Joint Dynamic Radio Resource Allocation and Mobility Load Balancing in 3GPP LTE Multi-Cell Network

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1 288 FENG LI, LINA GENG, SHIHUA ZHU, JOINT DYNAMIC RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND MOBILITY LOAD BALANCING Jont Dynamc Rado Resource Allocaton and Moblty Load Balancng n 3GPP LTE Mult-Cell Networ Feng LI, Lna GENG., Shhua ZHU School of Electroncs and Informaton Engneerng, X an Jaotong Unversty, Xannng Street, X an, Chna Abstract. Load mbalance, together wth neffcent utlzaton of system resource, consttute major factors responsble for poor overall performance n Long Term Evoluton (LTE) networ. In ths paper, a novel scheme of jont dynamc resource allocaton and load balancng s proposed to acheve a balanced performance mprovement n 3rd Generaton Partnershp Project (3GPP) LTE Self- Organzng Networs (SON). The new method whch ams at maxmzng networ resource effcency subject to ntercell nterference and ntra-cell resource constrants s mplemented n two steps. In the frst step, an effcent resource allocaton, ncludng user schedulng and power assgnment, s conducted n a dstrbuted manner to serve as many users n the whole networ as possble. In the second step, based on the resource allocaton scheme, the optmzaton objectve namely networ resource effcency can be calculated and load balancng s mplemented by swtchng the user that can maxmze the objectve functon. Lagrange Multplers method and heurstc algorthm are used to resolve the formulated optmzaton problem. Smulaton results show that our algorthm acheves better performance n terms of user throughput, farness, load balancng ndex and unsatsfed user number compared wth the tradtonal approach whch taes resource allocaton and load balancng nto account, respectvely. Keywords Load balancng, resource allocaton, LTE SON, effcency and farness 1. Introducton Moble operators are facng two challenges n the next generaton of wreless communcaton technology: the ever-expandng demand for wreless access and the coexstence of heterogeneous networ, wheren thousands of nodes and parameters should be taen nto consderaton. To address ths problem, the technologes of Orthogonal Frequency Dvson Multple Access (OFDMA) and Self- Organzng Networs (SON) have been ntroduced by the 3rd Generaton Partnershp Project (3GPP) Long Term Evoluton (LTE) to ensure superor moble servce whle reducng manual nterventon. The OFDMA s adopted as the downln access technology n LTE system for ts outstandng performance such as hgh spectrum effcency and the ablty to elmnate ntra-cell nterference, etc. The concept of self-organzng networ whch ncludng selfconfguraton, self-optmzaton and self-healng, s ntroduced amng at reducng operatonal expendtures (OPEX) and mprovng user experence by automated mechansms as well [1]. However, the networ performance s stll deterorated due to unbalanced load dstrbutons among cells and neffcent utlzaton of system resource. The overload cell not only fals to guarantee the Qualty of Servce (QoS), but may also cause severe nter-cell nterference (ICI) for edge users n neghbor cells. Load balancng, one of the ey technologes n self-optmzaton, refers to the process whereby dstrbutng the load among the unequal load cells by tunng the cell handover parameters adaptvely. In addton, the proper resource allocaton scheme may accommodate as many users n the heavy load cell as possble by mprovng the resource effcency, whle nsurng farness between cell-edge and cell-center users. Recently, numerous researches concentrate on load balancng or resource allocaton n the mult-cell OFDMAbased networ. A mathematc perspectve of self-optmzng wreless networ s proposed n [2], whch ntroduces a mathematcal model of load balancng. The cell load s defned by the rato of the requred physcal resource blocs (PRB) and the avalable total PRBs n one cell [3]. The cell s vewed to be overloaded when the rato s larger than 1. A tradtonal adaptve handover approach to acheve load balancng wth load fluctuatons s presented n [4]. The hghest PRB-utlzaton cell s chosen as the source cell and the target cell s selected by the certan measurement mechansm called A3 events. Further relevant references focused on the load balancng n the lterature are ncluded n [5 11]. Utlty-based adaptve rado resource allocaton s studed n [12] and specfc utlty functons are used n the smulatons. Accordng to [15], a novel resource allocaton method whch ncludes PRB and power assgnment s proposed to acheve a sgnfcant balanced performance mprovement between cell-edge and cell-center users. In [16], the problem of jont allocaton of recever, bt, and power over subcarrers s formulated nto a nonlnear mxed nteger programmng (MIP) problem and fgured out by decomposng the jont problem nto DOI: /re SYSTEMS

2 RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 24, NO. 1, APRIL a set of smaller-scale lnear MIPs. It s noteworthy that, as far as we now, the nfluence of resource allocaton scheme s seldom consdered n the research of load balance. However, load balancng alone,.e. selectng the approprate cell-edge user to swtch to target neghbor cell, s not enough to mprove the user experence n the whole networ. Ths s because mproper Rado Resource Mechansm (RRM) may lead to neffcent utlzaton of system resource, whch ncreases the cell load and unsatsfed user number n hot spots. In fact, load balancng s regarded as a sgnfcant RRM whch s crucal to guarantee hgh system performance for OFDMA-based LTE networs. In ths paper, resource allocaton and load balancng are jontly processed to mprove the networ performance and user experence. We formulate t as a problem of networ resource effcency maxmzaton, whch s subject to nter-cell nterference and ntra-cell resource constrants. Resource allocaton and load balancng are mplemented separately n dfferent stages of optmzaton. However, the jont resource allocaton consstng of user schedulng and power assgnment can be formulated as a MIP problem, whch has been proven to be NPhard [17]. We use a heurstc algorthm based on Lagrange Multplers approach to deal wth the sub-optmzaton case. Another concerned ssue of resource allocaton s how to balance networ throughput and user farness. To tacle ths problem, the presented scheme whch s based on modfed max carrer to nterference rato (C/I) maes full advantage of mult-user dversty to serve more users whle guaranteeng farness between cell-edge and cell-center users. After a long tme collecton of measurng results, a practcal algorthm whch ncludes handover decson and call admsson control s conducted on the load balancng stage, amng at maxmzng the objectve functon. The remander of ths paper s organzed as follows. In Sec. 2, we ntroduce the system model and the formulaton problem. Secton 3 presents the proposed resource allocaton schemes, ncludng throughput-drven user schedulng and power optmzaton subject to both evolved Node B (enb) power and each PRB power, respectvely. A practcal algorthm of load balancng to further mprove the system optmzaton objectve s gven n Sec. 4. The performance mprovement s demonstrated and analyzed by smulatons n Sec. 5. Conclusons are drawn n Sec System Model and Problem Formulaton 2.1 Networ Model An OFDMA-based 3GPP LTE downln mult-cell networ wth users of Constant Bt Rate (CBR) servce s consdered here. Each cell s controlled by a center enb equpped wth an omndrectonal antenna. The set of cells and users n the system are denoted by C ={1,, C} and K {1,, K}, respectvely. Due to the plane archtecture of LTE networ, every enb has to mae a decson of resource allocaton n each transmsson tme nterval (TTI). Consderng the tradeoff between system performance and tme overhead of the smulaton, the duraton of a TTI mentoned n ths paper s much longer than a subframe (1 ms). Adjacent twelve sub-carrers n the frequency doman and one slot duraton n the tme doman are grouped nto a PRB, whch s regarded as the smallest unt that can be allocated to a user. All cells n the networ share the same frequency band whch can be dvded nto PRBs ndexed by M {1,, M}. 2.2 Ln Model A bnary assgnment ndcator functon s defned as I, where I =1 means that the m -th PRB n m {0,1} m the -th cell s assgned to the -th user, and I m =0 otherwse. Accordng to the LTE agreement, each PRB wthn a cell cannot be assgned to more than one user n the same TTI to avod ntra-cell nterference. So we have K Im 1 C, mm (1) 1 Assumng that channel state nformaton (CSI) s avalable at enbs and each user nows the nstantaneous sgnal strength from all neghborng cells through plot detecton. Channel condton s supposed to reman constant wthn a TTI. Then the nstantaneous sgnal-to-nterference-and-nose rato ( SINR ) of user on PRB m n cell can be wrtten as SINR m pm gm N p g 0 j jm jm jc, j where p m and g m represent the power allocaton to user on PRB m n cell and channel gan between user and cell on PRB m, respectvely. If I m =0, the transmt power p m =0. The cell load s defned as the fracton of used PRBs and j s the load of cell j. ICI arses when multple adjacent cells operate on the same PRB. The closed form of ICI receved by user n cell on PRB m s expressed as j pjm g jm, abbrevated as jc, j ( p) for smplcty. The nterference receved by user n cell s a strctly ncreasng functon of the load of neghbor cell j. N0 s the thermal nose power spectral densty. Due to (2), the achevable data rate of user on PRB m n cell s m m (2) Blog(1 SINR ) (3) where B s the bandwdth of each PRB. For users wth

3 290 FENG LI, LINA GENG, SHIHUA ZHU, JOINT DYNAMIC RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND MOBILITY LOAD BALANCING CBR servce n the networ, the resource allocaton should try to meet ther rate requrement. It s stated as r, m, I, m, R C, K (4) where r and m R represent avalable data rate and request data rate of user, severally. Constrant (4) states that user can be served by cell whch can provde a larger data rate than QoS requrement. The unsatsfed user denoted by u s defned as the user whose avalable rate cannot meet the request data rate. 2.3 Problem Formulaton Our optmzaton goal s to maxmze networ resource effcency subject to nter-cell nterference and ntra-cell resource constrants. The reason s that load mbalance and mproper RRM often cause neffcent utlzaton of system resource, whch results n a great number of unsatsfed users n overload cells. Due to the fact that OFDMA can elmnate ntra-cell nterference by assgnng users to orthogonal subcarrers, equal power allocaton over all PRBs s always used for mplementaton smplcty as well as analytcal tractablty to resolve downln resource allocaton problem [17]. However, the equal power allocaton may be excessve for the users wth good channel condton whle nsuffcent for the cell-edge users wth poor channel condton. Thus, the unsatsfed users could only turn to request more bandwdth resource. Ths may eventually lead to the cell load ncreases or even overload. In the case of the smallest rado resource unt has been stpulated by LTE, the fner granularty of power allocaton, the better performance of the system. Our scheme should optmze the cell ablty to serve more users subject to lmted resources and furthermore dstrbute the load among the unequal load cells. Therefore, the optmzaton problem s formulated as ( P) max u I m m m C K mm C K mm pm Im p g m m s.. t Blog(1 ) I m R K C (5) m N ( p) pm I m PBS C, (6) m p, m, I, m, Psub CmM, (7) I m M C. (8) m u m ndcates the earned proft,.e. resource effcency, f PRB m n cell s allocated to user.constrant n (5) whch s derved by (2), (3) and (4) represents that the avalable data rate of any user n ts current servng cell must acheve ts data requrement. P BS and P sub n constrants (6) and (7) are the total power lmtaton at the enb and each PRB, respectvely. M n constrant (8) denotes the total number of avalable PRBs n each cell. The soluton of the problem s to acheve a better performance balance between resources and users, where all users can equally get desrable avalable data rates despte of ther channel condtons and QoS requrements. Ths problem s nown as NP-hard snce the computatonal complexty of seeng out the optmal soluton s n exponental order of the problem sze. Hence we need to see for a sub-optmal method. 3. Resource Allocaton Scheme The feasble scheme proposed n ths secton s mplemented n two steps. In the frst step, an effcent resource allocaton, ncludng user schedulng and power assgnment, s conducted n a dstrbuted manner to serve as many users n the whole networ as possble. In the second step, based on the resource allocaton scheme mentoned n the frst step, the networ resource effcency can be calculated and load balancng s mplemented by swtchng the user that can maxmze the objectve functon. As the plane archtecture of LTE networ wthout Rado Networ controller (RNC), the resource allocaton has to be decded ndvdually wthn each cell n a dstrbuted manner. Neghbor enbs exchange ther ICI and load status nformaton perodcally through X2 nterface. A concerned ssue of resource allocaton s how to balance networ throughput and user farness. In order to tae full advantage of mult-user dversty to nsure resource effcency whle balancng farness among users wth dfferent channel condtons, a heurstc algorthm based on the Lagrange Multplers approach s used to solve the problem ( P ) descrbed above. Then the resource optmzaton problem can be changed nto an unconstraned optmzaton problem expressed as: Im um mpm C (9) K mm max( ( )) where m, m 1,2 M are M non-negatve Lagrange Multplers whch are ntalzed to be zero, and u m s the resource effcency f PRB m n cell s allocated to user. The feasble soluton of sub-optmzaton problem can be acheved f all m are calculated and updated to satsfy the constrant equaton (6). Frstly, a modfed max C/I scheme s adopted to allocate PRB m n cell to the only unsatsfed user arg max SINRm. Then the u request power of user to guarantee the QoS can be calculated by p m R -r B (2 1) ( N ( p)) = g m under the condton of (7). If the sum of the allocated power s larger than the enb power constrant, n order to update the

4 RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 24, NO. 1, APRIL Lagrange multplers effcently, the PRB wth the bggest power wll be found and reallocated, whch leads to the mnmum Lagrange multpler ncrease untl the sum of the allocated power satsfy the constran (6). If there are multple PRBs wth same maxmum power n a TTI, we wll choose the one whch correspond to the user wth the lowest avalable date rate to be reallocated. The proposed resource allocaton scheme can mprove system performance effectvely. On one hand, the PRB assgnment based on modfed max C/I can guarantee rado resource effcency and networ throughput, on the other hand, the flexble power allocaton scheme can mprove the farness among users by avodng excessve power assgnment to cell center users compared wth tradtonal equal power allocaton proposal. Algorthm 1 Pseudocode of the algorthm 1: for 1:C 2: Intal the Lagrange multplers, m 0, for all m 3: Pre-assgnment phase 4: SINRm u 5: p arg max{ }, I 1, for all m m R -r B (2 1) ( N ( p)) = gm Psub m f p else 6: Calculate the total allocated power volaton 7: M K PBS p, m, I, m, m1 1 8: whle 0 9: for m 1: M 10: for 1: K 11: max 12: 13: end for 14: end for 15: Reallocaton 16: for 1: K P max{ p m } m P * * m r m p ' max ', m m P m m, arg mn{ } ' arg{ } m ' s the user correspondng to PRB m ' 17: * ( p p * ) 18: end for, m*, * m m*, m*, * m 19: arg mn{ }, for all 20: Update the Lagrange multpler, and sub 21: * * m m 22: I * * 0, I * 1 m m 23: p p * * 24: end whle 25: end for * m m 4. Load Balancng Algorthm After a long tme user measurng and data collectng, a practcal algorthm ncludng handover decson and call admsson control s conducted on the load balancng stage. Just as resource allocaton, load balancng s mplemented n a dstrbuted way usng lmted neghbor nformaton through X2 nterface. Snce we are tryng to maxmze the objectve functon, the value of the networ resource effcency after handover should be larger than that before. Assumng that user s swtched from cell to cell j, the followng constrant should be satsfed jm m 0 (10) mm p jm mmpm where M denotes the set of PRBs whch s allocated to user wthn a certan TTI. The left part of nequalty can be defned as handover gan G, j. Because the perod of load balance s much longer than the resource allocaton cycle, our proposed scheme adopts average handover gan whch needs to collect data for a relatve long tme to elmnate the nfluence of the nstantaneous channel fadng. The left part of nequalty (10) s rewrtten as the followng form G, j 1 () t () t T p t p t T jm m ( ) t1 mm () () jm mm m. (11) In constrant (11) T s the statstcs perod. To guarantee the stablty of the heurstc algorthm, we only swtch the user wth the maxmal average handover gan n the whole networ durng each load balancng cycle. Moreover, the canddate handover user should also satsfy the call admsson control of the target cell, or we have to select the subprme user untl the one who can meet all handover condtons. j G, (12), j 0, (13) SINR j, j, 1 SINR. (14) The load of user n target cell j s denoted by, j. Equaton (12) presents the any mplemented handover Th

5 292 FENG LI, LINA GENG, SHIHUA ZHU, JOINT DYNAMIC RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND MOBILITY LOAD BALANCING should ncrease the networ resource effcency. Constrant n (13) expresses that the target cell should have enough spare resource for all exstng users and the swtchng one. Constrant n (14) tells that the SINR detected n target cell by user should be larger than ts access threshold SINR. 5. Performance Evaluaton Smulatons are used here to evaluate the performance of the proposed jont dynamc rado resource allocaton and moblty load balancng scheme n LTE downln networs. 5.1 System Confguraton A regular hexagonal of seven-cell networ topology s consdered wth wrap-around technology to avod border effect. Each cell s controlled by a center enb wth no sectors dvded. Assumng the mnmum data rate to ensure the QoS for every user s 720 Kbps. In terms of typcal CBR servce class such as voce and vdeo, as long as the average speed (assumng that average durng a relatve short tme nterval) remans constant, the short-term fluctuaton of data rate s usually not seemed to be a problem. Thus, an approprate ncrease n the request rate whch s set to be 1000 bps n our smulaton can compensate for the nstantaneous fadng of tme-varyng channel. We set the TTI duraton and load balancng cycle to be 0.1 s and 15 s, respectvely. Long tme, for example, hour level smulaton s needed to evaluate the proposed scheme. Parameter Cell layout User No. of center cell Value 7 cells wth wrap around technque 45 (40 users won t move out) User No. of other cells 5 UE speed Cell radus enb Tx power Pathloss Shadowng PRB bandwdth Traffc model QoS guarantee data rate Request data rate Resource allocaton perod User satsfacton measurement cycle Load balancng cycle Tab. 1. Smulaton parameters. 5 m/h 1 m 46 dbm *log 10 (d), d n m Log-normal wth standard devaton 8dB 180 Hz CBR full buffer traffc 720 Kbps 1000 Kbps 0.1 s 5 s 15 s In order to smulate the load balancng scenaro and dfferentate the loads of neghborng cells, we set the center cell of the networ to be the overloaded one wth 45 users dstrbuted unformly wthn t. Each user engages a random wal wth correlaton dstance of 20 m and changes drecton wth the maxmum update angle of 45 Th degrees. Supposng that n order to mantan the heavy load concentraton, 40 users n center cell would not move out of the orgnal cell. The channel model reference COST 231-Hata n whch the frequency of transmsson s modfed to 3500 MHz to apply to ths scenaro. The man smulaton parameters are gven n Tab Smulaton Results Frstly, we evaluate the performance of the proposed resource allocaton algorthm n terms of cumulatve dstrbuton for user throughput n each TTI and user farness ndex. There are two reference scenaros, equal power allocaton among PRBs and Fractonal Frequency Reuse (FFR) scheme. The proposed load balancng algorthm s adopted by all of them. Fg. 1. Cumulatve dstrbuton for user throughput. Fgure 1 shows the cumulatve dstrbuton functon (CDF) of user throughputs acheved n each TTI by dfferent schemes for the same user dstrbuton n the reference networ. On one hand, we can fnd that the vast majorty of user throughputs are very close to 1000 Kbps n our proposed scheme. On the other hand, n the tradtonal equal power allocaton and FFR scheme, user throughputs span a large range. It s because that too much frequency and power resources are occuped by the good channel condton users, who acheve larger avalable data rate than ther actual QoS needs. Therefore, the avalable resources left for cell-edge users wth poor channel condton become relatve less. If the wreless resources are abundant enough, user throughput s the bgger the better and the FFR wll be the best choce of the three schemes. However, n load balancng scenaro, mang effort to guarantee QoS for all users n the networ s the most sgnfcant. Fg.1 reveals that more than 3% users cannot acheve QoS guaranteed data rate of 720 Kbps n both reference scenaros whle n the proposed algorthm there are about 2% unsatsfed users. If the system users n each TTI can be regarded as ndependent rrelevant, the proposed scheme can obvously reduce the number of unsatsfed users n the networ durng the whole smulaton.

6 RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 24, NO. 1, APRIL () t [ ( t)] 2 C 2 C[ ( t)] C. Just as the user farness ndex, a larger () t denotes a more balanced load dstrbuton among cells. The load balancng ndex n proposed LB case ncreases from the ntal value 0.67 to the value close to 1 wth the Fg. 2. User farness ndex. Fgure 2 shows the user farness ndex versus load balancng tmes. The ndex s defned as 2 ( r ) K F, whch ranges n [1 / K,1]. A larger 2 K( r ) K F denotes a farer throughput dstrbuton among users. We can observe that the user farness n the proposed resource allocaton algorthm outperforms the other two schemes sgnfcantly throughout the smulaton tme. Ths s because the proposal can avod excessve resource allocaton to cell-center users and leave more resource to help users wth poor channel condton to acheve a lager throughput so as to mprove the farness among all users n the system. We can fnd that the proposed resource allocaton scheme can acheve better performance n terms of guaranteeng the user QoS and the user farness ndex from the above results. Thus, our proposed resource allocaton scheme s selected for the followng smulatons. Based on the resource allocaton scheme dscussed above, the optmzaton objectve representng networ resource effcency can be calculated. Then we focus on the practcal load balancng algorthm n terms of cumulatve dstrbuton for user throughput n each TTI, load balancng ndex and the number of unsatsfed users. The no load balancng scenaro and a conventonal MLB method presented n [4] are used for reference. Fgure 3 shows the cumulatve dstrbuton functon (CDF) of user throughput acheved n each TTI by the dfferent schemes. The throughputs n all scenaros converge to 1000 Kbs. However, the proposed LB algorthm can successfully mantan hgh performance for almost all users regardless of channel equalty,.e., f the system users n each TTI can be regarded as ndependent rrelevant, more than 95% users can acheve throughput over 720 Kbps compared to about 90% users n the MLB case. Fgure 4 shows the load balancng ndex varyng wth load balancng tmes. Load balancng ndex s defned as Fg. 3. Cumulatve dstrbuton for user throughput n LB scenaro. Fg. 4. Networ load ndex. Fg. 5. Total number of unsatsfed users n overall networ.

7 294 FENG LI, LINA GENG, SHIHUA ZHU, JOINT DYNAMIC RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND MOBILITY LOAD BALANCING ncrease of load balancng tmes, representng the traffc dstrbuton n the whole networ becomes more and more unform. The result for MLB method s nferor and the case of no-lb s as poor as expected. Fgure 5 shows the number of unsatsfed users versus load balancng tmes. We can observe a sgnfcant number of unsatsfed users whch s always hoverng around 16 out of 75 n the no load balancng scenaro. Usng MLB can mprove user satsfacton. However, MLB method s dffcult to eep a stable performance. In the LB case, the number of unsatsfed users decreases dramatcally to about 1 after 25 load balancng tmes, and the good performance can be mantaned to the end of smulaton. 6. Concluson In ths paper, jont dynamc rado resource allocaton and moblty load balancng are consdered n 3GPP LTE downln OFDMA-based networ. The optmzaton problem s formulated as maxmzng networ resource effcency subject to nter-cell nterference and ntra-cell resource constrants. Resource allocaton and load balancng are mplemented n dfferent stages of optmzaton. A heurstc algorthm based on Lagrange Multplers approach s used n user schedulng and power optmzaton. The scheme maes full advantage of multuser dversty to guarantee resource effcency and networ throughput whle mprovng farness between cell-edge and cell-center users. Then a practcal load balancng algorthm s proposed to further mprove the optmzaton objectve. Smulaton results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can sgnfcantly optmze the networ performance n terms of user throughput, user farness, load balancng ndex and the number of unsatsfed users. Acnowledgements Ths wor was supported n part by the Natonal Natural Scence Foundaton of Chna under Grant , and , by the Internatonal Cooperaton and Exchanges Project under Grant S2010GR0902, and Chna Postdoctoral Scence Foundaton under Grant 2012M References [1] TR , 3RD GENERATION PARTNERSHIP PROJECT. Techncal Specfcaton Group Rado Access Networ; Evolved Unversal Terrestral Rado Access (E-UTRA); Self-confgurng and self-optmzng networ use cases and solutons; Protocol specfcaton (Release 9). [2] VIERING, I., DOTTLING, M., LOBINGER, A. A mathematcal perspectve of self-optmzng wreless networs. In IEEE Internatonal Conference on Communcatons ICC 09. Dresden (Germany), 2009, p [3] LOBINGER, A. STEFANSKI, S., JANSEN, T., BALAN, I. Load balancng n downln LTE self-optmzng networs. In IEEE 71 th Vehcular Technology Conference. Tape (Tawan), 2010, p DOI: /VETECS [4] KWAN, R., ARNOTT, R., PATERSON, R., TRIVISONNO, R., KUBOTA, M. On moblty load balancng for LTE systems. In IEEE 72 th Vehcular Technology Conference. Ottawa (Canada), 2010, p DOI: /VETECF [5] ZHANG, L., LIU, Y., ZHANG, M. G., JIA, S. C., DUA, X. Y. A two-layer moblty load balancng n LTE self-organzaton networs. In Proceedngs of IEEE 13 th Internatonal Conference on Mcrowave Conference on Communcaton Technology. Jnan (Chna), 2011, p DOI: /ICCT [6] HU, H. L., ZHANG, J., ZHENG, X. Y., YANG, Y., WU, P. Selfconfguraton and self-optmzaton for LTE networs. IEEE Communcatons Magazne, 2010, vol. 48, no. 2, p DOI: /MCOM [7] LI, Z. H., WANG, H., PAN, Z. W., LIU, N., YOU X. H. Jont optmzaton on load balancng and networ load n 3gpp lte mult-cell networs. In Proceedngs of Internatonal Conference on Wreless Communcatons and Sgnal Processng WCSP Nanjng (Chna), 2011, p DOI: /WCSP [8] TONGUZ, O. K., YANMAZ, E. The mathematcal theory of dynamc load balancng n cellular networs. IEEE Transactons on Moble Computng, 2008, vol. 7, no. 12, p DOI: /TMC [9] GIOVANIDIS, A., LIAO, Q., STANCZAKY, S. A dstrbuted nterference-aware load balancng algorthm for LTE mult-cell networs. In Internatonal ITG Worshop on Smart Antennas. Dresden (Germany), 2012, p DOI: /WSA [10] SANG, A., WANG, X., MADIHIAN, M., GITLIN, R. D. Coordnated load balancng, handover/cell-ste selecton, and schedulng n mult-cell pacet data systems. Wreless Networs, 2008, vol. 14, no. 1, p DOI: / [11] YANG, Y., DONG, W. X., CHEN, X. H., et al. A utlty-based load-balancng scheme wth guarantee of users' rate for LTE selforganzaton networs. Internatonal Journal of Networ Management, 2013, vol. 23, p DOI: /nem.1824 [12] KATOOZIAN, M., NAVAIE, K., YANIKOMEROGLU, H. Utlty-based adaptve rado resource allocaton n OFDM wreless networs wth traffc prortzaton. IEEE Transactons on Wreless Communcatons, 2009, vol. 8, no. 1, p DOI: /T- WC [13] ZHANG, H. H., RANGARAJAN, S. Jont load balancng, schedulng, and nterference mtgaton n mult-cell and multcarrer wreless data systems. In 7 th Internatonal Symposum on Modelng and Optmzaton n Moble, Ad Hoc, and Wreless Networs. Seoul (South Korea), 2009, p DOI: /WIOPT [14] SON, K., CHONG, S., VECIANA, G. Dynamc assocaton for load balancng and nterference avodance n mult-cell networs. IEEE Transactons on Wreless Communcatons, 2009, vol. 8, no. 7, p DOI: /TWC [15] YU, Y. W., DUTKIEWICZ, E., HUANG, X. J., MUECK, M. Downln resource allocaton for next generaton wreless networs wth nter-cell nterference. IEEE Transactons on Wreless Communcatons, 2013, vol. 12, no. 4, p DOI: /TWC [16] FATHI, M., KARIPIDIS, E. Dstrbuted resource optmzaton n multcell OFDMA networs. In Proceedngs of IEEE Wreless Communcatons and Networng Conference. Shangha (Chna), 2012, p DOI: /WCNC [17] LI, G. Q., LIU, H. Downln rado resource allocaton for mult-

8 RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 24, NO. 1, APRIL cell ofdma system. IEEE Transactons on Wreless Communcatons, 2006, vol. 5, no. 12, p DOI: /TWC [18] SHEN, Z. K., ANDREWS, J. G., EVANS, B. L. Adaptve resource allocaton n multuser OFDM systems wth proportonal rate constrants. IEEE Transactons on Wreless Communcatons, 2005, vol. 4, no. 6, p DOI: /TWC [19] JANG, J. H., LEE, K. B. Transmt power adaptaton for multuser OFDM systems. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas n Communcatons, 2003, vol. 21, no. 2, p DOI: /JSAC [20] VISWANATH, P., TSE, D. N. C., ANANTHARAM, V. Asymptotcally optmal water-fllng n vector multple-access channels. IEEE Transactons on Informaton Theory, 2001, vol. 47, no. 1, p DOI: / About the Authors... Feng LI was born n He receved hs B.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees n 2003 and 2009, respectvely, both from X'an Jaotong Unversty. He s now a lecturer n the same unversty. Hs research nterests nclude statstcal sgnal processng and wreless communcatons. Lna GENG was born n X an, Chna, n She receved her B.Sc. from Northwest Unversty, X an, Chna, n Now she s worng towards her M.Sc. n School of Electroncs and Informaton Engneerng of X an Jaotong Unversty. Her research nterests nclude Self- Organzaton Networ and resource allocaton. Shhua ZHU was born n He receved the B.Sc. degree of Rado Engneerng n 1982 from X'an Jaotong Unversty, Chna. After that, he receved the M.Sc. degree of Telecommuncaton Systems n 1984, and Ph.D. degree of Electronc Systems Engneerng n 1987 n the Unversty of Essex, UK. Snce 1987, he has been wth X'an Jaotong Unversty where he s now a professor n the Department of Informaton and Communcatons Engneerng. Hs research nterests are broad n the area of moble communcatons, dgtal transmsson and broadband networs.

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