1 Directive on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe, status of the implementation Torino, Italy, 26 October 2009 Alessandro Bertello European Commission
2 Contents Directive 2008/50/EC, Main new contents Overview on the time extension process Other implementation issues Guidance on the quantification of the contribution of natural sources Guidance on winter salting and sanding of roads Guidance and setting up common monitoring station for PM2.5.
3 New air quality directive Main New Contents: most of existing legislation be merged into a single directive (except for the fourth daughter directive) New air quality objectives for PM2.5 (fine particles) possibility for time extensions of three years (PM10) or up to five years (NO2, benzene) possibility to discount natural sources of pollution and resuspension attributable to winter sanding-salting of roads when assessing compliance against limit values Transposition in MS is expected by June 2010
4 Community Air Policy AQD* Concentrations Emissions *Air quality Directives 1 St Daughter 2 nd Daughter Framework Directive National emissions ceilings Stationary sources Mobile Sources Air Pollution 3 rd Daughter IPPC LCP s Incineration VOC s 4 th Daughter Exchange Information CAFE Directive Non-road Fuels Quality Road
5 Art Time extension Postponement of attainment deadline 3 years for PM10 (mid 2011) 5 years for NO2 and Benzene (2015) Conditions to obtain postponement all appropriate measures have been taken at national, regional and local level to achieve compliance by the initial attainment date, i.e or 2010 For PM10 there should be causality between exceedances and the occurrence of one or more of the following factors: Site specific dispersion characteristics, Adverse climatic conditions, Transboundary contributions compliance with the limit values will be achieved by the new deadline, i.e. June 2011 for PM10 and 1 January 2015 at the latest for NO 2 or benzene all notifications must be accompanied by an Air Quality Plan Limit value limit value plus margin of tolerance shall not be exceeded
6 New Contents - Time extension NO 2 ANNUAL LIMIT VALUE TIME EXTENSION EXERCISE Time Extension LV TE-LV 01/01/00 01/07/00 01/01/01 01/07/01 01/01/02 01/07/02 01/01/03 01/07/03 01/01/04 01/07/04 01/01/05 01/07/05 01/01/06 01/07/06 01/01/07 01/07/07 01/01/08 01/07/08 01/01/09 01/07/09 01/01/10 01/07/10 01/01/11 01/07/11 01/01/12 01/07/12 01/01/13 01/07/13 µg/m 3 01/01/14 01/07/14 01/01/15 01/07/15 01/01/16 01/07/ Upper assessment threshold 32 µg/m3 Lower assessment threshold 26 µg/m3
7 Time extension - state of play (PM10) 329 zones in exceedance in MS affected by exceedances Ireland, Finland and Luxemburg in compliance Lithuania winter sanding/salting (2007) 18 MS notified to date, 308 zones (may not include all their zones in exceedance) Estonia, Malta, Romania, Slovenia and Sweden have not notified Decisions taken for 13 MS (NL, AT, BE, DE, DK, EL, ES, FR, HU, SK CZ, LV, IT), Further decisions in autumn, up to January 2009 ( PT, DE, ES, PL, UK, BG, CY, IT)
8 Time extension - state of play (NO 2 ) 240 zones in exceedance in 2007 (57 zones in exceedance of LV and 183 of LV+MOT) 22 MS affected by exceedances Cyprus, Estonia, Ireland, Lithuania and Slovenia were in compliance in MS notified to date NL (9 zones) and CZ (1 zone) Decisions taken for 2 MS NO 2 wave expected in 2010, additional discussion in WG Time extension and Workshop in preparation
9 Time extension - assessment Assessment 1st condition Source apportionment First occurrence of an exceedance triggering abatement action pursuant to Directive 1999/30/EC The relevance of the measures taken in relation to the identified sources The impact of the external factors, such as transboundary contributions
10 Time extension - assessment Assessment 2nd condition Criteria as defined in COM(2008)403 or equivalent Generally well substantiated More details are needed when other indicators/criteria are used than those in the Communication
11 Time extension - assessment Assessment 3rd condition Source apportionment Projected concentration levels at the expiry of the exemption period Estimated impact of additional measures Air quality plan accompanying the notification
12 Time extension - Exemptions Exemptions apply until 10 June 2011 Air quality zones delimitation reference year Annual air quality report shall include Information on compliance with limit values plus margin of tolerance from specific information about the exceedance situations to confirm compliance
13 Time extension - Grounds for objections The Member State has not fully demonstrated that the conditions in Article 22 are satisfied has not satisfied one or more of the conditions is already complying with the limit values
14 Time extension Summing up No objection: 25 zones are exempt from applying the daily PM10 limit value (NL, AT, DE, HU, IT, CZ). 4 zones are exempt from applying the annual PM10 limit value but not the daily (HU, IT). Objections raised in respect of AT, BE, DK, EL, ES, FR, HU, SK, IT, CZ, LV as follows: 1st condition: 35 zones because the condition is not satisfied in 7 zones, and not sufficiently substantiated in 28 zones; 2nd condition: 57 zones because the condition is not satisfied in 4 zones, and not sufficiently substantiated in 53 zones; 3rd condition: 126 zones because the condition is not satisfied in 4 zones, and not sufficiently substantiated in 122 zones Compliance has been achieved in 46 zones 29 zones comply with the annual limit value 17 zones comply with the daily limit value
15 Time extension - Objections - consequences Infringement proceedings to be launched if limit values are exceeded New notification possible? Yes! - if the new notification contains: Clear and unambiguous indication of the new information If necessary, justification of why this information was not available earlier
16 Time extension First impression Significant effort in planning and managing air quality especially in recent years Often the formal status of air quality plan, funding for identified measures not clear Limited information on reflection why compliance was not achieved by 2005 Quantification of projected impact of measures often missing, this hamper reliable projection of air quality levels In few cases: info on short term action, coherence with climate, noise policy No information on IPPC application of Article 10 No specific measures addressing vulnerable population
17 New Guidance Under the New air quality directive several guidance documents have to be published in order to facilitate the implementation process Guidelines for demonstration and subtraction of exceedances attributable to natural sources - Art 20 (3) Guidelines for determination of contributions from the re-suspension of particulate following winter sanding or -salting or roads Art 21(5) Guidelines for the agreements on setting up common measuring stations for PM2.5 measurement at rural background station Art 6(5) Guidance on the demonstration of equivalence
18 Guidance on the quantification of the contribution of natural sources JRC Workshop + report on Contribution of natural sources to air pollution levels in the EU Six key principles Natural contributions must have natural origin and be due to a natural event. (A non-exhaustive list of sources of which contributions can be eligible for subtraction is proposed) Quantification of the natural contribution must be sufficiently precise and accurate. Quantification of the natural contribution must be consistent to the averaging period of the limit value. Quantification of the natural sources must be spatially described. Contributions must be demonstrated in a process of systematic assessment. Quantification of the natural sources must be demonstrated for each pollutant separately.
19 Guidance on assessing the contribution of wintersanding and salting based on the results of a study conducted by the Umweltbundesamt of Austria for the European Commission (Spangl et al., 2009) 5 key principles Contributions must be attributed unequivocally to winter-sanding or - salting activities Quantification must be sufficiently precise and accurate and appropriate to the averaging period of the limit value Spatial representativeness of the affected monitoring station shall be defined The contribution of winter-sanding or -salting to the measured PM10 concentration has to be quantified in µg/m³ for each exceedance day The method to determine this contribution has to be documented
20 Guidance on common measuring stations for PM2.5 at rural background This guidance has been drafted on the results of a study conducted by the Umweltbundesamt of Austria under a contract with the European Commission. metodology Identify the large-scale representative areas covering the territory. Calculate the required number of stations. Identify existing stations (e.g. EMEP sites) or potential new locations which fulfill the criteria for rural background sites with the objective to maximize the number of covered different representative (i.e. climatic) areas and also to cover the maximum percentage of the Member State s territory. Find agreement with neighbouring Member States for appropriate common monitoring stations.
21 Guidance on demonstration of equivalence guide to the demonstration of equivalence of ambient air monitoring methods Document produced by the EC Working Group on Demonstration of Equivalence. assess the ambient air quality in Member States on the basis of common methods and criteria. Definition of equivalence An equivalent method to the reference method for the measurement of a specified air pollutant, is a method meeting the data quality objectives for fixed measurements specified in the relevant air quality directive The document is available at the EC web site
22 Conclusion Implementation of directive 2008/50/EC is following the scheduled agenda PM10 time extension and enforcement in full swing Resource intensive for both sides EC and MSs Some work remains to be done in many Member States there are some weak points in the air quality management, Impact of planned air quality measures is often unknown this hamper reliable projection of air quality levels. positive feedback received increasing awareness of the need to take action widespread will to improve the tools used for air quality management the quality of the plans has improved significantly compared to those communicated to the Commission in previous years
23 Some Data PM10 - number of exceedances of daily limit value Comparison between highest hot spots and highest background concentrations 15 major European cities (2006) AMSTERDAM ATHENS BERLIN BRUSSELS BUCHAREST BUDAPEST LISBOA LONDON MADRID PARIS PRAGUE ROMA STOCKHOLM WARSZAWA WIEN Torino statistic_value background statistic_value - hot spot limit_value
24 Some Data NO2 - annual average Comparison between highest hot spots and highest background concentrations 15 major European cities (2006) AMSTERDAM ATHENS BERLIN BRUSSELS BUCHAREST BUDAPEST LISBOA LONDON MADRID PARIS PRAGUE ROMA STOCKHOLM WARSZAWA WIEN Torino statistic_value background statistic_value - hot spot limit_value
25 Some Data Hot spot country station_city NO2 Annual mean 1 RO BUCHAREST 126,409 2 GB LONDON 110,613 3IT ROMA 99,659 4IT TORINO 94,007 5 RO BUCHAREST 90,416 6IT ROMA 89,539 7IT ROMA 86,661 8 IT PERUGIA 86,226 9 ES MADRID 85, GR ATHENS 85, IT TRIESTE 83, GB LONDON 83, DE STUTTGART 82, IT ROMA 81, IT ROMA 81, DE MUNCHEN 78, IT PESCARA 78, IT PALERMO 77, IT MILANO 77, IT ROMA 76, IT TRIESTE 76,35 22 AT SCHWAZ 76, IT MILANO 75, IT LATINA 75, CZ PRAGUE 74, ES BARCELONA 74, AT WIEN 73,87 28 IT , DE MUNCHEN 73, IT PAVIA 73,758 country station_city PM10 n. exceedance 1 IT SIRACUSA 276 2BG Pernik PL KRAKOW 250 4HU MISKOLC 223 5ES BAILÃ N RO BUCHAREST 217 7ES ZARAGOZA IT PALERMO SK RUZOMBEROK RO BUCHAREST PL KRAKOW ES SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE BG Pernik PL WARSZAWA SK VELKA IDA RO TIMISOARA RO IASI IT TORINO RO BUCHAREST CZ CESKY TESIN GR ATHENS BE CHARLEROI PL WODZISLAW SLASKI DE BG Sofia IT REZZATO IT TORINO BG Plovdiv CZ BOHUMIN CY NICOSIA 167
26 Some Data Background station country city NO2 Y 1IT MILANO 68,834 2 IT TORINO 67,63 3IT TRENTO 67,265 4 NL AMSTERDAM 64,914 5 RS BELGRADE 58,742 6 IT GENOVA 57,796 7 GB LONDON 56,832 8 GB LONDON 54,541 9IT TORINO 52, MK SKOPJE 52, IT MILANO 52, IT BRESCIA 51, IT ERBA 51, GB LONDON 50, IT RIMINI 50, GB LONDON 50, IT BOLOGNA 50,74 18 GB LONDON 50, IT PIOLTELLO 49, IT MODENA 48, GB LONDON 48, IT MEDA 48, GB LONDON 48, IT LA SPEZIA 47, IT SARONNO 47, IT VINOVO 47, ES BARCELONA 47, GR PIREAS 47, GB GLASGOW 46,92 30 IT PADOVA 46,867 country city PM10 d 1 SK RUZOMBEROK 204 2PL KRAKOW BG Pernik RO TIMISOARA 187 5IT TORINO CZ CESKY TESIN 179 7BE CHARLEROI PL WODZISLAW SLASKI BG Sofia IT REZZATO IT TORINO BG Plovdiv CZ BOHUMIN BG Veliko Tarnovo IT TREZZO SULL'ADDA PL OLESNO HU BUDAPEST PL KRAKOW GR LYKOVRISI PL RYBNIK BG Plovdiv BA SARAJEVO PL ZABRZE BG Sofia BG GORNA ORIAHOVICA ES SEVILLA IT MEDA IT MILANO IT RO BUCHAREST 148
27 Thank you
28 New Contents - PM2.5 Standards for reducing concentrations of fine particles PM2.5 Concentration cap (limit value target value 2010) Concentration cap of 25µg/m3 annual average to apply everywhere. Exposure reduction target Target to reduce national average measured urban background concentration by a variable percentage fixed in annex XIV between 2010 and 2020 Exposure concentration obligation: AEI 20 µg/m3 by 2015 Exposure concentration target: AEI 25 µg/m3 by 2010
29 New Contents - PM 2.5 Average exposure indicator The AEI expressed in µg/m3 shall be based upon measurements in urban background locations in zones and agglomerations throughout the territory of a Member State. It should be assessed as a three-calendar year running annual mean, The AEI for the reference year 2010 shall be the mean concentration of the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 for the 2015 shall be the mean concentration of the years Minimum number of sampling points for fixed measurement to assess compliance with the PM2,5 exposure reduction target for the protection of human health One sampling point per million inhabitants summed over agglomerations and additional urban areas in excess of inhabitants shall be operated for this purpose.
30 New Contents - PM 2.5 Measurements at rural background measurements shall be made, at rural background locations away from significant sources of air pollution one sampling point shall be installed every 100,000 km2 each Member State shall set up at least one measuring station or may, by agreement with adjoining Member States, set up one or several common measuring stations, covering the relevant neighbouring zones, to achieve the necessary spatial resolution; Measurement of PM2,5 must include at least the total mass concentration and concentrations of appropriate compounds to characterise its chemical composition. At least the list of chemical species given below shall be included. SO42, Na+, NH4+ Ca2+ NO3-, K+ Cl Mg2+, organic carbon, elemental carbon