorn,TheSpiritof 68:RebellioninWesternEuropeandNorthAmerica, ,p ValdoSpinni, TheNewLeftinItaly. JournalofContemporaryHistory.(Jan. Apr.1972): JohnFoot,MilanSincetheMiracle,47. 8

17 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 noble goalofspreadingdemocracythroughouttheworld.theyouthbegantoview theunitedstatesasanimperialpower,similartotheeuropeancolonialadvancesin AsiaandAfrica.TheUnitedStateswasnotonlyusingdirectmilitaryforceinplaces likevietnam.theyweredominatingtheeconomic,political,andculturalthoughtof WesternEurope. 22 Theyouthdisapprovedofthegrowingconsumerhabitsthat Italianswerebeginningtoadopt. 23 ManywereinfluencedbytheUtopianideologies ofwriterslikemarcuse,whoarguedthatcapitalismandcommunism,represented bythetwosuperpowers,theunitedstatedandussr,createdone dimensionalmen unwillingtoopposetheregimeandunabletothinkcriticallyforthemselves. 24 Thenintheearly1960s,theDCmadeaboldmoveandjoinedthe governmentwiththepsi,italiansocialistparty,whohadsplitfromthecommunist ideologyinthelate1950s. 25 Thesocialists,whohadnotfunctionedofficiallyin governmentsincetheelectionsof1948,welcomedthenewfriendlygesturefrom thedcandcreatedthecenter leftcoalitionthatwouldlastthroughmostofthe 1960s.Theleft,socialistandcommunist,whohadlonggivenuponrevolutionary ideasofmarxismwanteddesperatelytobeinvolvedinparliament.thecommunists, however,wereleftoutofthegovernment,butwereabletomaintainstrikinglyhigh membership,thelargestinawesterngovernment.manyoftheyouthsawthisasan 22VictoriaDeGrazia,IrresistibleEmpire:America sadvancethrough20 th centuryeurope. 23ValdoSpini, TheNewLeftinItaly, HerbertMarcuse,One DimensionalMan(Boston:BeaconPressBooks,1964). 25PatrickMcCarthy.ItalySince1945(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,2000),p.73. 9

18 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 activebetrayalofmarxistideology,whichcalledfortherevolutionarytopplingof theindustrialcapitaliststate. ItalianStudents Withthepoliticalclimateatanearboilingpoint,theuniversitieswere breedinggroundsforradicalideology.studentsbelievedthatonlyviolencecould solvethepresentissuesandmanybegantoadvocatethetake overoftheuniversity system. 26 OneofthefirstoccupationsofauniversityfacultyoccurredinTrentoon January24, TheUniversitywasfoundedin1962andwastheonly universitythatprovidedcoursesinsociology.however,theitalianparliament,by 1966,hadnotyetapprovedofadiplomainsociology.Astheendofthefinal semesterapproachedforthefirstclassattheuniversity,theitalianparliament decidedthattherewouldnotbeasociologydegreebutinsteadadegreewouldbe giveninpoliticalandsocialsciencewithanemphasisinsociology. 28 Studentswere outragedbythedecision,whichleadtotheoccupationonjanuary24,1966. Onlyafewmonthslater,thedeathofPaoloRossiatthehandsoffascists sparkednationaluproaramonguniversitystudents.studentsinromeopenly protestedthedeath,whilestudentsintrentoviolentlylashedoutagainstthe authorities.officially,fascistsmurderedrossi,butthestudentsinterpretedthe eventasarepressivetacitfromtheexistingsocialorderthathewasprotesting 26SidneyTarrow,DemocracyandDisorder:ProtestandPoliticsinItaly, (Oxford:Clarendon Press,1989). 27Gerd RainerHorn,Spiritof 68,75. 28Gerd RaiderHorn,Spiritof 68,p

19 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 against. 29 PaoloRossi sdeathhelpedunifythemovementthroughoutthenation, eventhougheachuniversitykepttheirownuniqueideology. Oneofthemajorcausesofstudentunrestduringthisperiodwasthereform proposedbyluigigui,theministerofeducationduringmoro scenter left government.thereformcalledforrestrictedentry,apracticethatuniversitieshad usedinpreviousdecades,whichallowedonlyapredeterminedpopulationof studentstobeacceptedintotheuniversity.thereformwouldalsoprovideforthree differentdegreetypes:aone yeardiploma,atwo yeardiploma,andthefull degree. 30 Boththeone yearandthetwo yeardiplomasangeredthestudents.they rejectedtheadministration suseofrigidhierarchiestorepressthewillsofthe students.studentswantedequalityandthisreformdiversifiedthelevelsof universityeducationamongstthestudents. 31 By1967,thefoundationsfortheItalianstudentmovementhadbeenlaidand manystudentswereprimedtodemonstratetheirfrustration.astringofpeaceful occupationstookoffinmilan,trento,turin,androme.studentsfoundthat occupyinguniversitiesmadepossibleanumberoftasksthatwerecriticaltotheir organization. 32 First,itgatheredallthesupportintoonegeographicalspaceshowing 29KurzandTolomelli, Italy, PaulGinsborg,TheHistoryofContemporaryItaly: (NewYork:PenguinBooks,1990),p PaulGinsborg,TheHistoryofContemporaryItaly: , LuisaPasserini,AutobiographyofaGeneration:Italy,1968.TranslatedbyLisaErdberg(Hanover, NH:WesleyanUniversityPress,1996),p

20 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 strengthinnumbers.second,itprovidedanarenaforspeech. 33 Studentscould assembleinthebuildingsanddiscussissuesasonecollectivegroupandpractice directdemocracy,whichwasheavilyadvocatedasthetrueformofdemocracy. Studentswouldthenbeabletobreakintosmallercommitteestodiscussmore specificissues.thisalsoallowedthemtoconductresearchonmanyissuesandto createculture wastheyearforlocalstudentmovementsinItaly.In1966, alleyeshadbeenontrentoandthebeginningofthemovementbystudentsthere. By1968,theattentionofallofRomewasontheviolencethathadbrokenoutatthe FacultyofArchitecture.TheBattleofValleGiuliaputtheItalianstudentmovement onaninternationalspotlightinwaysthatithadneverbeenbefore.therefore,local universitymovementslostmuchofthefocusfromthepublic.reportsneverstopped onlocalevents,butasthenationalandinternationalattentionhadbeenbroughtto Italythemovementbegantobelumpedtogetherinmoregeneralways. 1967wastheyearthateveryuniversity smovement,somewithvarying demands,foundtheirownvoice.atthecatholicuniversityofthescaredheartin Milan,studentswereconcernedabouttheriseintuition. 35 Sinceitwasaprivate schoolandstudentspaidafarlargersumtoattendedclasses,tuitionincreases directlyaffectedthestudentbody.thisdifferedgreatlyfromthestateuniversityin 33LuisaPasserini,AutobiographyofaGeneration:Italy,1968,69. 34LuisaPasserini,AutobiographyofaGeneration:Italy,1968,69. 35Studentsherewereconcernedwithfarmorethanjusttuitionincreases,butsinceitwasoneofthe fewprivateschoolsthatreceivedpresscoverageonanationalscale,tuitionincreaseswereamong someofthestrongerconcernsforstudents. 12

21 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 Milanwherestudentswereconcernedwithcontroloverwhattheywerestudying. 36 Studentswerealsoconcernedwithprofessors lackofconcernwhenitcametotheir studies.theywantedtheirteacherstonotbetiedtopatronage. 37 Withinthesame city,twoverydifferentmovementswereoccurringsimultaneously.thestudents fromeachuniversitydidhavemanycommonalities.theyoftensupportedand attendedeachother soccupations.evenwithinauniversitiesmovementitself,there weremanydifferentfactionsallselfishlywantingtheirdemandsmet. 38 Oftentimes thisledtofightsamongstgroupsoverwhohadthebestobjectives. 1968:WesternEuropeandtheUnitedStates 1968becameaphenomenalyearforvariousreasonsacrosstheglobe.The westernworld,especially,wasturnedonitssidebytheeventsperformedby students,activists,policeandbystanders.therewasageneralfeelingofcontempt thatrosefromthepoliticalsituationleftafterworldwarii.afterthefirsthalfofthe centuryofbloodshed,youthwereingreatnumbers.theoverallimprovementin standardoflivingthroughoutmuchofwesterneuropeandtheunitedstatesledto 36StudentsatSacroCuorewerealsoconcernedwithwhatwastaughtintheclassroomandmayhave hadafarmoreconvincingargument,giventhattheypaidagreatdealmorefortheireducation. 37ManyhistorianshavenotedthatItalianprofessorsusedtheirpositionsinuniversitiestopromote theirpoliticalaspirations.referto:robertomoscati, ItalianUniversityProfessorsinTransition. HigherEducation(Spinger:NewYork,Vol.41,No.½,ChangingAcademicWorkplace:Comparative Perspectives,Jan. Mar.,2001),pp ;StuartJ.HilwigItalyand1968:YouthfulUnrestand DemocraticCulture;GianniStatera StudentPoliticsinItaly:FromUtopiatoTerrorism ThepoliticalfactionsthatwereformedwithineachuniversitywereagreatexampleofGramsci s ideaofculturalhegemony.students,almostunknowingly,formedpoliticalpartiesinmuchthesame wayastheircounterpartsintheitalianparliament.thestrongerpartiesdominateddebatesand oftentimesforcedtheirplatformstotheforefrontoftheoccupations.thestudentshadalreadybeen soassimilatedintothepoliticalstructureinitalythattheyunwittinglyformedbandslikeparliament. 13

22 TexasTechUniversity,RyanStrong,May2011 higherenrollmentinschools. 39 Greatnumbersofyouthcontinuedtheireducation tohigherlevelsinplacessuchasuniversitiesandgraduateschools.universities quicklybecamehotbedsforcreativityandunconventionalthinking. IntheUnitedStates,universitiesplayedavitalpartinthetensionsthattore attheheartofthecountry.vietnamwasinfullswingbydecemberof1965with over200,000troopsputintoaction.thecounter cultureinamericahadbecome popularsinceitsstart upinthe1950swiththebeatculture. 40 Anti Vietnam ideologyandundergroundrebellionblendedalmostunknowinglyandspread throughoutcollegecampuses.theuniversityofcaliforniaatberkeleywasatthe forefrontofthestudentprotestsduringthistime.unhappywiththeuniversity administration sattemptedendingofpoliticalcriticismbyitsstudents,rebellious youthheldsit ins,andlargedebates.theseeventsledtosomestudentstakingpart inasiegeoftheoaklandmilitaryinductioncenter. 41 Theacademicyearof sawaspreadingofstudentunresttouniversitieslikeWisconsinwhere studentsheldandmassivesit intoprotestdowchemicalsandtheuseofchemical weaponsinvietnam. 42 Inthisinstance,thepoliceviolentlybrokeupthesit in, whichledtoagreatuproaronthecampus.theeventhadbeencapturedfirsthand 39GianniStateramadeagreatobservationaboutthehighnumbersofyouthattendinguniversities. HenoticedthatItaliansocietyhadnotyetadjusteditseconomicstructuretoaccommodateforthe increasedsizeofthegenerationfollowingworldwariiandthereforeusedtheitalianuniversity systemasa parkinglot fortheyouthtorelievetheburdenofnotenoughjobsfortheamountof bodiesintheworkforce.statera,gianni. StudentPoliticsinItaly:FromUtopiatoTerrorism. 40MarkKurlansky,1968:TheYearthatRockedtheWorld(RandomHouse:NewYork), IrwinUngerandDebiUnger,eds,TheTimeswereachangin :TheSixtiesReader(ThreeRivers Press:NewYork,1998),pp DavidFarber,ed,TheSixties:FromMemorytoHistory(UniversityofNorthCarolinaPress:Chapel Hill,1994),pp

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