Los Acuerdos de Asociación Económica de la UE como

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1 Psibls cflicts étics tr ls prdigms citífic-tclógics dmits Th Chllgs f Txig th Big ISSN: y l mjrdl bistr d l pblció lgus cmís mrgts 273 Ar EU s Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts Dvlpmtl? A Assssmt f th Suthr Afric Rgi Ls Acurds d Ascició Ecómic d l UE cm istrumt d dsrrll: álisis d cs d Áfric Austrl Edurd Bidurrtzg Aurr Uivrsity f th Bsqu Cutry (UPV/EHU) d Hg (Istitut fr th Study f Dvlpmt d Itrtil Cprti) Artur Clm Jé Autmus Uivrsity f Brcl d Schl f Oritl d Afric Studis El Mrtíz Tl Uivrsity f th Bsqu Cutry (UPV/EHU) d Hg (Istitut fr th Study f Dvlpmt d Itrtil Cprti) Rcibid: r d 2014 ; cptd: mrz d 2014 Abstrct This rticl ims t shw th chgs d pttil csqucs i th cmic rltis btw th EU d Suthr Afric, tht th Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts (EPAs) schm is prmtig. Th mi rgumts fr chgig th prvius mdl, d fr th dplymt f w discurs d prctic by th EU, clsh with th pprchs d prpsls f sm gvrmts i Suthr Afric, d ls with th viws f my schlrs. Thrfr, it is prtit t sk t wht xtt c EPAs b rlly dvlpmtl i Suthr Afric d chrt with th rhtric f prtrship d prmti f dvlpmt by th EU i this rgi d th whl ctit. Kywrds: Eurp Ui; Suthr Afric; Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts; Dvlpmt. Rvist d Ecmí Mudil 38, 2014,

2 Rsum Est rtícul quir mstrr ls cmbis prducids y ls cscucis ptcils ls rlcis cómics tr l UE y Áfric Austrl cm cscuci d ls Acurds d Ascició Ecómic (AAE). Ls pricipls rgumts pr l trsfrmció dl mdl trir, y l uv discurs y práctic d l UE, chc c ls fqus y prpusts d divrss gbirs d Áfric Austrl, sí cm d muchs cdémics d dtr y fur d l rgió. D st md, prc prtit prgutrs hst qué put ls AAE pud rlmt sr u istrumt d dsrrll Áfric Austrl, y chrts c l rtóric d l UE tr l prtrid y l prmció dl dsrrll l rgió y l cjut dl ctit fric. Plbrs clv: Uió Eurp; Áfric Austrl; Acurds d Ascició Ecómic; Dsrrll. JEL Clssificti: F15; 010; 019; 055.

3 1. Itrducti: th udrpiigs f EPAs Op rgilism is big trsfrmd it w strtgy fr th drgulti f wrld trd d ivstmt which is bth utwrd lkig d csistt with th currt stg f wrld librlizti. This strtgy is rsps t pl by th rich idustril cutris f th Nrth t cslidt thir itrtil psiti thrugh st f frml grmts with cutris f thir rspctiv rs f ifluc i th Suth. It is ls ttmpt by th cutris f th Nrth t xpd thir xprt mrkts d Frig Dirct Ivstmt (FDI) pprtuitis d imprv thir cmptitivss s gist thr cutris f th Ctr d thir rspctiv priphris. Th lgic f this strtgy icluds rstructurig th rltis btw th Eurp Ui (EU) d its frmr Afric clis kw s th ACP cutris (Afric, Cribb d Pcific). Th rltis f ths cutris with th EU wr prviusly rgizd withi th succssiv Lmé Cvtis (I IV). But i th yr 2000 th sigig f th Ctu Agrmt pd th wy t sris f chgs t th prvius structur, ldig t th sigig f Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts (EPAs). Ths wr suppsd t pv th wy fr th futur stblishmt f lrg fr trd zs btw th EU d vrius lrdy stblishd rgil grups i Sub-Shr Afric (SSA). Th drw-ut gtiti prcsss f th EPAs rflct its disgrmts but thir pttil ffcts. Th suthr rgi f th Afric ctit is rprsttiv f th ctrvrsis tht ths mvs r grtig, d f thir gtiv d psitiv ffcts cditis fr dvlpmt, bth fr idividul cutris d fr th rgi s mst imprtt itgrti prjct, SADC (th Suthr Afric Dvlpmt Cmmuity). Sic th gtitis d itrim grmts hv w g byd th pig dbts i fvur f r gist th prpsd w frmwrk, it is fittig mmt t ivstigt wht kid f EPAs, r rltis with th EU, th cutris f th rgi shuld pursu i rdr t cclrt thir dvlpmt. Rvist d Ecmí Mudil 35, 2013,

4 276 Edurd Bidurrtzg Aurr, Artur Clm Jé, El Mrtíz Tl 2. Afric rgil itgrti d th w rgilism 2.1. Rgilism i Afric Rgil iititivs i Afric rs s prt f th prcss f giig pliticl idpdc; thy wr supprtd by p Afric philsphy which dptd prgmtic pprch twrds th vrius rgil grupigs th udrwy, trtig thm s pics i ctit-wid jig-sw which wuld dy b cmpltd. Dcds f structurl djustmt, hwvr, s wll s th currt impss f th multiltrl trd gtitis i th Wrld Trd Orgizti (WTO), hv giv ris t w frm f rgilism. This w pprch itrprts rgil itgrti iititivs mr s buildig blcks r itrmdit phss f widr glbl librlizti gd, rthr th stumblig blcks r dfc mchisms tht prvts wrldwid drgulti. Thr is grwig supprt, thrfr, fr rgil itgrti, udrstd s syym fr cmic librlizti i dfid multi-stt r, s lg s it is t bstcl but stp th wy twrds vtul drgulti d cmplt pig up wrld scl th lis f th currt librl glblizti mdl (Pgriy, 1999; Bhgwti, t l., 1998; Bhll d Bhll, 1997). This w ti f p rgilism ms t th sm tim sptil xtsi f th ccpt f rgi t grupigs with ctitl r v itrctitl mmbrship, xmplifid i th iititivs twrds itgrti btw cutris with mjr diffrcs i thir sci-cmic lvls (Nrth Suth rgilism). This id hs giv ris t umbr f prjcts such s th Nrth Amric Fr Trd Agrmt, 1 th Ctrl Amric Fr Trd Agrmt, d th currtly prlysd Fr Trd Ar f th Amrics (t iclud th whl f th Amric ctit), s wll s similrly xtsiv prjcts i thr ctits, btw th cutris f ASEAN 2 d Chi fr istc, r btw cutris i th ACP grup d th EU fllwig th d f th Lmé r. Whil such iititivs hv ft b itrprtd s itrmdit stp twrds frr trd d ivstmt wrld scl, thir rl mig c ls b s frm thr viwpit. Thy c b itrprtd s prt f cmptig ttmpts by th cutris f th Ctr t miti d xtd thir trd d ivstmt ctivitis by ms f frml grmts with cutris thy rgrd s prt f thir Priphry r sphr f ifluc (Bidurrtzg & Clm, 2005; Bwls, 2002; Htt t l., 1999). I y vt, this w pttr f xtdd rgilism is prt f ccpt f itgrti which, th hd, pprs t rduc it mrly t trd 1 Th Nrth Amric Fr Trd Agrmt, i frc sic 1994, is cmpsd f th USA, Cd d Mxic. Th Ctrl Amric Fr Trd Agrmt cmpriss th Dmiic Rpublic, Cst Ric, El Slvdr, Gutml, Hdurs, d Nicrgu d th USA. It cm it frc i Th Assciti f Suthst Asi Ntis, ASEAN, currtly icluds Idsi, Mlysi, th Philippis, Sigpr, Thild, Brui, Burm (Mymr), Cmbdi, Ls, d Vitm.

5 Ar Eu s Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts Dvlpmtl? A Assssmt f th Suthr Afric Rgi 277 issus, ivlvig vry limitd istitutilizti byd fr trd rs, but which, th thr hd, xtds th umbr f qustis csidrd t b trd-rltd (icludig issus such s itllctul prprty, librlizti f FDI, public prcurmt, cmptiti plicy d s frth). This kid f pttr hs cm t b kw s th WTO+ rms, giv tht its lmts iclud mr th th currt WTO grmts such issus. At th sm tim, vry littl ttti is giv t cmpstry mchisms which might hlp t rdistribut th csts d bfits f itgrti quitbl bsis btw cutris t vry diffrt lvls f dvlpmt. Ev wh quitbl msurs d xist thir lvl d xtt r vry limitd d isufficit t cmpst fr th djustmt csts (Gdis, 2009; Bidurrtzg & Mrí, 2006) Chgig pprchs: frm Lmé t Ctu Th Lmé mdl, br i 1975 i th frm f Lmé I (th succssr t th Yudé I d II cvtis) ws th mi frmwrk withi which rltis btw Wstr Eurp d its frmr ACP clis wr mgd up t th xpiry f Lmé IV i Th cvti brught tgthr 48 Sub-Shr Afric cutris 3 f which thr qurtrs wr Lst Dvlpd Cutris (LDCs). Th Lmé Cvtis shpd th grl dvlpmt id plicy f th Eurp Ecmic Cmmuity, which prt frm th spcific filds f tchicl ssistc d ficil id (implmtd thrugh th Eurp Dvlpmt Fuds: EDF I VIII), hd s f th ctrl lmts f this plicy th prfrtil -rciprcl ccss t th Eurp mrkt fr prducts frm th ACP cutris. 4 O th hd, this ws itrprtd s big lmt f psitiv discrimiti i fvur f th SSA cutris, d s such frmd prt f pst-clil mvs twrds Nw Itrtil Ecmic Ordr tht culd pttilly ctribut t dvlpmtl utcms. O th thr hd, th systm ls hlpd Eurp cutris, by prvidig thm with privilgd ccss t Afric rw mtrils t tim wh thir prics wr risig wrld mrkts. Aftr th rviw f Lmé IV i 1995, dbt pd up but th rsults f th Cvtis d th d t chg th xistig pttr f rltis. 3 Th ly cutris rmiig utsid ths grmts r th fiv Nrth Afric cutris, which t prst hv thir w spcific frmwrk f rltis with th EU d th -Afric cutris f th Mditrr rgi. 4 Aprt frm th spcil ruls fr crti gds such s bs, bf, rum d sugr, th grmts bsiclly icludd mufcturd d griculturl prducts which did t cmpt with prducts icludd i th Eurp Cmm Agriculturl Plicy (CAP), i thr wrds grlly trpicl prducts. As wll s th rs such s humitri id r structurl djustmt ficig, fud i mst dvlpmt id prgrmms i prvius dcds, th Lmé Cvtis icludd i th trd fild sm mr uusul lmts, such s Stbx d Sysmi, which wr dsigd t stbilis xprt icms frm griculturl d miig prducts rspctivly. Rvist d Ecmí Mudil 38, 2014,

6 278 Edurd Bidurrtzg Aurr, Artur Clm Jé, El Mrtíz Tl Th first mjr itrvti i this discussi ws prvidd by th publicti f th s-clld Gr Ppr, i which fr th first tim th Eurp Cmmissi frmlly luchd its mi rgumts fr bsic r-xmiti f th xistig schm. I this dcumt th Cmmissi mphsisd its disstisfcti with th prvius mdl with rgrd t bth its mbitius grl ims (pvrty rducti d fstr cmic d scil dvlpmt) d ls its lssr d mr ccrt trgts (th shr f th ACP cutris xprts i Eurp mrkts). I fct, th prctg prticipti f EU imprts frm ACP cutris (d frm SSA) hd fll rthr th ris. Thr ws mjr ctrst hr with thr dvlpig cmis, spcilly i Asi, which hd icrsd thir shr f xprts t th Eurp mrkt v thugh thy hd rcivd prfrtil trtmt. 5 Figur 1 shws th imprts f th EU-27 frm vrius cutry grups, icludig th ACP cutris d th mmbr cutris f SADC, fr th yrs 1999 t Ulik sm thr rgis, d sm Asi cutris i prticulr, th prctg f ths tw grups i EU imprts ds t icrs lthugh fr bth grups th bslut vlum f imprts did grw sigifictly. 6 Durig th Lmé r, Asi d Lti Amric cutris grlly icrsd thir vlum f xprts t th Eurp mrkt mr th th ACP cutris. Nthlss, it is imprtt t t tht wh thr ws highr mrgi f prfrc cmprd with thr dvlpig cutris th icrs i xprts frm th ACP cutris ws substtilly grtr. I thr wrds, lthugh th vlum f xprts f ACP cutris t th EU grw ly 3.6 prct btw 1988 d 1997, th umbr f prducts rcivig prfrc f mr th 3% bv th GSP lvl grw by 61.9 prct (17 tims s fst). I th cs f SADC, this disggrgti f th dt shws v mr mrkd ctrst: durig th sm prid th vrll vlum f xprts fll by 5.4 prct, whrs th prducts rcivig mr th 3 prct prfrc bv th GSP lvl grw by 83.6 prct (Gdis & Stm, 2005; Dvis & Mbud, 2002; Gdis, 2000). I dditi, th rsults r bttr fr crti cutris which rcivd mr 5 T b prcis, btw 1976 d 1992 th ACPs shr f EU imprts fll frm 6.7 t 3.7 prct lthugh i vlum trms ACP xprts t th EU grw t 2 prct yr. This ws much slwr th th ul grwth f xprts t th EU frm Mditrr cutris (6 prct) r Asi cutris (12 prct) (Gdis & Stm, 2005). 6 I bslut trms, imprts frm ACP cutris rs by 164 prct btw 1999 d 2011 but thir imprtc s surcs f EU27 imprts icrsd frm 4.5 t 5.2 prct. EU27 imprts frm SADC rs by 122 prct i th sm prid; thir shr mvd slightly frm 2.2 prct i 1999 t 2.1 prct i Th s-clld dymic Asi cmis (DAE: Suth Kr, Hg Kg, Mlysi, Sigpr, Tiw, Thild) icrsd thir xprts t th EU27 by 41.8 prct i bslut vlu, which, giv th grl icrs i EU imprts, thir shr fll by 4.7 prctg pits. Th mst spctculr icrs, bth i ttl vlu d i prctg f th ttl, ws frm Chi (xcludig Hg Kg). Ttl Chis xprts t th EU rs by 457 prct btw 1999 d 2011 d Chi s shr f EU imprts icrsd frm 7.1 t 17.1prct i tht prid.

7 Ar Eu s Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts Dvlpmtl? A Assssmt f th Suthr Afric Rgi 279 trd dvtgs th ths ffrd by th bsic Lmé -rciprcl prfrc schm (i th frm f quts, fr istc). 7 Fr this rs sm schlrs hv qustid th bjctivity f th EU wh it dclrs th Lmé systm t hv b filur, giv tht th EU fils t mti thr prblms f structurl, supply-sid tur i SSA cutris, such s thir spcilisti i limitd rg f primry prducts which wr fcig vr-supply d fllig prics i th wrld mrkt. Athr usul clim bsd wk vidc t justify th substituti f th Lmé frmwrk, is th rsi f th prfrc gp du t th dvc f th GATT librlizti prgrmm. Ths pits suggst tht th vrdict th prvius prfrtil systm is gd dl mr cmplx th th EU hs dmittd (Hurt, 2009, 2003; Mld, 2007,b; Gdis & Stm, 2005) Figur 1. Shrs f vrius grups f cutris i th imprts f th EU(27), , Milli Eurs d prctg f ttl EU imprts 18, ,0 16, s r u E ili M s r u E ili M ,0 16,0 14,0 P rc 12,0 t g f 10,0 t t l E U 8,0 im p rts 6,0 14,0 P rc 12,0 t g f 10,0 t t l E U 8,0 im p rts 6,0 4, ,0 2,0 2, , SADC ttlsadc ttl ACP ttl ACP ttl Lt_Am Lt_Am ttl DAE DAE ttl ttl CN xcl. CN HK ttl xcl. HK ttl SADC % SADC % ACP % ACP % Lt_Am % DAE DAE % % CN xcl. CN HK % xcl. HK % 0,0 Surc: EUROSTAT Mrvr, if th prfrcs hd b such filur it wuld b hrd t udrstd why Afric gvrmts isist tht th ld mdl shuld b rti- 7 Cutris such s Btsw, Swzild, Nmibi, Muritius d Zimbbw hd sigifictly icrsd thir icm i th SADC thks t th dvtgs ffrd by spcil prtcls fr sugr d bf. Ths fcts, i ctrst t th grl pii but th ffctivss f th Lmé Agrmts, shw tht fr th fvurd tis prfrtil trd hs plyd imprtt rl i surig tht th SADC cutris r t mrgilisd frm itrtil trd flws (Gdis, 2000; Mtmbly, 1998). Rvist d Ecmí Mudil 38, 2014,

8 280 Edurd Bidurrtzg Aurr, Artur Clm Jé, El Mrtíz Tl d, s wll s th fct tht th EU itslf prpsd t ctiu -rciprcl prfrcs fr th wrst-ff cmis (th LDCs) rthr th submit thm t th rciprcl trd ruls f th EPAs (Fbr & Orbi, 2009). Th EU s rgumts highlight th icmptibility btw th Lmé mdl d th WTO pricipls i rlti t rciprcity d -discrimiti. 8 Als th imprtc f diffrtitig btw diffrt ACP cutris th bsis f thir lvl f dvlpmt, by givig mr fvurbl cditis t th LCDs, ld th Eurp Cmmissi t strss th d fr chgig th Lmé mdl. I spit f ths icmptibilitis, it hs b pssibl i rct yrs t ctiu t pply this mdl thks t th ccptc f tw rqusts by th EU fr tmprry xmptis frm th WTO multiltrl rms, th lst f ths xpirig th 31 Dcmbr Th pssibility tht EU culd ctiu t prss fr tmprry xmptis hs ls b pitd ut by svrl schlrs s vidc f th EU s lck f pliticl willigss t srch fr ltrtiv mdls mr i li with th itrsts f th ACP cutris (Fbr & Orbi, 2009; Mld, 2007,b; Hurt, 2003). Nthlss, t th d f 1998 th prcss f gtiti bg, which wuld giv birth t th Ctu Agrmt. I th gtitis th EU prssd strgly fr mjr rritti f prvius grmts twrds w bsd rciprcl librlizti f trd, s wy f imprvig th fficicy d cmptitivss f th prductiv systms f th x-clis d thir cpcity t prticipt i th wrld cmy. Prdxiclly, th stdpit f th rprsttivs f th ACP cutris ws vry diffrt. Thy lwys prssd fr xtdig th Lmé frmwrk s lg s pssibl d, if this ws t fsibl, thy supprtd flxibility th mst ssitiv issus i th w grmt. Thy ls climd fr lg prid f trsiti t b bl t implmt plicis i rdr t miimis th hrmful sid ffcts f th djustmt t th w rgim (Hurt, 2012, 2003; Lui & Bill, 2009; Bill & Rmp, 2006; Hrtzbrg, 2000; Gibb, 2000). Th ldig rl f th Eurp Cmmissi s DG Trd vr th DG Dvlpmt i th gtiti f EPAs, ls hlps t udrstd th bisd d rstrictiv pprch f th EU thrughut this prcss (Hurt, 2012, 2009; Mld, 2007,b). I this wy, ll sms t b rsultig i uwilligss t ccmmdt th itrsts d ccrs f ACP cutris, d SSA mr spcificlly, i th fil utcm f th gtitis fr th w mdl (Gdis, 2009). I Ju 2000, 18 mths ftr th strt f gtitis btw th tw sids, th Ctu Agrmt ws sigd. It ws dsigd s substitut fr th 8 Th xcpti t th pricipl f rciprcity, usig th ctrvrsil Articl XXIV rgil itgrti grmts, ws t pplicbl. Ad i rlti t th Mst Fvurd Nti clus, which sigifid th bsc f discrimiti, th Lmé -rciprcl prfrc systm ws uthrizd i th frm f xcpti usig th Hbilitti Clus. This prmittd Lmé, s lg s such dvtgs wr giv t ll dvlpig cmis d t mrly t sm f thm (Sligc- Lcmt, 2001; Gibb, 2000; McQu, 1998).

9 Ar Eu s Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts Dvlpmtl? A Assssmt f th Suthr Afric Rgi rgultry frmwrk i frc durig th prvius 25 yrs. Th Agrmt xtdd th Lmé prfrcs tmprry bsis up t th d f th gtitis th EPAs, xpctd t b rchd by th d f Th bsic chg ws tht frm th ld trd rgim f uiltrl prfrcs t f rciprcl prfrcs, udr which trd librlizti wuld ccur i bth dirctis thrugh th sttig up f fr trd rs. This ws csistt with th pprch t p rgilism mtid t th bgiig f this ppr. Th w pprch ws s s wy f frmlly tyig Eurp with its histricl rs f ifluc, i ctxt i which Eurp cutris prciv thmslvs thrtd by th mrgig Asi cmis, prticulrly Chi. (Hurt, 2012, 2009; Uct & Bidurrtzg, 2008; Brj, 2007; Brgr, 2006). Figurs 2 d 3 illustrt th strg icrs i rct yrs i th trd flws btw SSA d Chi, cicidig with th rducti f th rltiv imprtc f Afric s trd with th EU dspit its bslut icrs i th lst dcd. 18,0 16, ) s ili m ($ Figur 2. Imprtc f Chi i Sub-Shr Afric s trd, ) s ili m ($ ,0 16,0 (S 14,0 h r f C 12,0 h i i th 10,0 tr d 8,0 f S u ḇ S 6,0 h r A 4,0 fric ) 2,0 (S 14,0 h r f C 12,0 h i i th 10,0 tr d 8,0 f S u ḇ S 6,0 h r A 4,0 fric ) 2, , ,0 Imprts frm Chi Exprts t Chi Imprts frm Chi (% f ttl) Exprts t Chi (% f ttl) Imprts frm Chi Exprts t Chi Imprts frm Chi (% f ttl) Exprts t Chi (% f ttl) Surc: UNCTADSTAT, dtbs Rvist d Ecmí Mudil 38, 2014,

10 , ) s ili m ($ Edurd Bidurrtzg Aurr, Artur Clm Jé, El Mrtíz Tl Figur 3. Imprtc f th EU i Sub-Shr Afric s trd, ) s ili m ($ ,0 35,0 (S h 30,0 r f th E 25,0 U i th 20,0 tr d f S u 15,0 ḇ S h r 10,0 A fric ) 5,0 35,0 (S h 30,0 r f th E 25,0 U i th 20,0 tr d f S u 15,0 ḇ S h r 10,0 A fric ) 5, , ,0 Imprts frm th EU Exprts t th EU Imprts frm th EU (% f ttl) Exprts t th EU (% f ttl) Imprts frm th EU Exprts t th EU Imprts frm th EU (% f ttl) Exprts t th EU (% f ttl) Surc: UNCTADSTAT, dtbs Althugh it fllws similr lgic t tht f its Amric cutrprts i tryig t frmlly ti th cmic rltis with rspctiv rs f ifluc, th Eurp p rgilism mdl is diffrt frm thm i umbr f rspcts. 9 First, ulik th FTAs prmtd by th US, th xprssi fr trd 10 ds t ppr i thir titls, v thugh it is xplicit bjctiv f th EPAs. Athr diffrc is tht th EU mdl is pckg, csistig t ly f th rciprcl trd rgim but ls tchicl ssistc d ficil ssistc (withi th frmwrk f th Eurp Dvlpmt Fuds), s wll s th biltrl id prgrmms f th EU mmbrs. Filly, thr pculirity, prducd by th prviusly mtid d fr psitiv discrimiti, is th spcil trtmt ccdd t th LDCs by rtiig prts f th prvius -rciprcl rgim d xtdig ths t ll LDCs i th rst f th wrld, rgrdlss f th mmbrship f th ACP grup. This lst ftur rsults frm th Evrythig But Arms (EBA) 11 iititiv luchd by th EU i 2001 (Bidurrtzg & Mrí, 2006). 9 Nvrthlss, sm schlrs clim tht dspit th diffrcs, th EU is prgrssivly mvig twrds icrsigly rstrictiv, mrctilist d busiss/mrkt ritd systm (Hurt, 2012; Mld & Pg, 2007). 10 Bfr th EPA prpsl ws md, th Eurp Cmmissi i 1995 publishd Fr Trd Ars: pprisl, i which thy st ut vry clrly th EU prspctiv i trms f th bfits fr Eurp f prmtig w frmwrk f mcr fr trd rs i Eurp s r f ifluc by ms f prgrssiv limiti f triffs (Gdis & Stm, 2005). 11 Th Evrythig But Arms iititiv, s its m implis, llws LDCs triff- d qut-fr ccss t th Eurp mrkt fr ll prducts xcpt fr rms. I dditi t this xplicitly mtid xprt, th iititiv ls ctid trsitry xclusi fr sm griculturl prducts such s bs, ric d sugr (Mrí, 2008; Gdis & Stm, 2005; Pg & Hwitt, 2002).

11 Ar Eu s Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts Dvlpmtl? A Assssmt f th Suthr Afric Rgi EPAs i prctic: my gtitis, fw grmts Th Ctu Agrmt did t spcify th full ctts f ch f th diffrt EPAs which wr t b gtitd. It limitd itslf t syig tht thy shuld prfrbly b st up with lrdy stblishd rgil grupigs, d tht thy shuld strt t th bgiig f 2008 with prcss f trd librlisti which wuld llw th full grmt t b prtiv by 2020 t th ltst. Hc, ftr yr f jit gtitis, th sprt gtitis btw th EU d sm f th Afric rgil grupigs bg i Sptmbr Fur gtitig frmwrks wr st up crrspdig t th EPAs i SSA. O f ths ws with th Ecmic Cmmuity f Wst Afric Stts (ECOWAS), which icludd its 15 mmbrs plus Muriti. A scd ws with th six mmbrs f th Ctrl Afric Ecmic d Mtry Cmmuity (CEMAC) with th dditi f Sã Tmé d Prícip d th Dmcrtic Rpublic f th Cg. A third ws with th 15 mmbrs f th Suthr Afric Dvlpmt Cmmuity (SADC), sm mmbrs f which ls gtitd i thr grups. Th lst f th fur ws th s-clld Estr d Suthr Afric (ESA) grup, csistig f cutris frm bth st d suth f th ctit, md up priciplly f mmbrs f th Cmm Mrkt fr Est d Suthr Afric (COMESA), rgil grup withi which ws ls t b fud th Est Afric Cmmuity (EAC) d sm thr SADC cutris. Frm th bgiig th Eurp Cmmissi s timtbl ws t gt th EPAs gig by Jury Thir mi rgumt fr this ws bsd th xpiry f th WTO wivr fr th Lmé -rciprcl prfrcs, which wr icmptibl with its trd ruls. Thus, th Eurp Cmmissi wishd t mk it clr tht thr ws ltrtiv but t ffr EBA trtmt fr LDCs d substtilly wrs trtmt, such s th Grlizd Systm f Prfrcs (GSP), fr th thrs. I ppsiti t this, mst Afric gvrmts d th twrk f scil mvmts d Eurp d Afric dvlpmt NGOs 12 ctiud t isist th d t mk th timtbl mr flxibl d cut dw th umbr f issus discussd i th gtitis, dvctig srch fr ltrtiv t EPAs, which th Ctu Agrmt itslf rcmmds shuld ccur wh thr is grmt btw th prtis. Spcificlly, ths prpsls icludd, mg thr thigs, rstrictig grmts t qustis rltd t trd ( light EPAs ), rqust furthr xtsi f th WTO xmpti f th Lmé ruls, d prpsig tht th EU ccd GSP+ r bttr. 13 Th bsc f ltrtivs pplid t th EU s pliticl will rthr th t th pssibility f fidig thr ptis mr fvurbl t th SSA cutris (Mrí, 2008; Mld, 2007,b; Bill d Rmp, 2006). 12 S th Stp EPAs cmpig luchd by th Afric Scil Frum i Vi wht ws clld th GPS+, th EU grtd grtr triff prfrcs t dvlpig cutris with th wkst cmis, s lg s thy ccptd sris f itrtil grmts ( hum rights, sustibility d gvrc, mg thrs thigs). Rvist d Ecmí Mudil 38, 2014,

12 284 Edurd Bidurrtzg Aurr, Artur Clm Jé, El Mrtíz Tl At th xpiry f th EU s gtitig ddli i Dcmbr 2007 thr xistd just full EPA with th cutris f th Cribb. Mwhil, mst f th thr ACP cutris tht culd t bfit frm LDC sttus, ly sigd prtil d itrim EPAs, ithr s idividul cutris r cutry grups. Th ly xcptis t this r th css f Nigri, Gb, Cg d Suth Afric. Th lttr cutry lrdy hd idividul trd grmt with th EU (th Trd Dvlpmt d Cprti Agrmt, TCDA) d th thr thr r xprtig udr th stdrd GSP grmt sic 1 Jury (EC, 2013; ECDPM, 2011). O f th Cmmissi s mi rgumts fr trsfrmig th Lmé mdl ws tht it cflicts with th WTO s rul big -rciprcl trd ccssis. Hwvr, this issu ws lrdy rslvd by th itrim grmts. Othr kids f ssitiv d ctrvrsil issus f grt itrst t th EU, hwvr, such s trd i srvics, itllctul prprty rights, librlizti f ivstmt, public ctrcts d cmptiti plicy, wr t icludd i th itrim EPAs. Tht is why th s-clld rdz vus clus ws icludd i th prtil grmts; i this th EU clrifid tht th gtitig prcss ws t cmplt d tht th SSA cutris hd t ctiu t gtit th issus mtid. All this rusd gd dl f cflict btw th prtis s tht, whil th Afric gvrmts dmstrtd thir ppsiti t icludig th missig issus, th EU ctiud t isist vigrusly th grt bfits which full EPAs wuld brig by prmittig widr isrti f th SSA cutris it th wrld cmy (Hurt, 2009; Mrí, 2008; Bidurrtzg, 2008). It is still th cs tht Afric rgi hs sigd full EPA. I Wst Afric rgil lvl grmt hs b rchd with ECOWAS, r with CEMAC i Ctrl Afric 15. I th ESA rgi th mmbr cutris f th EAC 16 dcidd i Nvmbr 2007 t frm sprt EPA dspit th fct tht, sid frm Ky, thks t th EBA iititiv, ll f thm, s LDCs, wuld b ligibl t ctiu udr th ld mdl. Aftr svrl ups d dws i th gtiti prcss, EU-EAC grmt hs b sigd yt. At th d f 2007 six ESA cutris hd iitilld itrim grmt, which ws sigd ly by fur 17 i It shuld b td tht th itrim grmts which hv b iitilld iclud bth LDCs d -LDCs. 18 Th prctg f gds icludd i th librlizti prcss, s wll s th spd f th gtitis, 14 Nigri d Gb skd t b icludd it th list f bficiris f bficiris f th GSP+ schm, but bth rqusts wr rjctd by th EC. 15 I Wst d Ctrl Afric th currt stt f th EPA gtitis is fllig shrt f xpcttis, s thr r yt rgil itrim grmts d ly fw idividul s with -LDCs. 16 Est Afric Cmmuity mmbrs r th fllwig: Ky, Tzi, Ugd, Burudi d Rud. 17 Sychlls, Muritius, Mdgscr d Zimbbw sigd th grmt, but Cmrs d Zmbi did t. 18 Djibuti, Eritr, Ethipi, Mlwi d Sud hv t iitilld th itrim grmt du t thir psiti s LDCs, which sic 2008 hs llwd thm t xprt udr th EBA iititiv. Nthlss, Zmbi, which is ls LDC, hs iitilld itrim grmt s prticipt i th ESA iititiv fr th st d suth f th ctit.

13 Ar Eu s Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts Dvlpmtl? A Assssmt f th Suthr Afric Rgi 285 vry btw diffrt cutris lthugh ll f thm r fllwig timtbl which wuld rsult i EPA by All cutris hv issud list f ssitiv prducts t b xcludd frm th dismtlig f thir custms triffs, whs ift prducrs rquir triff prtcti. Filly, rgrdig th SADC rgi, ly 8 ut f th 15 mmbr bg gtitis d 5 f ths 19, iitilld itrim grmt, which ws sigd i 2009 by ll f thm xcpt Nmibi. Nmibi s filur t sig th itrim grmt is svrly dlyig its strt f prtis, d th Eurp Cmmissi is puttig th Nmibi gvrmt udr lt f prssur t sig it. Th mi bstcl risd by th Nmibi rprsttivs ccrs th thrt tht EPA will rprst fr rgil itgrti, rfrrig spcificlly t SACU. 20 This pii is shrd by th Suth Afric gvrmt. O th thr hd, Agl rtis its prvius rgim du t it big LDC, d Tzi is gtitig i th EAC, whil Suth Afric xprts t th EU udr its w Trd, Dvlpmt d Cprti Agrmt (TDCA) 21 sigd i 1999 (EC, 2013; ECDPM, , 2011). Withi th lbyrithi cmplxity f this mp f grmts i th vrius rgis mtid, th mst trublsm cs is tht f th rgil grup SADC, chrctrisd by th fct tht its mmbrs r prticiptig i diffrt gtitig grups withi th Ctrl, Estr d Suthr rgis f th ctit. 4. EPAs d dvlpmt i Suthr Afric As gist th Eurp Cmmissi s pr-epa rgumts, which w lt t clssicl Ricrdi rgumts i fvur f fr trd, lrg rg f criticl psitis hv b put frwrd by Afric gvrmts, cdmics d civil scity. 22 Thy pit t th lss f custms rvus, th vulrbility f spcific sctrs t Eurp cmptiti, th EU s dubl stdrds, gtitig wksss th Afric sid, distrtis f th Afric rgil itgrti prcsss d th iclusi i th gtitis f spcilly ctrvrsil d difficult tpics (such s th trtmt f srvics, itllctul prprty rights, ivstmt, public prcurmt d s ). 19 W rfr t Btsw, Swzild, Nmibi, Lsth d Mzmbiqu, big th lst tw LDCs. 20 Th Suthr Afric Custms Ui (SACU) is cmpsd f Btsw, Lsth, Swzild, Nmibi d Suth Afric. I rct yrs, bcus f th sigig f th itrim EPAs with th EU by th first 3 f th mtid SACU mmbrs, th thr tw hv clld fr jit gtitis by th whl custms ui s its ruls dmd. 21 T prvt ichrc i th triffs btw SACU mmbrs, mr th 50 TCDA triff ctgris hv hd t b chgd t mk csistt with ths gtitd by th UE with Btsw, Lsth d Swzild. 22 Sm studis, rudly ppsd by th Eurp Cmmissi, dpt clr psiti tht ths grmts r hrmful t th ACP cutris. Th study EUROSTEP (2004): Nw ACP-EU Trd Arrgmts: Nw Brrirs t Erdictig Pvrty?, fr istc, rgus tht th fr trd rs prpsd by th EU will wrs umplymt, fd iscurity, ccss t ficig d t scil srvics s wll s th vulrbility f wm. Rvist d Ecmí Mudil 38, 2014,

14 286 Edurd Bidurrtzg Aurr, Artur Clm Jé, El Mrtíz Tl 4.1. Trd issus Sic Eurp mrkts fr Afric prducts r lrdy, with th xcpti f gricultur, lrgly librlizd, th mi ffct f EPAs will b t icrs EU xprts t SSA. It is t vry clr, hwvr, tht th w EPA mdl will cus icrs i th rgi s xprts t th EU. Ths wh will jy bfits frm th w ccrds will b csumrs i Suthr Afric d prducrs i th EU, t th dtrimt f th prductiv structur f th Afric cutris which th burd f djustmt will fll (Hurt, 2012, 2009; Gdis & Stm, 2005). As w c s i Figur 3, util th rct cmic rcssi th trd blc f th EU durig th lst dcd hs b mily gtiv with SSA. Th trd blc btw th EU d SADC fllws similr pttr. S, th pig f th mrkts f ths Afric cutris t EU xprts will hlp miti th currt trd surplus i fvur f th EU, gist th ppsit trd durig mst f th prvius dcd. It culd ls b hlpful fr th EU i rdr t slw dw th grwth f th xprts frm Asi cutris, spcilly frm Chi, whs mi trdig prtrs i th rgi r Suth Afric d Agl (Hurt, 2012, 2009, Nidu t l., 2009). Amg th qustis which mst wrry gvrmts i th rgi r th lss f fiscl rvus 23 d th rsultig rducti f rsurcs i thir rspctiv public sctrs, s wll s th fr f cfrtig mr cmptitiv Eurp prducrs i vrius sctrs, v thugh th spd f librlizti my b slwr fr gds rgrdd s mr ssitiv. I this rspct, th shrp diffrcs i cmptitivss d prductiv divrsity btw th EU d SADC r ctrl thm. Th figurs blw shw clrly th lrg iqulitis f this kid btw mst cutris i th tw rgil grups, which is wrig f pttil symmtry i th shrig f csts d bfits f mrkt librlizti fr th tw sids. Frm Figur 4, which illustrts cmprtiv cmptitivss, 24 w s tht mst f th Eurp cmis r i th lwr lft qudrt, th bst 23 A usful xmpl is th cs f th mmbrs f th SACU custms ui, kw s BLNS plus Suth Afric. Ths cutris hd t dpt thir triffs s rsult f th TDCA grmt btw th EU d Suth Afric. Vrius studis stimtd t th tim tht th lss f fiscl icm fr ths cutris wuld b: Btsw 5.3 prct, Nmibi 8.6 prct, Lsth 12.9 prct d Swzild 13.9 prct. Th srch fr ltrtiv gvrmt rvus i such circumstcs is t lwys sy, prticulrly i th ctxt f cutris i which ifrml cmy is sigifict. Th risk tht it will wk th stt s bility t supply bsic srvics shuld b tk it ccut (Gdis & Stm, 2005). 24 Th Wrld Cmptitivss Idx is cmpsd f th wightd ms f th fllwig 12 idictrs: istitutis, ifrstructur, mcrcmic frmwrk, hlth d primry ducti, highr ducti d triig, fficit mrkts, fficit lbur mrkt, dvlpmt f th ficil mrkt, tchlgicl dispsiti, mrkt siz, crprt sphisticti d ivti. Th first fur (cmptitivss 1) r grupd udr th titl f bsic rquirmts, th fllwig six (cmptitivss 2) udr fficicy hcrs d th lst tw udr ivti d sphisticti fctrs. Fr mr ifrmti th rk d vlu f th idx fr EU d SADC cutris s Ax 1 (WEF, ).

15 Ar Eu s Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts Dvlpmtl? A Assssmt f th Suthr Afric Rgi 287 psitis f th tw rkigs big fr Fild, Swd, th Nthrlds d Grmy. O th thr hd, mst f th SADC cutris r i th uppr right hd qudrt, which ms lw scr fr bth idictrs, th wrst cutris big Mzmbiqu d Lsth 25. I th lwr right-hd qudrt r fw cmis with highr scr fr fficicy hcrs th fr bsic rquirmts. Hr Suth Afric is xcptil, ccupyig 37th plc fr fficicy hcrs d 84 th plc fr bsic rquirmts. I th uppr lft qudrt is Sychlls, which, lthugh it is wll situtd bsic rquirmts (46 th ), is s lw s 91 st i fficicy hcrs. Filly, twrthy SADC cutry is Muritius, which hs ccptbl scr bth idictrs. Figur 4: cmptitivss: EU27 d SADC cmprd, Swzild 120 Mlwi Tzi Zmbi Nmibi rs) 100 c h Sychlls E Btsw c y i 80 fic (E 2 Grc s Muritius 60 Rmi Slvi Bulgri Hugry titiv p Ltvi Slvki Prtugl m Lithui C 40 Cyprus Mlt Itly Suth Afric Czch Rpublic Luxmburg Esti Spi Irld Austri 20 Frc Pld Fild Blgium Dmrk Grmy Swd Nthrlds U. K Cmptitivss 1 (Bsic Rquirmts) Surc: Prducd by th uthrs bsd dt i WEF, Zimbbw Lsth Mzmbiqu Rgrdig th idx f xprt cctrti 26 thr r vry mrkd diffrcs t i bth rgil grups s c b s i Figur 5. Hr, t xtrm w fid th mjrity f th SADC cutris, with Agl th mst xtrm, fllwd by Btsw d Zmbi, mst ll f thm shwig highr lvls f cctrti th th mjrity f EU27 cutris, with th xcpti 25 It shuld b tk it ccut tht thr is vilbl dt fr Agl d D.R. f Cg, big bth vry likly t rk i th lwst psitis wh it cms t th cmptitivss idictrs big usd hr. 26 Th vlu f th cctrti idx is btw 0 d 1 (rspctivly idictig th lwst d highst lvl f cctrti, r th highst d lwst lvl f divrsity). Rvist d Ecmí Mudil 38, 2014,

16 288 Edurd Bidurrtzg Aurr, Artur Clm Jé, El Mrtíz Tl f Mlt, Irld d Grc, mg thrs. Amg SADC mmbrs, cutris such s Suth Afric, Tzi, Zimbbw 27, Nmibi, Swzild d Muritius std ut, s hvig grtr vrity f xprts th thir ighburs. Figur 5. Idx f xprt cctrti (UE27 d SADC), ,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 ly It stri u A d l P l g rtu P rk c m F r D i i tv m L R y rm G i s d m S p iu rl lg th B N m d lic d b S w g u p i K R d c h it z C U ry ri g u lg u H B rg u b m x L u d l F i i st E k i. i v Ṛ fric S l A v, U w i i s d s b ib ru c d th S l i b u m y p C zil ritiu l th u u S z im L ith N u r s iq Z S w G Ir L b m M z T M lt M i g w s l l i b C. M p y c h m Z. R S m D tsw B l g A Surc: UNCTADSTAT dtbs Udr ths circumstcs, th pig up t th EU cmptiti culd b vry hrmful fr th xistig lcl mufcturig d fd prcssig idustris i th rgi, d mk vry difficult th cssry divrsificti f thir cmis d th dvlpmt f sct idustris (Hurt, 2012). Th lw scr f mst Suthr Afric cutris i th wid vrity f th cmptitivss idictrs icludd giv vidc f thm t big wll quippd fr trd librlizti with th EU (Buss, 2010) Bsids, th EU s trd plicy i griculturl prducts c b dscribd s ichrt. Dspit th Cmmissi s ffr f duty fr qut fr ccss t Eurp mrkts if EPAs wr pprvd, dmstic subsidis t th griculturl sctr r still vry sigifict. 28 I dditi, th EU s priritis hygi 27 Th srius cmic, scil d pliticl crisis i Zimbbw i rct yrs, hwvr, hs put it mg th lwst plcs i th rgi with rgrd t cmptitivss. 28 I dditi t th whl Cmm Agriculturl Plicy (CAP) pckg, rsrvtis wr ls xprssd by Itly, Grc, Frc, Spi d Prtugl s rsult f disputs but th dmiti f sm Suth Afric wis d liqurs, but th mrkt fr fruit d drivtivs d but cut flwrs. Abut 26 prct f th Suth Afric griculturl prducts xprtd t Eurp mrkts wr xcludd frm th fr trd cditis ffrd by th trty t this cutry (Gdis, 2000).

17 Ar Eu s Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts Dvlpmtl? A Assssmt f th Suthr Afric Rgi 289 d hlth rgultis fr fd prducts hs sic th 1990s ld t th pplicti f grwig umbr f miimum rquirmts, which d up bcmig thr typ f trd brrir gist SADC cutris. This bv ll ffcts fish d griculturl prducts d thir mufcturs, imprtt prt f th xprts f Mlwi, Tzi, Nmibi, Zimbbw d Swzild, mg thrs (Gdis & Stm, 2005). Aprt frm trd i gds, th Eurp Cmmissi hs shw grt itrst i icludig srvics i th gtitis. Tht hs ls prducd ctrvrsy giv tht it is s s futur thrt t lcl firms, prst d pttil, i sctrs such s tlcmmuictis r bkig whr Eurp firms r vry cmptitiv. This viw is spcilly prst i Suth Afric du t its psiti s th mi supplir f srvics i th rgi, spcilly t th BLSN cutris (Btsw, Lsth, Swzild d Nmibi) (V dr Hlst, 2009; Gdis, 2009). I rdr t cmpst fr ths uqul structurs, th EU hs st up Aid fr Trd prgrmm tht ims t imprv th cpcity t trd by th cutris i th rgi. 29 Dspit its thrticl pttil, th smll mut f rsurcs ssigd t this prgrmm up t w, d th lck f prticipti i th dsig d plig f th schm by Afric prducrs, rvl c mr th ichrc f th EU s plicis: Eurp prducrs rciv grus public id d prgrmms t imprv th cmptitivss f gricultur d fd idustris, whil prducrs sscitis prticipt i th dsig f plicis t cp with chgs i trd d prducti (Gdis, 2009) Othr rltd issus Ivstmt, itllctul prprty rights, public prcurmt d cmptiti plicis ls frm prt f th gtitig pckg f th EPAs. If th cpitl mrkt is librlisd i th futur it is pssibl t imgi lrgr mut f FDI gig t th SADC cutris. This rifrcs th d t stblish prfrmc rquirmts fr ivstrs. Yt, just s i th cs f th Lti Amric Fr Trd Agrmts, th tdcy hr sms t b th ppsit, i th ss tht th fild iititiv t st up Multiltrl Agrmt Ivstmt (MAI) is w rturig thrugh th bck dr i th frm f rgil MAI. Prdxiclly, mpiricl vidc sms t shw tht rcipit cutris my ly bfit frm FDI flws if pprprit gvrmt rgultis d istitutis r i plc (Buss, 2010). I this ctxt, th itti f th EU is t priritis th itrsts f th Eurp ivstrs gist ths f gvr- 29 Th ccpt f Aid fr Trd is t limitd t hlpig with cr trd ctivitis such s supprt fr imprvig prts r custms fcilitis r strgthig prtrs trd gtiti cpcity, (th sclld Trd-rltd Assistc ), but ls t widr qustis such s th dvlpmt f trsprt d tlcmmuictis ifrstructur rltd t trd r ssistc t prticulr prductiv sctrs. Rvist d Ecmí Mudil 38, 2014,

18 290 Edurd Bidurrtzg Aurr, Artur Clm Jé, El Mrtíz Tl mts i th rgi which, s rsult, ls thir rm fr muvr t luch pr-dvlpmt plicis t tim wh Eurp trstil cmpis r mvig it thir cutris (Fbr & Orbi, 2009; Itrmó-Oxfm, 2008; Bidurrtzg, 2008). As i th cs f trd, th mi rss fr th EU t put ths trd rltd issus but th librlisti f FDI th gtitig gd r th fllwig: th prvius mv by its mi cmptitr, th USA, i th sm dircti thrugh its Fr Trd Agrmts (FTAs) with Lti Amric cutris; d th icrsig try f cpitl it th rgi frm thr -trditil prtrs such s Chi, Idi, Mlysi, Brzil, th Arb cutris, Suth Kr d Tiw (UNCTAD, 2012). S th EU s prpsls try t g byd th Ctu Agrmt r th WTO ruls, ddig up t wht hs b clld WTO+ grmts. This frmwrk ims t mk prgrss t th rgil lvl th gtiti f issus which r t prst t stdstill t th multiltrl lvl f th WTO (Itrmó-Oxfm, 2008; Bidurrtzg, 2008; Kt, 2007). I mst css th cutris f Suthr Afric hv ithr th cpcity r th d t gtit such qustis which thy hv cutrd bfr i th WTO d which r t ffctd by th xpiry f th wivr tht th EU usd s rgumt fr chgig its prvius mdl (Gdis, 2009; My, 2008; Itrmó-Oxfm, 2008; Mrí, 2008; Kt, 2007). Th fct tht th EU, th mi trdig prtr d dr i th rgi, hs mgd t mk ths issus, which th dvlpig cutris hv lwys rfusd t gtit i th WTO, prt f th futur gtitis th cmplti f th EPAs shws th xtt f symmtry btw th tw prtis gtitig strgths. Ufrtutly, thir iclusi i full EPA fr th SADC rgi wuld hv srius dtrimtl ffct ths cutris i trms f rducti f plicy spc (Hurt, 2012; 2009). Mti shuld ls b md f wht r kw s th cttius issus : th trsiti prids, th itrprtti f th phrs substtilly ll trd, th pricipl f til trtmt, rgil prfrc, sfgurd cluss d ift idustry prvisis, th mst fvurd ti pricipl d ruls f rigi. Th dgr f flxibility ths tchicl qustis will dtrmi whthr thir ffcts will b mr r lss fvurbl t th dvlpmt f th cutris i th rgi (Lui & Bill, 2009) Additil cfusi: rgil vrlppig i Suthr Afric Filly, s t th ffct f th EPAs th supprt d strgthig f th pr-xistig rgil grups i SSA, th rsults up t w r limitd, d Suthr Afric is i this ss prdigmtic. I th cs f SADC ly 8 f th 15 mmbrs f th grup r prticiptig i th currt gtitig prcss d, f ths, Tzi hs trd itrim grmt with th EAC. Of th rst, ly 4 (Btsw, Lsth, Swzild d Mzmbiqu) hv sigd

19 Ar Eu s Ecmic Prtrship Agrmts Dvlpmtl? A Assssmt f th Suthr Afric Rgi 291 itrim grmt crrspdig t disfigurd SADC-mius. Th first 3 f ths, plus Nmibi d Suth Afric, 30 frm th SACU, th ldst custms ui th ctit. Agl will rti its prvius sttus i its cditi f LDC, d th Dmcrtic Rpublic f th Cg hs fr w trd gtitis with th Ctrl Afric. As fr th 6 rmiig cutris (Mdgscr, Muritius, Sychlls, Mlwi, Zmbi d Zimbbw), thy ls blg t th ESA grup, which is t prprly spkig, rgil grupig but rthr ggrphicl z i which 16 mmbrs f COMESA prticipt s EPA gtitig prtr, but thr COMESA mmbrs d t. Burudi, Ky, Rwd d Ugd (ls COMESA mmbrs) hv gtitd sprt grmt with th EAC custms ui lg with Tzi, mmbr f SADC, s lrdy mtid (EC, 2013; ECDPM, , 2011). S, tkig th SADC rgi s rfrc pit, w fid vrius frgmtd gtiti prcsss i which ll its mmbrs, prt frm Agl, th Dmcrtic Rpublic f th Cg d Suth Afric, hv dd up iitillig itrim grmts with th EU with diffrt timtbls d ctt i thr diffrt frmwrks: th SADC, th ESA grup d th EAC, icludd i th frmr. If th gtitig cpcity f th ACP cutris ws lrdy limitd, this divisi i diffrt rgil grups, which i tur mk disggrgtd pprchs t w sub-grups, must limit it v furthr (Kt, 2007; Gdis d Stm, 2005). I ctrst t thr rgis f th ctit, i Suthr Afric mst f th LDCs f SADC hv sigd itrim grmts ccptig rciprcity i thir mrchdis trd whil thrticlly cutig th pssibility f ctiuig with th prvius rgim f -rciprcl prfrcs. This culd b udrstd by th fct tht fr th LDCs t sigig EPA, this situti turs prblmtic i th vt f jiig custms ui i which y f th prtrs i it hs grd rciprcl trd ruls with th EU. Tht will m ithr tht it is hrd t gurt tht such cutris c ctiu t jy th bfits f th prvius rgim, r tht it will b cssry t stblish strict mchisms t ctrl ruls f rigi, d this will crt difficultis fr th prmti f itr-rgil trd (Mrí, 2008; Thms, 2004; Hurt, 2003; Sligc-Lcmt, 2001). Giv ll this cfusi, th xtrl ifluc f th EU thrugh th EPAs is rshpig rgil itgrti iititivs i SSA i grl, d i Suthr Afric i prticulr, twrds librl frms f rgilism, but mkig thm mr difficult fr its mmbr cutris t th sm tim. As rsult f th sig- 30 Th gvrmt f Suth Afric is prticulrly disstisfid with th iclusi f Mst Fvurd Nti clus i th itrim EPA f th SADC grup i which th mjrity f its SACU ighburs r prticiptig. This clus, which ws t icludd i th prvius grmt (TDCA) with th EU, limits Suth Afric s trd gtitis with thr cutris such s Brzil d Chi (Hurt, 2012, 2009; V dr Hlst, 2009). Th disgrmt isid SACU, whrby Nmibi d Suth Afric pps sigig itrim SADC EPA, clrly shws th distrtis d frgmtti wrkd by th EPA frmwrk th pr-xistig ttmpts t itgrti i Suthr Afric (Gdis, 2009). Rvist d Ecmí Mudil 38, 2014,

20 292 Edurd Bidurrtzg Aurr, Artur Clm Jé, El Mrtíz Tl ig f grmts rchd thrugh gtitis with idividul cutris r with grups f cutris which d t crrspd t pr-xistig rgil grupigs, iititivs twrds Afric itgrti will b wkd d distrtd 31 (Buzdug, 2013; Vickrs, 2011; Mrí, 2008; Thms, 2004; Mtmbly, 2000). Thrfr, th chrc f rgil itgrti i th SADC rgi is currtly sriusly dmgd, giv tht mst f its mmbr stts r ivlvd i thr EPA gtitis. Bsids, th s ivlvd i th EPA-SADC, xcpt fr Mzmbiqu, r mr ccrd but its ffcts th futur f SACU th f SADC (Hurt, 2012, 2009). If this is t b vidd th fllwig will b cssry: flxibl librlisti f custms triffs d mr flxibility th prviusly mtid cttius issus; rifrcig th prductiv cpcitis f ift idustris d f fd prcssig prducti; bstig th buildig f ifrstructur which rifrcs itgrti; crfully chsig cmic plicis; d, bv ll, prir cslidti f itgrti iititivs such s SADC. All this is dsigd t prvt prmtur utwrd-ritd itgrti with th EU prducig distrtig ffcts d dig up s iwrd-lkig disitgrti f th rgi s cmis (Hurt, 2012; 2009; Hrtzbrg, 2011; Buss, 2010; Kt, 2007; L, 2004). 5. Cclusis Chgs i th wrld cmy vr rct dcds hv ld t rrwig th tpic f rgil itgrti t simplr plicy f frig trd d thr cmic trsctis, d xtsi f this pprch t grupigs f cutris f th Nrth d Suth tgthr. This is ft itrprtd s itrmdit stp twrds th glbl librlizti f crti mrkts d s prrquisit fr pprprit isrti f th SSA cmis i th wrld cmy. Evidtly, ths tdcis hv littl t d with rlir pprchs rltd t p-africism r itgrti s istrumt f cllctiv slfrlic d dgus dvlpmt. Dspit its pliticlly crrct rhtric d its suppsd ccr t prmt dvlpmt i SSA, th EU is ttmptig t hdlg spd t imps ths cutris cmic grmts which gurt privilgd rltis with its r f ifluc udr th w frmul f p rgilism. But ths i thir tur rus mjr dubts but thir csqucs fr dvlpmt d but thir ffct imprvig th cditis f lif f th prst ppl i th rgi. Th EU s isistc sigig withut dly sm kid f EPA (itrim if full EPA is t pssibl) sms t hv bcm mr urgt s rsult f th cmic rltis dvlpig btw SSA d -trditil prtrs, i prticulr Chi, th grt mrgig wrld cmic pwr. Tht, lg with 31 It is ugh t sk if it is ccivbl tht mmbr cutris f th EU, idividully r i smll subgrups, culd gtit grmts lik EPAs with cslidtd rgil grups i thr ctits withut prvkig mjr pliticl crisis isid th EU itslf.

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