1 On the path to college: What matters? Topics Pathways For college For transfer For degree completion What matters most What can be done What to assess & when to do it Alberto F. Cabrera Professor & WISCAPE Sr. Researcher Department of Educational Administration UW-Madison WEB Page:
2 On the Path to College Cabrera & La Nasa (2000) This study examined the three tasks that socio-economically (lowest-ses) disadvantaged 8 th graders must complete on their path to college. Those tasks are: Becoming college qualified Graduating from high school Applying to college
3 On the path to college Some methodological notes Analyses are based on the National Educational Longitudinal Study of th graders (NELS:88) Academic qualification index High school rank ACT/SAT scores High school grades in academic track courses NELS mathematics & reading test scores
4 What are an 8 th grader s chances to enroll at a postsecondary institution?
5 College Choice Process for th Grade Students College Qualifications High School Graduation 4-year College Applications Institution Type of First Enrollment None Vocational 2-year 4-year 463 Not Qualified 357 Graduated 106 Did Not Graduate 82 Applied to 4- year Institution 275 Did Not Apply None Vocational 2-year 4-year th Graders in Minimally Qualified 144 Graduated 1 Did Not Graduate 69 Applied to 4- year Institution 75 Did Not Apply None Vocational 2-year 4-year 393 Graduated 321 Applied to 4- year Institution Qualified 0 Did Not Graduate 72 Did Not Apply Cabrera & La Nasa (2000). Understanding the college choice process. Jossey Bass
6 College Choice Process for 1000 Lowest SES Students College Qualifications 714 Not Qualified High School Graduation 477 Graduated 237 Did Not Graduate 4-year College Applications 70 Applied to 4-year Institution 407 Did Not Apply Institution Type of First Enrollment None Vocational 2-year 4-year th Graders in Minimally Qualified 132 Graduated 2 Did Not Graduate 46 Applied to 4-year Institution 86 Did Not Apply None Vocational 2-year 4-year Graduated 99 Applied to 4-year Institution None Vocational 2-year 4-year Qualified 0 Did Not Graduate 52 Did Not Apply Cabrera & La Nasa (2000). Understanding the college choice process. Jossey Bass
7 College Qualifications College Choice Process for 1000 High SES Students High School Graduation 4-year College Applications Institution Type of First Enrollment None Vocational 2-year 4-year 303 Not Qualified 268 Graduated 35 Did Not Graduate 89 Applied to 4- year Institution 179 Did Not Apply None Vocational 2-year 4-year th Graders in Minimally Qualified 147 Graduated 1 Did Not Graduate 85 Applied to 4- year Institution 62 Did Not Apply None Vocational 2-year 4-year 548 Graduated 478 Applied to 4-year Institution Qualified 1 Did Not Graduate 70 Did Not Apply Cabrera & La Nasa (2000). Understanding the college choice process. Jossey Bass
8 Who is a lowest-ses 8 th grader? 77% of lowest socioeconomic status (SES) 8 th graders have parents unfamiliar with college. 99.3% of all upper-ses 8 th graders grew up among college educated parents. th
9 Who is a lowest-ses 8 th grader? Poorest 8 th graders were more likely to be exposed to at-risk factors: Low grades History of high school dropouts in the family Raised by a single parent Held back a grade Changing schools more than twice
10 Acquisition of College Qualifications 1988 Lowest SES 8 th graders Only 285 out of 1000 poor 8 th graders secured some degree of college qualifications by the end of their senior year. 151 were college-qualified 134 were minimally collegequalified
11 Graduation from High School 1988 Lowest SES 8 th graders Only 760 out of 1,000 poor th graders graduated from high school by 1992
12 Applying to College 1988 Lowest SES 8 th graders Only 215 out of 1000 lowest-ses 8 th graders applied to a 4-year institution by the end of their high school senior year. Only 144 out of 1000 lowest-ses students enrolled in a 4-year institution by 1994
13 Critical tasks for members of the th grade cohort who are of minority origin.
14 1988 eight graders Hispanics African Americans Whites Parents with some college Percent showing at-risk factors: 47.4% 61.8% 72.9% Held back one grade... Single parent family Siblings dropping out from HS. Changing schools more than twice Averaging C or less. 20.6% 20.6% 20.5% 32.5% 44.4% 27.5% 46.4% 20.7% 35.6% 47.1% 15.4% 16.9% 12.2% 28.5% 33.6% Based on National Educational Longitudinal Study 1988
15 On the path to college 1988 eight graders Enrolling at a 4-yr Applying for college High school graduation Algebra II or higher College qualified Hispanics African Americans Whites Based on National Educational Longitudinal Study 1988
16 Acquisition of college qualifications % 28.6 Lowest 45.4 Second Lowest 58.9 Upper Middle 79.6 Upper Becoming college- qualified correlated with socioeconomic status (r=.377) Lowest-SES students were 51%, 30% and 17% less likely to secure minimal college qualifications than their highest, middle-upper and middle-lowest lowest SES counterparts.
17 What matters in becoming college- qualified? Lowest Second Lowest Upper Middle Upper The gap between lowest-ses and upper-ses students narrowed from 51% to 15% once factors such as at-risk characteristics and parental involvement were taken into account Actual Adjusted
18 Acquisition of college qualifications: What matters most Factor Parental involvement Planned for college at 8 th grade Upper SES At-risk factors at 8 th grade Ability at 8 th grade Probability Of Becoming College Qualified % % % % %
19 % Lowest High School Graduation 86.3 Second Lowest 93.9 Upper Middle 98 Upper The rate at which th graders graduated from their high school correlated with their SES (r=.291) The poorest th graders' graduation rate lagged nearly 25% behind that of their upper-ses counterparts.
20 High School Graduation: What matters most? Factor Securing college qualifications Upper SES Parental involvement At-risk factors Probability of HS diploma +11.4% % % %
21 Applying for college Lowest 34.2 Second Lowest 53.7 Upper Middle 75.5 Upper College application rates varied in direct relation with socioeconomic status (r=.414). The difference in college application rates between the poorest students and upper-ses students was 54%.
22 Applying for College: What matters most? Lowest Second Lowest Upper Middle Upper Controlling for the factors that influence the chance of applying reduced the gap in college application rates between lowest-ses and upper-ses from 54% to 26%. Actual Adjusted
23 Factor Probability of Applying Degree Aspirations Bachelors Advanced Parents expectations Bachelors Advanced College-qualifications Assistance in: College application College essays Upper SES At-risk factors % % % % % % % % %
24 What matters most for each task on the path to college? A summary Becoming college qualified Parental involvement in school activities. Having planned for college by the 8 th grade. Parental education & income At-risk factors Ability HS Graduation Becoming college qualified. Parental education & income. Parental involvement in school activities. At-risk factors Applying for college Students degree aspirations. Parents degree expectations. Becoming college qualified. Assistance in college application procedures. Parental education & income At-risk factors
25 Pathways to a 4-yr 4 Degree Cabrera, La Nasa & Burkum (2001) This study examined postsecondary patterns exhibited by socio-economically (lowest- SES) disadvantaged 12 th graders. Two major postsecondary behaviors studied Transfer Degree completion
26 The High School Class of 1982 Representative sample of 15,000 high school sophomores. Follow-ups: 1982, 1984, 1986 & 1992 Data sources: Students, parents and records (high school, college & financial aid) Sample weighted to represent 2,191,861 high school seniors who attended postsecondary education between
27 What are the chances for a high school sophomore to eventually secure a bachelor s degree within 10 years?
28 Degree attainment by ACRES and first institution type for all students Academic Resources First Institution of Attendance Type Probability of Securing a 4-Year Degree 4-Year 16.3% (36,653) 4-Year 10.1 Low 11.8% (225,483) 2-Year 57.5% (129,662) 2-Year Other Other 26.2% (59,168) % 4-Year 31.3% (228,856) 4-Year 35.1 Number of Students (1,913,269) Medium 38.2% (730,759) 2-Year 53.3% (389,713) 2-Year Other Other 15.4% (112,190) % 4-Year 70.3% (672,914) 4-Year 77.7 High 50.0% (957,027) 2-Year 24.3% (232,146) 2-Year Other Other 5.4% (51,967) % Cabrera, A. F., La Nasa, S. M. Burkum, K. R. (2001). Pathways to a Four-Year Degree:The Higher Education Story of One Generation
29 Degree attainment by ACRES and first institution type for Lowest-SES students Academic Resources First Institution of Attendance Type Probability of Securing a 4-Year Degree 4-Year 14.2% (9,175) 4-Year 20.8 Low 22.0% (64,567) 2-Year 51.3% (33,090) 2-Year Other Other 34.5% (22,302) % 4-Year 27.7% (42,968) 4-Year 26 Number of Students (292,691) Medium 53.0% (155,037) 2-Year 47.4% (73,442) 2-Year Other Other 24.9% (38,627) % 4-Year 49.9% (36,452) 4-Year 58.5 High 25.0% (73,087) 2-Year 39.4% (28,841) 2-Year Other Other 10.7% (7,794) % Cabrera, A. F., La Nasa, S. M. Burkum, K. R. (2001). Pathways to a Four-Year Degree:The Higher Education Story of One Generation
30 Degree attainment by ACRES and first institution type for Highest -SES students Academic Resources First Institution of Attendance Type Probability of Securing a 4-Year Degree 4-Year 21.1% (18,135) 4-Year 9.9 Low 7.3% (85,933) 2-Year 59.0% (50,707) 2-Year Other Other 19.9% (17,091) % 4-Year 34.7% (136,267) 4-Year 38.7 Number of Students (1,179,749) Medium 33.3% (392,521) 2-Year 54.2% (212,845) 2-Year Other Other 11.1% (43,409) % 4-Year 76.1% (533,478) 4-Year 81.0 High 59.4% (701,295) 2-Year 19.7% (137,973) 2-Year Other Other 4.2% (29,844) % Cabrera, A. F., La Nasa, S. M. Burkum, K. R. (2001). Pathways to a Four-Year Degree:The Higher Education Story of One Generation.
31 What matters in Transferring? % 17 Lowest 22.9 Second Lowest 33.9 Upper Middle 36.7 Upper Lowest-SES students were 20%, 17% and 6% less likely to transfer to a 4-4 year institution than their highest, middle- upper and middle-lowest lowest SES counterparts.
32 What matters in Transferring? Lowest SES Medium Low Medium High Highest SES Actual Adjusted
33 What matters most for transferring from the 2-year sector to the 4-year sector?
34 What matters most for: 1. Preparation for college 2. Educational aspirations 3. Number of college math & science courses taken 4. Collegiate experiences 5. College GPA 6. Financial support 7. Children Transferring 8. Socioeconomic status Source: Cabrera, La Nasa & Burkum (2002).
35 What matters for Degree Completion? % 12.9 Lowest 23.6 Second Lowest 33.6 Upper Middle 57 Upper Poorest students' baccalaureate degree rate lags nearly 44% behind that of their upper-ses counterparts
36 What matters for Degree Completion? Lowest Second Lowest Upper Middle Upper Actual Adjusted
37 What matters most for getting a bachelor's degree within 10 years?
38 What matters most for: 1. Preparation for college 2. Educational aspirations 3. Type of 1 st institution attended 4. Continuous enrollment 5. Number of college math & science courses taken 6. Collegiate experiences 7. Financial support 8. College GPA Degree Completion 9. Children 10. Socioeconomic resources 11. Percentage of college courses drooped, left incomplete, or withdrew Source: Cabrera, La Nasa & Burkum (2002).
39 Pathways to degree completion Nine pathways when considering academic preparation for college and first type of postsecondary institution attended. Effectiveness of pathways vary: High academic preparation for college & attending a 4-year institution is the most effective Poor academic preparation & 2-year is the least effective Choosing pathways varies by SES
40 Determinants of Transfer Descriptive statistics show a substantial SES-based GAP Determinants of transfer have to do more with preparation for college, degree aspirations, performance in college, curricular choices, having children than they do with SES
41 Determinants of degree completion Descriptive statistics show a substantial SES- based gap. SES-based gap though substantially reduced still remains once other factors are taking into account. Most important factors Preparation for college (ACRES) Educational aspirations Type of institution Effort (DWI & continuous enrollment) Curriculum Academic performance Children
42 College Choice Process Saliency Saliency of of Potential Potential Institutions Institutions Parental Parental Collegiate Collegiate Experiences Experiences Cost Cost of of Attendance Attendance & Financial Financial Aid Aid Availability Availability of of Information Information About About College College Parental Parental Encouragement Encouragement & Involvement Involvement Student s Student s College College Choice Choice Parental Parental Characteristics: Characteristics: Education, Education, Occupation Occupation Income Income Students Students Early Early Educational Educational & Occupational Occupational Aspirations Aspirations Students Students Educational Educational & Occupational Occupational Aspirations Aspirations Student s Ability Student s Ability College Qualifications College Qualifications Cabrera & La Nasa (2000). Understanding the college choice process. Jossey Bass
43 College Persistence as a Longitudinal Process College Decision College Experiences College Outcomes Family Encouragement & Involvement Academic Integration Competencies Graduate School Preparation for College Social Integration Satisfaction & Commitment Employment & Income K-16 Communication & Engagement Aspirations & Plans Awareness of College Characteristics, Admission Standards, & Costs Facilities & Services Climate & Diversity Financial Aid Mix Persistence Transfer Stop-out Degree Completion Job Performance Job Satisfaction Loan Repayment
44 What matters most on the path to college? Stage Factors Outcomes Predispositions Grades: 7 th- 9 th Parental expectations, encouragement, support & involvement in school activities Parental saving for college Parental involvement in school activities Socioeconomic status Parental collegiate experiences Academic preparation for college Student ability Information about college Reading, writing, math & critical thinking skills Career/Occupational aspirations Educational aspirations Planning for college Enrollment in college bound curriculum Sources: Cabrera & La Nasa (2000), Nora & Cabrera (1992).
45 What matters most on the path to college? Stage Factors Outcomes Search Grades: 10 th -12 th Parental expectations encouragement, support & involvement in school activities Educational aspirations. Occupational aspirations. Planning for college Socioeconomic status. Saliency of potential institutions. Academic preparation for college Student ability Listing of tentative institutions. Narrowing list of tentative institutions. Securing information on institutions Taking Pre-SAT & Pre- ACT Sources: Cabrera & La Nasa (2000), Nora & Cabrera (1992).
46 What matters most on the path to college? Stage Factors Outcomes Choice Grades: 11 th -12 th Academic preparation for college Educational aspirations. Occupational aspirations. Planning for college Socioeconomic status. Parental encouragement. Perceived institutional attributes (quality, campus life, availability of majors, distance). Perceived ability to pay (perceived resources, perceived costs). Awareness of college expenses & financial aid. Awareness of institutional attributes & admission standards. Attaining scholastic aptitudes, attitudes & competencies. Perceived support from family & friends. Institutional commitment. Submission of applications. Pre-registration Attendance. Application for financial aid. Sources: Cabrera & La Nasa (2000) & Nora & Cabrera (1992)
47 What matters most on the path to college? Stage Factors Outcomes College Freshman Year Junior Year Academic preparation for college Parental encouragement & support Campus & classroom climate Collegiate experiences -Out-of-classroom -Intensity & quality of instruction -Counseling -Interactions with peers & faculty Engagement with the academic & social components of the institution Working on campus College GPA Financial assistance Effort spent in academic related activities Gains in: Personal development Problem solving Critical thinking Understanding of science & technology Appreciation for art Career Maturity Occupational awareness Group skills Tolerance & openness to diversity Persistence to graduation Pursuit of graduate studies Incorporation into the labor force Sources: Cabrera & La Nasa (2000), Cabrera et al., (2002).
48 What can be done? Predispositions Grades: 7 th 9 th Stage Intervention Strategies Academic tutorial session Visitations to postsecondary institutions Assessing academic potential and identifying gaps Career exploration & decision making workshops Curriculum planning Parental involvement Field trips to workplaces for different occupations High Teachers expectations Parental workshops on college & ways to finance it Sources: Cabrera & La Nasa (2000), Gándara & Bial (2001)& Nora & Cabrera (1992).
49 What can be done? Stage Search Grades: 10 th 12 th Intervention Strategies Counseling on postsecondary programs Collecting & disseminating information about postsecondary institutions Academic tutorial sessions Participation in College Days activities Peer group support Untracking &augmenting curriculum offerings Sources: Cabrera & La Nasa (2000), Gándara & Bial (2001)& Nora & Cabrera (1992).
50 What can be done? Stage Choice Grades: 11 th 12 th Assistance in filling out FAFSA Assistance in filling out college application forms and meeting requirements Collecting and disseminating information about sources of financial aid Tutorial sessions & summer programs to enhance student academic ability Peer groups Intervention Strategies Untracking &augmenting curriculum offerings Sources: Cabrera & La Nasa (2000), Gándara & Bial (2001), & Nora & Cabrera (1992)
51 Stage College Freshman Year Junior Year Pre-entry assessment & placement of students according to needs Study and learning workshops Faculty mentorship programs Learning communities (cluster programs) Co-curricular activities and programs Parental involvement Recognition of student enclaves & their inclusion in campus governance Counseling/advising/job placement/summer programs Career exploration activities Internships on campus and outside campus Scholarships Work study programs Networking with alumni and potential employers Scholarships Source: Cabrera & La Nasa (2000). Intervention Strategies Financial aid planning and debt advising Multicultural education Workshops & training on learning styles Use of validation strategies in the classroom & out of the classroom
52 What percentage of pre-college outreach address what matters for college enrollment?
53 Percentage of Pre-College Outreach Programs Having Components Related to College Enrollment (Based on a National Survey of 1,110 programs) Low- Income Minority First- Generation Low- Academic Meeting at least 5 critieria of success Meeeting at 11 criteria of success Adapted from Perna (2002). Precollege programs: Characteristics of programs serving historically underrepresented groups of students. Journal of College Student Development, 43 (1),
54 Intervention strategies Academic readiness for college College dropout begins in middle school Make certain middle and high school curriculum is aligned with college curriculum Enrollment management Should begin as early as the 8 th grade Use learning communities from 8 th grade to college Use financial aid as tool for involvement & engagement with the academic and social components of the institution
55 Intervention strategies need to be Holistic, Sustained over time and involve Multiple Partners Elementary Schools Middle Schools Two-Year Institutions Four-Year Institutions Business organizations Community organizations PTAs GEAR-UP TRIO
56 What to assess & when to do it?
57 Preparation for College Middle School Aspirations & readiness (7 th 10 th ) High School Application & readiness (11 th -12 th ) Collegiate Experiences Freshman Year Junior Year Graduation/ Post College Outcomes School information & transcript Academic Resources School district profile School information & transcript Academic Resources School district profile Campus information & transcripts Enrollment information Financial aid data Campus profile Campus information & transcripts Enrollment information Financial aid data Campus profile Campus information & transcripts Time to degree Major & changes Transfer Stop-out, return,drop Student Survey Family education Occupation Encouragement Family involvement Saving for college Aspirations Plans & intentions Student Survey Family education Knowledge of careers Family involvement Information about universities Plans & intentions Transfer plans Intended major Inquire process Student survey Orientation & advisement Remediation Faculty & peer interactions Classroom & learning experiences Family & work responsibilities Faculty survey Student survey Advising Faculty & peer interactions Classroom & learning experiences Family & work responsibilities Faculty survey Alumni Survey Grad school Degrees earned Occupation/Income Job/Career/ Satisfaction Adequacy of college Preparation Leadership, service Awards, recognition Alumni giving
58 References Adelman, C. (1999). Answers in the tool box: Academic intensity, attendance patterns, and bachelor s degree attainment. Document # PLLI Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Cabrera, A.F., Crissman, J. L., Bernal, E. M., Nora, A., P.T. & Pascarella, E. T. (2002). Collaborative learning: Its impact on college students development and diversity. Journal of College Student Development. 43(2), Cabrera, A. F. & La Nasa, S. M. (2001). On the path to college: Three critical tasks facing America s disadvantaged. Research in Higher Education, 42(2), Cabrera, A. F. & La Nasa, S. M. (2000). Understanding the college choice of disadvantaged students. New Directions for Institutional Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
59 References Cabrera, A. F., La Nasa, S. M. & Burkum, K, R. (June, 2001). Pathways to a Four-Year Degree: The Higher Education Story of One Generation. Center for the Study of Higher Education. Penn State University. Gándara, P & Bial, D. (2001). Paving the way to postsecondary education: K-12 intervention programs for underrepresented youth.nces Document prepared for NPEC. Washington, D.C: US Department of Education. Hossler, D., Schmit, J., & Vesper, N. (1999). Going to college: How social, economic, and educational factors influence the decisions students make. Maryland, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Nora, A. & Cabrera, A. F. (1992). Measuring program outcomes: What impacts are important to assess and what impacts are possible to measure for the Talent Search Program. U.S. Department of Education: Office of Policy and Planning. Perna, W. L. (2002). Precollege outreach programs: Characteristics of programs serving historically underrepresented groups of students. Journal of College Student Development, 43(1),
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