Summary of Management Plan and Programme of Measures in Bothnian Bay Water District. Consultation 1 Nov April 2015

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1 Summary of Management Plan and Programme of Measures in Bothnian Bay Water District Consultation 1 Nov April 2015

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3 Covering letter Reference number Consultation in water management in the Bothnian Bay water district The water authority for the Bothnian Bay water district, Norrbotten County Administrative Board, has drawn up proposals for a management plan, proposals for environmental quality standards and proposals for the programme of measures for the period for the Bothnian Bay water district. All EU Member States have been working since 2000 on a common water policy, which is governed by the Water Framework Directive. This Directive has been implemented in Swedish law through the Environmental Code and the Water Management Ordinance, and means that an all-inclusive approach is needed in work aimed at preserving and improving the situation in lakes, rivers, coastal waters and groundwaters. An important element is that all parties concerned, authorities, organisations, companies and private individuals, take part in the work. The consultation is intended to gather needs and opinions from different stakeholders so that decisions can be made on as broad a basis as possible. The consultation is in progress between 1 November 2014 and 30 April The documents will be kept available at county administrative boards and municipalities within the district and on the websites of the water authorities. Printed documents are distributed in accordance with distribution list. Other consultations affecting the work of the water authority are being held during the consultation period. The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management is consulting on marine environment management and orientation documents for marine planning (see information at and Those county administrative boards, which are responsible for drawing up risk management plans under the Floods Directive, will be consulting on these during the first half of 1015, see information on the website of the county administrative board concerned. The consultation covers Proposals for a Management Plan for the Bothnian Bay water district. Under the Water Management Ordinance (SFS 2004:660), the management plan has to contain a summary account of water conditions and management of the quality of the aquatic environment in the district. The plan also describes the focus of future work in the water district. Proposals for environmental quality standards for the Bothnian Bay water district. The proposal for environmental quality standards is based on the county administrative boards' assessment of the status of the water and an assessment of the prospects of achieving good status within the appointed time. The environmental quality standards indicate what quality a water body has to have at a particular time and consequently provides the basis for the proposed measures in the programme of measures. Tables of proposals for environmental quality standards for each water body are not printed and are available only at 2

4 Proposals for Programme of Measures for the Bothnian Bay water district. The Programme of Measures has to propose the measures that need to be implemented to enable the environmental quality standards to be met. An important objective is that it should be clear who needs to do what to enable the environmental quality standards to be met in a cost-effective way. The proposals for instruments in the programme of measures are aimed at authorities and municipalities. The programme of measures describes socioeconomic consequences of the programme of measures there is a summary of these in the printed material, while the more detailed analyses are made available digitally at There is also an environmental impact assessment for the programme of measures. Background material for the consultation Much of the documentation used by the Water Authority to draw up the proposals for the Management Plan, Environmental Quality Standards and Programme of Measures can be found in the Water Information System Sweden (Vatteninformationssystem Sverige VISS). It is important to know that this documentation is undergoing continuous development and improvement. It is possible express opinions on the documentation at water body level directly in VISS at any time. There are instructions on how to do so at Consultative meetings Consultative meetings will be held at several places in the district. The meetings will, as far as possible, be coordinated for the ongoing consultations in water management, marine environment management, marine planning and the county administrative boards' plans for risk management with respect to flooding. At national level, public agencies, county administrative boards and sector organisations, among others, will be invited to attend consultative meetings. Details of each meeting can be found at Submitting opinions and responses to questions digitally. We welcome opinions and supplementary information from everyone. It is important for us to find out whether the proposals for the Management Plan, Environmental Quality Standards and Programme of Measures provide you with the information needed for your water-related work within your organisation in the management cycle. In addition there are questions at the start of the proposals for the Management Plan and Programme of Measures to which the Water Authority would particularly like to see responses. We would live proposals for changes to be reasoned. To make it easier to manage and collect opinions, we would like responses to be sent using the online questionnaire on the water authorities' website for the Bothnian Bay water district, or in Word format to Please quote the case reference number on the subject line of your message. It is particularly desirable for opinions to be structured according to the arrangement of the consultation documents, with clear references to what document and what section is concerned. 3

5 If it is not possible for you to submit your views digitally, you can send them by ordinary post to the address: Länsstyrelsen Norrbottens län Samrådssvar dnr Att: Vattenmyndigheten Luleå Views on the consultation documents must have been received by the water district authority no later than 30 April Together we cherish the assets of water! Sven-Erik Österberg Norrbotten County Governor Chair of the Water Delegation for the Bothnian Bay water district 4

6 Contents COVERING LETTER 2 Consultation in water management in the Bothnian Bay water district 2 The consultation covers 2 Background material for the consultation 3 Consultative meetings 3 Submitting opinions and responses to questions digitally. 3 CONTENTS 5 1 MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR Improving work on measures 10 More quantitative feedback is needed 11 Financing of the measures Coordinating and improving the efficiency of monitoring 12 Implementing the water district authorities' strategy 12 Climate-adapting water management 12 A steadily better VISS 13 Quality-assuring and making information available 13 Mapping and analysis in the next management cycle 13 Artificial and heavily modified water bodies 14 Develop application of the polluter-pays principle Water management an important tool for the Swedish environmental objectives 14 Clarify responsibility for public agencies and municipalities 15 Working at the international level The Bothnian Bay special challenges in the district 16 2 WHO DOES WHAT IN SWEDISH WATER MANAGEMENT? 18 The water district authorities coordinate the work The tools of water management 19 Management plan 19 Environmental quality standards 19 Programme of measures 19 It takes time before the effects of measures become visible. 19 Eutrophication 20 Acidification 20 Physical impact 20 3 COLLABORATION The water councils local collaborative groups in the water districts 23 4 CONDITIONS IN THE WATER DISTRICT 26 5

7 4.1 Water in the district 27 5 MONITORING OF WATERS Monitoring is a form of cooperation 30 Formulation of monitoring programmes for water 30 The water district authority's monitoring programmes 2007 and Monitoring of water in the future Division into water bodies 32 6 MAPPING AND ANALYSIS OF GROUNDWATERS The result of the 2014 status classification 34 Chemical status 34 Quantitative status Sources of impact and risk assessment 35 Procedures and basic assumptions in risk assessment 35 Results of risk assessment 35 7 MAPPING AND ANALYSIS OF SURFACE WATERS Demarcation and classification of surface water bodies Changes in surface water body classification since the previous management cycle Status classification an assessment of the status of the water 38 Assessment of the measurements and their accuracy 38 Working methods and basic assumptions in status classification of surface waters 39 8 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND SOURCE OF IMPACT 45 Environmental problems and sources of impact in the Bothnian Bay water district Results of risk assessment 55 9 WATER AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS Increased investments by water users in water Sweden's population and business community in 2021 future scenarios Costs of water and wastewater 60 Ecosystem services describe the value of water MEASURES FOR BETTER WATER Step-by-step measures and reporting lead forward 62 Annual reporting on implemented measures Summary of Programme of Measures

8 11 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARDS FOR WATER 64 Progress or setbacks in fulfilment of the environmental quality standards in the previous cycle? 64 Environmental quality standards and protected areas under other EU legislation 65 Exemptions 66 Environmental quality standards 69 Proposals for regulation and environmental quality standards ARTIFICIAL AND HEAVILY MODIFIED WATER BODIES 72 Good ecological potential, not good ecological status 72 In some cases a water body cannot be designated as artificial or heavy modified 74 Heavily modified water bodies in other water uses 75 Artificial water bodies CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION Water bodies shared with Finland 76 Water bodies shared with Norway 76 1 PROGRAMME OF MEASURES 1 2 MEASURES NEEDING TO BE TAKEN BY PUBLIC AGENCIES AND MUNICIPALITIES IN THE BOTHNIAN BAY WATER DISTRICT Public agencies and municipalities 3 Public agencies and municipalities 3 Mining Inspectorate of Sweden 3 National Board of Housing, Building and Planning 3 Swedish Energy Agency 3 Surgeon General 4 Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management 4 Swedish Board of Agriculture 7 Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency 8 Swedish Chemicals Agency 9 Swedish Coast Guard 9 Lantmäteriet (the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority) 9 National Food Agency 10 Medical Products Agency 10 Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency 10 Swedish Environmental Protection Agency 10 National Heritage Board 12 Swedish Forest Agency 13 Geological Survey of Sweden 15 Swedish Transport Administration 15 The county administrative boards 16 Municipalities 19 3 MEASURES AGAINST SIGNIFICANT IMPACT PER ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM Changed habitats through physical impact 22 Physical changes relating to changes of flow to meet 22 7

9 Artificial and heavily modified water bodies 23 Synopsis of physical measures targeted at authorities and municipalities Environmental toxins in surface and groundwaters 27 Physical measures to comply with the environmental quality standards 27 Synopsis of physical measures targeted at authorities and municipalities Eutrophication 29 Physical measures to comply with the environmental quality standards 30 Synopsis of physical measures and link to measures targeted at public agencies and municipalities Acidification 31 Synopsis of physical measures targeted at authorities and municipalities Insufficient drinking water protection 32 Possible measures to meet the environmental quality standards 33 Synopsis of physical measures targeted at authorities and municipalities Chloride in groundwater 34 Possible measures to comply with the environmental quality standards 34 Synopsis of physical measures targeted at authorities and municipalities Sulphate in groundwater 35 Synopsis of physical measures to comply with the environmental quality standards Changed groundwater levels 36 Synopsis of physical measures targeted at authorities and municipalities Alien species 36 Possible measures against invasive alien species in the Bothnian Bay water district 37 Synopsis of physical measures targeted at authorities and municipalities Protected areas under the Water Management Ordinance Accidents 39 Physical measures to comply with the environmental quality standards 39 Synopsis of physical measures targeted at authorities and municipalities 39 4 COMBINED IMPACT OF THE PROGRAMME OF MEASURES Summary of costs per environmental problem Impacts per source of impact 41 On-site wastewater treatment systems 41 Wastewater treatment plants and sewer networks 41 Stormwater 42 Agriculture 42 Forestry 42 Sulphide soils 42 Industry 43 Hydropower production 43 Land drainage and floatway-affected water bodies 43 Buildings and infrastructure 44 Water abstraction 44 8

10 Shipping and ports 44 Atmospheric deposition 44 Areas damaged by pollution 44 Introduced species Distribution effects 45 Agriculture 45 Forestry 45 Industry 45 Energy sector 45 Households 45 Public costs 46 Municipalities 46 Central government What is good status worth? 46 5 JOINT MEASURES IN INTERNATIONAL RIVER BASIN DISTRICTS 47 Physical measures to comply with the environmental quality standards 47 ANNEX 1 : WEBLINKS TO PROGRAMME OF MEASURES BACKGROUND DOCUMENTS 49 9

11 1 Management plan for Water provides so much more than vital drinking water all ecosystems and all production of products/raw materials depend on water. The whole of society is fundamentally dependent on ecosystem services from water, and it is therefore resource-efficient to cherish these services. We bear collective responsibility, and everyone needs to contribute to the work of managing our common water: public agencies, operators and private individuals. Water management is intended to protect and preserve the water resources for the future and promote long-term sustainable use of water. Water management is undertaken in six-year cycles, and the Bothnian Bay Water District Authority is responsible for preparing a management plan, environmental quality standards and a programme of measures for the district ahead of the next management cycle. Drafts of these documents are now ready, and consultation on these will take place over the period from 1 November 2014 to 30 April The water authorities' vision is that everyone in Sweden should endeavour to make wise use of our waters. We wish to be able to see clear signs of improved water quality in surface water and groundwater so that the possibility of growth and development for the whole of society is not restricted, so that fish and other aquatic organisms are not adversely affected and so that we have reliable protection for our drinking water. The measures targeted at public agencies and municipalities, as well as instruments and physical measures, taken together are to contribute making it possible for these objectives to be met. This outcome can only be achieved if the responsibilities of public agencies and municipalities have become clearer and sufficient resources have been earmarked to implement necessary measures, there is an enhanced system in which the polluter/user provides financing for measures, the level of commitment in water councils and among the public rises and the demands for measures then have an impact on political priority-setting, monitoring is adequate, coordinated and effective and can provide a good basis for decision-making, there is stable, uniform and transparent supply of data, there is a closer link between research and practical application, knowledge of groundwater reservoirs increases and the quality and quantity of the water used for the supply of drinking water are assured We also need to draw lessons from work done in the first and second management cycles and by studying international experience. In addition, experience from follow-up of implemented measures is essential to continued work on measures. 1.1 Improving work on measures With improved knowledge and more sophisticated assessments of status, the measures can be put at the centre and be made more precise. The new programme of measures links instruments, for public agencies and municipalities, to specific needs for physical measures at a relevant geographical scale with the intention of attaining the best possible effect in the aquatic environment. The programme of measures also covers more public agencies than previously. 10

12 More quantitative feedback is needed Public agencies and municipalities report annually to the water district authorities on progress in implementation of the programme of measures. The most recent reporting from 2013 notes that work on measures at the municipalities is moving forward. Internal coordination within the municipalities in particular is being strengthened as a consequence of the requirements for measures and follow-up. Among other things, 37 new water and wastewater plans were adopted in Sweden in Work on planning, supervision of activities, contaminated sites and on-site wastewater treatment systems has also been strengthened. On the other hand, work on the formation of water protection areas has not gone so well. The water district authorities are planning to enhance the annual feedback to enable work on measures at public agency and municipality level to be followed up better. The intention is to be able to quantify to a greater extent how we gradually meet set environmental quality standards by We need to know more about how far work has come in order to be able assess when the measures have led to the next stage of measures, so that the full effect is gradually achieved in the environment. Improved feedback also increases the possibility of continuing knowledge building on the implementation, environmental effects and costs of various measures. Financing of the measures Measures implemented since 2009 have been financed in various ways. A great deal has happened in the ordinary activities and budgets of municipalities and public agencies. There is also a special appropriation at the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, Appropriation 1:12 Measures for the marine and aquatic environment, to finance both management and measures. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's appropriation for remediation of contaminated sites and local water conservation measures (LOVA) are other large areas where grants are provided for measures. Measures are also financed within the Rural Development Programme for a better aquatic environment, for instance environmental payments are provided for catch crops and protection zones and restoration of wetlands. Free advice is also offered to farmers to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture. It is important that the initiatives mentioned above remain and are intensified during the coming management cycle. They also need to be supplemented by both targeted and general funds to give a further boost to measures. The EU is also an important source of financing, and the next programming period in the EU contains several options for financing water-related measures (including LIFE+). In Sweden the Rural Development Programme, the Marine and Fisheries Programme, the regional structural fund programmes and the Social Fund Programme are to contribute jointly towards meeting the EU's main objective, EU Joint objectives on the environmental side are also supported by the LIFE Fund, which contains a new type of project form, known as integrated projects (IP). The aim is to create synergies between funds in different sector areas and the area of the environment and climate. However, the funds indicated above are far from sufficient to meet the total need for measures in terms of resources. The main principle must be that when polluters/users can be identified they also have to bear most of the costs of the necessary measures. This in turn necessitates greatly increased resources for supervision and examination at public agencies and municipalities. 11

13 1.2 Coordinating and improving the efficiency of monitoring A well constructed monitoring programme for water is necessary for the decisions made in water management to be correct. The monitoring done in Sweden today is not sufficient to provide a reliable picture of the districts' water. The European Commission has also expressed its views on the water management monitoring programme, noting that there are great deficiencies and classifying the programmes as a whole as incomplete. The greatest deficiencies include inadequate sampling of biological parameters such as fish and aquatic plants, too few monitored parameters, monitoring in too few water bodies and the monitoring of groundwater being inadequate. Implementing the water district authorities' strategy The water district authorities' strategy for monitoring needs to be implemented during the management cycle so that Sweden will have the monitoring required under the Water Framework Directive and for the societal resources invested in monitoring to be used in a cost-effective way. The water district authorities have devised a strategy with proposals for how Sweden should develop environmental monitoring so that the requirements and intentions of the Water Framework Directive are also met. Important points are: Better coordination (conformity) between the monitoring of different parties where operators' receiving water control should be part of the system better follow-up of effects of measures taken better monitoring of the chemical and quantitative status of groundwaters particularly in affected areas better monitoring of the waters utilised for drinking-water production better monitoring of biological parameters better follow-up of the effects of pollution incidents such as accidents requirements for monitoring of pollutants for a water body in the danger zone better and more accessible data storage of results uniform ID-setting of monitoring sites Climate-adapting water management The expected climate change society faces is inextricably linked to issues dealt with by water management. Future climate change can both counteract and strengthen the work on measures in water management. The county administrative boards have prepared climate adaptation plans in 2014 in which measures are identified to create a robust society ahead of a changed climate. There are 18 areas in Sweden designated as areas at significant flood risk in the Floods Directive. In 2015 risk management plans will be prepared by the county administrative boards in conjunction with the municipalities. It is of key importance during the next water management cycle to further reinforce the integration of water management, climate adaptation and flood risks. Some examples of interconnected problems are: The threat from a changed climate is palpable for the supply of drinking water due to an increased risk of a deterioration in raw-water quality with microorganisms, among other things, and strengthened protection is therefore important. 12

14 In many areas where there is a flood risk there is also contaminated sol, where measures need to be taken to prevent increased spread and leaching of pollutants and toxic substances as a consequence of floods. An increasing problem with a wetter climate will be overflowing of untreated wastewater from municipal treatment plans and their pipe systems, and problems in dealing with stormwater will also increase. A steadily better VISS The data compiled and decided upon by the water district authorities and county administrative boards is made available in a combined way through VISS (VattenInformationsSystem Sverige Water Information System Sweden). Municipalities, companies, public agencies, water councils, the general public and others use information and data from VISS continuously of many different purposes. Information on measures is now being shown in VISS for the first time. The new measures module gathers together information on the effectiveness and costs of implemented, planned and potential measures for each environmental problem and water body. The information is being improved continuously with contributions from many players, and this is essential for the reliability of the system. It is hoped that VISS will provide the overview and inspiration needed to implement further measures where they have the greatest significance and are most cost-effective. VISS is regularly improved, and the great challenge is in being able to present the extensive and complete set of data so that uses who do not have expert knowledge can also assimilate the information. It is not just a matter of showing data but also of explaining what data means, with assistance available from the VISS-hjälp system (www.visshjalp.se). Quality-assuring and making information available Active work is taking place to link together and quality-assure data that is dispersed among public agencies, county administrative boards, municipalities, universities, industry and interest groups, and great efforts still need to be made in this area. Background data is an important basis for the whole work and must therefore be readily available, quality-declared and kept up-to-date. An example is information on raw data which at present is spread among the municipalities. To enable those affected to be able to be involved in water management activity, they must have access to relevant and target group-adapted information about what work is being carried out but also abut how they can contribute themselves. During the next cycle, the water district authorities need to continue to develop information activity together with the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, the Geological Survey of Sweden, the county administrative boards and the municipalities. VISS represents the knowledge hub for dialogue between different players to bring about more measures. Mapping and analysis in the next management cycle A new round of updating of status classification and assessment of environmental problems and needs for action will be done during the management cycle. This will take place in In the run-up to this work there is a need for data to be quality-assured and available in around 20 databases by Many data hosts are affected and will have to 13

15 plan this time in to be able to supply data according to the set schedule. The timetable for groundwater will look different as the elements take place in a different sequence. There are plans to introduce a new classification of water bodies and water types ahead of the next water management cycle. The new classification will need to be in place in 2016 if it is to be possible for all the information to be attached to the correct water and for the status assessments to be carried out in time. Artificial and heavily modified water bodies Canals and ponds constructed where water was not previously present are examples of artificial water bodies (AWBs) and water bodies what have acquired a substantially changed character as a result of human activity can be designated as heavily modified water bodies (HMWBs). Activities that can lead to designation as AWB and HMWB include hydroelectric power, agriculture, flood defences, shipping, cultural heritage sites and infrastructure. There are proposals for detailed guidance on HMWBs for hydro-electric power, but decisions will not be made until 2018 at the earliest for areas other than hydro-electric power. The water district authorities see the need for action plans for all water bodies designated as HMWBs based on hydro-electric power by Develop application of the polluter-pays principle There is a fundamental thought in the Water Framework Directive that the polluter should pay for the measures required, the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP). The idea is logical but not possible to apply fully in all situations as feasibility considerations, impact assessments and socioeconomic assessments are also involved. There is unclear application of PPP in the Swedish system of justice at present. It is not entirely clear to what extent environmental and resource-related costs of various types of water use are covered by the system of supervision of supervision and examination of activities under the Environmental Code. It is also often difficult to assess how the benefit of the measures and their costs have been weighed up. In addition there is a lack of clarity on the circumstances for reviewing and revoking permits and conditions for operations that have an impact on our aquatic environments. With regard to the legislation on water activities, there are now a number of proposals for changes from the Water Operations Inquiry 1 which need to be discussed and implemented as soon as possible to improve the prospects of attaining water management objectives. There are also many environmental problems where there is no operator left today or cases where the source is diffuse and can be imaged to come from operations in several countries. As PPP is difficult to respect with regard diffuse sources, there is good reason to continue designing instruments to deal with diffuse emissions and discharges, for example along the lines sketched in proposals from the 2010 Price of Water Inquiry Water management an important tool for the Swedish environmental objectives The work on water management is closely linked to national work on the environmental objectives. Several of the water-related environmental quality objectives cover the

16 requirements on water quality set under the Water Management Ordinance 3 and the Marine Environment Ordinance 4. In that way the legally binding environmental quality standards for water are linked to the politically decided objectives for Swedish aquatic environments. As well as the water bodies defined in water management, the environmental objectives also cover the lakes, rivers and groundwaters that have not been defined as water bodies. Follow-up of the environmental quality objectives shows that the majority of the objectives will probably not be attained within the time set. The water district authorities' management plan and programme of measures are important tools with which to increase the pace of work on the environmental objectives and thus be able to attain the desired environmental status for our waters. It is important to continue to develop the integration between these areas to avoid duplicated work and to improve efficiency in the use of resources at central government and municipal level. Clarify responsibility for public agencies and municipalities Cooperation between authorities that deal with water issues has increased, and there are favourable examples of cooperation within and between municipalities on water issues. But much remains to be done for community planning and environmental appraisals to deal with the water issues in a river-basin perspective. It is above all a matter of the public agencies and municipalities affected by the programme of measures needing to be given more specific areas of responsibility for water management with regard to implementation, coordination, development, follow-up, evaluation, reporting and information. This can be done in government appropriation directions, authority instructions or in similar ways. But collaboration between authorities, with shared responsibility for the implementation of measures, also needs to be developed and a convening authority needs to be designated if areas of responsibility are shared. In addition, the dialogue between affected ministries needs to be strengthened. The authorities' responsibility for work on the environmental objectives can serve as a model for how responsibility for water management can also be shared. There must be a clear distribution of responsibility between different plays and integration with other directives, the work on environmental objectives and international agreements so that work on these can be merged instead of running in parallel. Work within geographical areas that affect one another can be made more efficient by enhanced and developed forms of cooperation and continuous dialogue. There is a need to continue to develop the river-basin perspective, for example through further coordination between counties and municipalities. Such cooperation needs to be strengthened with the aid of regulatory frameworks, remits, economic stimuli or in similar ways to improve the efficiency of measures and provide access to skills. Cooperation with regard to data supply, modelling, economic analyses and so should take place at national level to avoid duplicate storage of data. It is also important that the municipalities take responsibility for collaborative processes at local level. The requirements in the Water Framework Directive for public participation has laid the foundation for work with water councils and have increased local involvement at river-basin level. The water councils, which exist in all the water districts, are a valuable resource that should be utilised to spread information and knowledge but also to collaborate on the planning and implementation of measures as they have important knowledge about local conditions. It is 3 SFS 2004:660 4 SFS 2010:

17 also important that the county administrative board's cooperation with municipalities and water councils and other water organisations continues and is developed. The county administrative boards receive valuable input on status and problems that contributes to improving knowledge of the districts' waters from the water councils. Working at the international level Since the Water Framework Directive came into being a number of EU directives have followed and been linked together. This means greater coordination and control from the direction of the EU on these issues, while there is now also a national option for setting objectives and coordinating the issues more clearly. It is important that the various authorities do not lose focus on the directives having to be integrated and implemented. International agreements such as the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) also contain quality requirements for the marine environment. To attain the objectives of reduced eutrophication in the sea, measures are required both on land and in freshwaters, and this also affects water management work. The Marine Environment Ordinance is coordinated with the Water Management Ordinance The Marine Environment Directive was incorporated into Swedish legislation with the Marine Environment Ordinance in the autumn of The objective of Swedish management is that both the Baltic Sea and the North Sea should have good environmental status. The elements of this work must be implemented in six-year cycles like those of water management. The Marine Environment Ordinance covers all coastal waters and offshore waters, i.e. waters right up to the boundary with the economic zone. The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management is responsible for the implementation of marine management in Sweden. 1.4 The Bothnian Bay special challenges in the district The Bothnian Bay Water District has large water sources, and water quality is in general good. This does not mean that the waters are unaffected by human activities that have had effects on aquatic animals and plants. Particular challenges to be met so that we improve the prospects for clean water and functioning ecosystems in the district's waters are: Physical modifications - In order to extract energy, improve transport and production in agriculture and forestry, make provision for building, construction of transport routes, the waters have been changed so that fish and other aquatic organisms cannot migrate freely, natural flow variations are prevented and spawning and nursery grounds are destroyed. Important measures for dealing with these include measures the water district authorities have targeted at the county administrative boards, the municipalities, the Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency, the Swedish Energy Agency, the Swedish Transport Administration, the National Heritage Board, the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management. Leaching of metals and acidic substances from sulphide soils in coastal areas As a consequence of these sulphur-containing soils having been cultivated or drained, the waters here are affected by sharp lowering of ph values, which means that large quantities of heavy metals and aluminium are dissolved out and enter into the circulation in the environment. Particularly shallow sea bays with poor water exchange, which are 16

18 also important as spawning and nursery grounds for the coast, are in the danger zone. Important measures for dealing with this are targeted at the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Geological Survey, as well as Lantmäteriet - the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, county administrative boards and the coastal municipalities. Large-scale impact from land-based industries Forestry is the dominant industry undertaken in the district in terms of land area, and as it occupies large surface areas it has a large aggregate impact on lakes and rivers, though fertiliser use, ditching, increased light exposure following logging and effects of soil damage caused by vehicles. Important measures to be able to minimise impact are targeted among other others at the Swedish Forest Agency, the Swedish Board of Agriculture, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and Lantmäteriet. Leaching of metals from finished and ongoing mining Mining for metal extraction is and has been undertaken on a large scale in several parts of the water district, and interest in mining is growing. Impacts of old and existing mines can be found at many places in the district. Many different measures have been implemented to reduce the impact of metals on the aquatic environment, but locally there are still areas with too great an impact, particularly at old closed-down mines. Important measures to minimise effects of mining have been targeted primarily at the county administrative boards. The supply of drinking water needs to be safeguarded - Water sources lacking a water protection area or with a water protection area such that the regulations or the limits of the protection area need to be revised are regarded as having insufficient protection. Only just over 10% of the public water sources in the Bothnian Bay water district have adequate protection. Important measures to protect the district's drinking water resources have been targeted primarily at the municipalities and the county administrative boards, but also at the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management in its role as an agency providing supervisory guidance. In addition, the monitoring of water in the Bothnian Bay needs to be developed and expanded. This is generally unsatisfactory throughout the country, with the result that it is difficult to make a reliable assessment of status and environmental problems in the district. This is a particularly great problem in the Bothnian Bay water district as the extent of monitoring here is considerably smaller than in the rest of the country. The combined monitoring in the form of national and regional monitoring supplemented by receiving water control needs to be reviewed, expanded and coordinated. Important measures to deal with this include measures targeted at the county administrative boards and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, but also the Swedish Forest Agency and the Swedish Board of Agriculture. 17

19 2 Who does what in Swedish water management? Sweden is divided into five different water districts based on the five major sea basins. The district's boundaries follow river basins, which means that both counties and municipalities may belong to more than one district. Three of the districts additionally share waters with neighbouring countries. One county administrative board in each water district is instructed to act as water district authority with responsibility for coordinating management of quality of the aquatic environment. There is a special water delegation for each water district authority tasked with deciding on environmental quality standards, programmes of measures and management plans. The delegation consists of expert members who are appointed by the Government for a particular period of time. The members have personal terms of reference based on their expertise in different areas, and are thus not representatives of the organisations they are employed by. The delegation is chaired by the county governor at the county administrative board which acts as water district authority. The water district authorities coordinate the work The water district authorities have secretariats that prepare matters for the water delegation, coordinate the district's county administrative boards in producing documentation and collaborate with those concerned at all levels, from local to international level. All the county administrative boards within a district have the task of assisting the water district authority with status classifications of the condition of the water and various types of documentation. This is done by what is known as the drafting secretariat at the county administrative board concerned. Close cooperation is therefore needed between the water district authority and the drafting secretariats. The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management has had special responsibility since 2011 for driving, supporting and coordinating Swedish marine, water and fisheries management. Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management draws up regulations and manuals governing how water management is to be carried out with regard to surface waters, while the Swedish Geological Survey does the same for groundwaters. The county administrative boards are particularly important for water management as they have broad regional responsibility with several roles, drafting, advisory and executive. The county administrative boards contribute to the fulfilment of objectives in water management in supervision, appraisal, planning, advice, information, monitoring, knowledge gathering, dialogue and financial contributions. Swedish municipalities have a key role to play in this work as implementers of the water management programme of measures, but also as operators. The water issues are in many parts of municipal activity, for example overall and detailed planning, development, supervision, receiving water control, drinking-water supply, water and wastewater issues, information and citizen contacts. As water management should be done on the basis of the circumstances of the water in its river basins, water councils and other interest organisations are important, contributing local knowledge, dissemination of information and consensus. 18

20 2.1 The tools of water management Management plan A management plan summarises the situation after the previous management cycle and describes the background and procedure for the revisions that have been made by environmental quality standards and programmes of measures. The plan also describes the focus of future work in the particular water district. The descriptions have to reflect the whole entity: condition and use, impact and objectives/quality requirements, measures and monitoring of our waters. The plan in that way contributes to overview and understanding and can be used as a reference and planning base in the water management work of public agencies, municipalities and non-governmental organisations. The plan is reported to the European Commission as part of European work on water management. Environmental quality standards An environmental quality standard is a quality requirement aimed at the status of the environment and used to regulate the quality of the environment to be achieved at a particular time instead of levels of discharges from individual sources. Each water body receives an environmental quality standard indicating what status it is to have at a particular time. If an environmental quality standard is not met, a combined picture is needed to be able to determine what the sources of the impact are and how the impact of these can be reduced. Municipalities and authorities bear the main responsibility for the standards being followed in planning, supervision and authorisation under the Environmental Code (1998:808). Programme of measures The programme of measures shows what needs to be done to enable the environmental quality standards to be met. The programme is targeted at authorities and municipalities, which in turn have to convert it into their decisions or activities. The purpose of the programme of measures is to show the most cost-effective instruments and measures, but it also contains a description of what physical measures need to be taken, by whom and when, what sources cause the problems and the estimated effects of the measures. The decisions made as a consequence of the programme of measures generally affect individual operators and/or the general public. The programme therefore also contains socioeconomic impact assessments. It takes time before the effects of measures become visible. There are still quite few positive examples of large-scale environmental improvements, and persistence is required in work on measures before the results are noticed. But there are positive examples: the introduction of municipal wastewater treatment plants and the national liming programme, and in recent years extensive measures have been taken to remediate areas damaged by pollution. The fact that Sweden has a long tradition of taking measures to improve the environment also makes continued work easier. The measures that have started to be implemented as a consequence of the water district authorities' programme of measures from 2009 have not had time to produce other than local effects in the vast majority of cases. Nor is immediate large-scale environmental improvement to be expected, particularly as several of the measures are first to lead to changes in procedures at public agencies and municipalities. There is also inherent inertia in 19

21 soil and water systems that mean that it takes time before implemented measures have their intended effect on water status. Eutrophication It is difficult to find any clear trends with regard to nitrogen and phosphorus load in Swedish marine areas 5. The total phosphorus load on Swedish marine areas in the past 20 years does not show any significant trend in any direction, while the nitrogen load shows a weak trend towards a decrease in certain areas. The measures implemented over the past few decades to reduce the impact of agriculture and other sources on lakes, rivers and seas have not yet had a large-scale breakthrough. One reason may be the inherent inertia in both soil and water systems where large quantities of nutrients are stored and can have an impact over a long period. Acidification The problem of acidification has decreased with the decline in deposition of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, but a large proportion of the country's water still needs measures to be taken in the form of liming to counteract the effects of the acidic substances. The recovery is visible first in the chemical composition of waters. Ecological recovery is a slower process that can be facilitated by biological restoration. Increased awareness of the effect of acidification on lakes and rivers in forestry has led to many projects being launched to increase knowledge and develop guidance on what can be done to reduce the impact of various forestry measures. In the longer term this ought to result in better quality in most aquatic environments. Physical impact Where a rapid effect from measures is observed, however, is in the waters that are restored following floatway clearance or where action has been taken to deal with migration obstacles in the form of incorrectly laid or under-dimensioned road culverts. In the stream of Baksjöbäcken in the county of Västerbotten, for example, the density of juvenile trout increased from 12.5 per 100m 2 before restoration to 70 per 100m 2 in a few years. At the same time the area was doubled in size, which means that the actual increase is even greater. Many rapids in which floatway clearence has been carried out are now being restored, among other places in the northern water districts, for example in the Vindel river 6 and the Pite river 7. 5 Havsmiljöinstitutet (Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment) Havet 2013/2014. Om miljötillståndet i svenska havsområden (The Sea 2013/2014. On the state of the environment in Swedish sea areas). ISBN

22 Restored tributary stream of the Vindel river. Photo: Petter Esberg 21

23 3 Collaboration Success for the Water Framework Directive relies on close cooperation and collaboration at Community level, Member State level and local level. There is also a need for information for and participation by the public and various users. The water district authorities therefore have to both enable and encourage participation by everyone affected by the decisions made. Collaboration in the management of our waters means that various stakeholders are invited to take part by discussing important issues and contributing to their solution. The aim is for the decisions made in Swedish water management to be as well substantiated as possible. Regular collaboration offers many benefits, contributing different perspectives and making it possible to share one another's knowledge and experiences. Collaboration also contributes to enabling conflicts of interest and problems to be identified at an early stage, creates an opportunity to jointly find solutions and strengthens the relationship between public agencies and stakeholders. Early information and communication on the environmental problems of the water district increase understanding of different measures and priorities. The water authority has to arrange consultative meetings during each management cycle at which everyone with an interest has an opportunity to express their views. However, the collaborative process contains far more than the consultative meetings and is carried out at various geographical scales. Some of the forms of collaboration that exist for water management work are described below: internationally, nationally, within the water district, within river basins and more locally. At international level there is a great need to exchange experience and harmonise work on the Water Framework Directive, partly because many river basins are shared between different member states. From the point of view of Sweden, international collaboration takes place among other ways through Nordic meetings held once a year and in the working groups of the European Commission. There is cooperation within the EU on a common strategy for implementation of the directive, Common Implementation Strategy (CIS), in which the Swedish Government Offices and natural public agencies and the experts from the water district authorities take part. Three Swedish water districts have transboundary water systems requiring cooperation. The Bothnian Bay is one of these districts, and the district shares river basins with both Norway and Finland. Several meetings have been held with Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish authorities on collaboration and the coordination of water management for the areas of Norway and Finland that affect the Bothnian Bay water district. For the Torne river, Norrbotten County Administrative Board and the water district authority have also carried out several joint projects, TRIWA, aimed at coordinating water management activity. A joint plan for the whole Swedish-Finnish river basin has to be drawn up together with the Finnish authorities and the Finnish-Swedish Border Rivers Commission during the consultation. At national level the five water district authorities collaborate jointly with authorities, sector bodies and other interest groups. In recent years dialogue meetings have been held with all bodies taking measures, that is to say the public agencies and municipalities that will be responsible for one or more measures in the Programme of Measures. Further details about this can be found in the section headed Measures for better water. The five water district authorities regularly hold joint meetings with the specifying authorities, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management and the Geological Survey of Sweden. The water district authorities additionally take part in 22

24 SamHav (the Coordinating Group for Marine and Aquatic Environment Issues), a collaborative forum for heads of authorities responsible for marine and aquatic environment issues. SamHatt combined forms of collaboration for the implementation of water management. Heads of and experts at affected authorities meet for strategic planning, exchange of information and coordination of measures. Collaborative meetings with sector organisations in industry The county administrative boards' environmental networks Meetings with the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) and the sector organisation the Swedish Water & Wastewater Association There is great diversity of forms of collaboration at regional and local level. The water district authority in the Bothnian Bay water district meets municipalities, operators, water councils and interest groups, among others, to inform them about and discuss water management. At local level the county administrative boards take great responsibility for collaboration within their own river basins. A group of specially designated water politicians are an important collaborative group towards the municipalities. There are water politicians in most municipalities in the district. Attached to the water delegation in the Bothnian Bay there is also a reference group of representatives of a number of different public agencies, companies and organisations, whose task is partly to convey information to their organisations but also to assist the delegation with view on the development of good water management in the district. 3.1 The water councils local collaborative groups in the water districts The water councils are a collection of different interests linked to surface waters and groundwaters within one or more river basins, in which everyone who wishes and is interested is welcome to take part. The water councils may, for example, be made up of private individuals, landowners, special-interest organisations, operators and municipalities. There are 13 water councils in the Bothnian Bay (see Figure 3.1) divided between the district's 30 main river basins, including the coast. To encourage and facilitate involvement, the water councils receive an annual grant for their activity from the water district authority. In return, the water councils have to ensure that the work is done on a river-basin basis, that those concerned are invited to take part, that all water within the river basin is included in the work and that the water councils endeavour to fulfil the role of a local collaborative forum for water issues. The water councils have an important local significance in water management activity, but are also influential regionally and nationally, among other things through views and comments on consultative material. The water councils can also produce a knowledge basis, disseminate information, take part in international projects and develop local programmes of measures. The work has to be adapted by the water councils themselves on the basis of the environmental projects, possibilities, knowledge and circumstances that exist within their particular river basin, but authorities also have the option to raise issues where participation is wanted. The water councils have a continuous dialogue in particular with the drafting secretariats at Norrbotten and Västberbotten county administrative boards, which assist them with guidance, documentation and expertise. The views of a committed and knowledgeable water council have a strong bearing on the work of the drafting secretariats and the water district authority in drawing up management plans for waters or in applications for projects with measures. The water district authority also arranges an annual "Water Councils Day" at 23

25 which the focus is on an exchange of experience between the districts' water councils and current issues. Further information about the water councils can be found on the website of the water district authorities or where there are also links to the water councils' own websites. Photo: The County Administrative Board of Norrbotten. 24

26 Figure 3.1 Water councils within the Bothnian Bay's water districts. 25

27 4 Conditions in the water district The Bothnian Bay water district makes up the most northerly part of Sweden and comprises 30 main river basins in the county of Norrbotten and the most of the county of Västerbotten. In the south it borders on the Bothnian Bay water district, the boundary of which runs along the southern boundary of the river basins of the Ume and Öre river basins. The district also includes the coastal areas in the archipelago out to one nautical mile (1852 m) outside the baseline (the coast and outermost skerries and rocks; see Figure 4.1). The total area of the district accounts for nearly a third of the land area of Sweden. Figure 4.1 Land use in the district The landscape in the district is characterised by large river basins, many lakes, a land-uplift coast with more than 7000 archipelago islands and brackish seawater. The coastland, wedged between the valleys of the large mountain rivers contains most of the smaller river basins, known as forest rivers, which are in general strongly marked by human activity, such as agriculture and forestry. Population density in the district is low and the nearly inhabitants are mostly resident in the coastal area. Large and heavy primary industry are the principal industrial sectors in the district, and among what are known as the land-based industries it is forestry 26

28 in particular that affect the waters of the district, but locally there is also impact from agriculture and mining. Forestry is heavily dominant in land use, and the district is characterised by large areas of coniferous forest, which have formed, and continue to form, the basis for a large proportion of the industrial production of wood products, paper and pulp in Sweden. Agricultural land (included in the category of "open land" in Figure 4.1) accounts for only one per cent of land use in the district. 4.1 Water in the district There are just over lakes in the district (>0.01 km 2 ; 1 hectare). The district contains the four deepest lakes in Sweden, and Hornavan can boast of being the deepest lake in Sweden at 221 metres. The clearest lake in Sweden, Rissajaure, which has a visibility depth of at least 36 metres, is also located here. Something that is perhaps less enviable is that the district also has the most acidic lake in the country, Blåmissusjön, where the ph can be as low as 3. Among the watercourses in the district are the four large national rivers, the Torne, the Kalix, the Pite and the Vindel, which are all protected against hydropower development. The Torne river basin extends across both Sweden and Finland, as well as a small part of Norway, and has therefore been designated as an international river district on which the countries cooperate. The district's inshore waters represent a brackish water and land uplift environment unique in the world and are notable for the northerly location, low salinity and the large influence of freshwater as a result of many and large rivers discharging into the Bothnian Bay. This means that the species composition is principally made up of freshwater species, with only a small number of marine species in the system. The Bothnian Bay is shallow, with an average depth of 40 m (max. depth 150m), and the shoreline is generally flat. The ongoing land uplift contributes to the present-day bays gradually being cut off and being transformed into lakes, but as a result of climate change the district's coast may remain unchanged on the basis of the coast levels of today. From the perspective of species and habitats, the shallow and enclosed bays are important spawning and nursery grounds for many species, but at the same time they are sensitive to pollution as there is limited opportunity for real mixing in comparison with deeper and more open parts of the coast. The water district also contains several large groundwater sources with drinking water of high quality. These are principally in sand and gravel deposits, which are located along the river valleys. In other areas the groundwater sources are more sporadic, which may be partly due to their being little explored. To summarise and in broad terms, the Bothnian Bay water district from an international perspective has large water resources, in which water quality on the whole is good, with regard to both groundwaters and surface waters. However, they are not unaffected. Around half of total hydropower is produced in the district, and most of the major rivers are highly regulated. In the vast majority of rivers below the cultivation line timber floating has led to extensive physical intervention (Figure 4.2), which like hydropower has created obstacles to migration and has had an adverse impact on conditions for salmonids and other organisms dependent on flowing water environments. In many places where roads cross smaller rivers migration obstacles have also been created when road culverts have been installed in an inappropriate way. Land drainage is also something that has a great impact on smaller forest rivers, resulting in humification and acidification. 27

29 Figure 4.2 Floating of timber has led to extensive physical interventions in many watercourses. Attempts have been to restore parts of these after floating came to an end, for example in parts of the Sangis river. A great deal of work remains to be done, however, as witnessed by this stone arm; the river is still greatly affected by the channelling carried out during the age of floating. Photo: Petter Esberg Global and large-scale environmental problems such as environmental toxins and dangerously high levels of metals, like in water districts in the rest of Sweden, are a significant problem and they are largely due to historical industrialisation. Thanks to tougher environmental legislation and greater awareness, present-day industry contributes less to pollution of Swedish waters. In addition, sulphide clays occur very commonly in coastal areas. In areas were a large amount of ditching has been done in agriculture and forestry it may therefore have a significant impact on nearby rivers. However, acidification is generally not a major problem in the district. Apart from hydropower it is mainly activities such as forestry and heavy primary industry that today have an impact in the district. 28

30 Mining area abandoned since Photo: Lisa Lundstedt 29

31 5 Monitoring of waters The monitoring of surface waters comprises studies of biology, water chemistry and pollutants. Chemical and physical parameters and groundwater levels are monitored in groundwaters. The water district authority does not carry out its own monitoring and is dependent on the monitoring designed and carried out by other parties to obtain data for status classifications and other assessments. The monitoring that is done has different purposes as, in addition to assessing long-term changes in environmental status, it exists to follow up how certain activity affects the environment. The design of the monitoring also differs. For example there are differences regarding in which waters sampling is done, which parameters are monitored and how often sampling takes place. There is a large amount of information on water-related monitoring in the VISS database. It is possible to see where different monitoring stations are, what is measured at different sampling stations and how often it is measured. On the other hand, no measurement data are stored in VISS, and the results are kept in separate data hosts. Work is also in progress to link the monitoring station or stations that have been used to the appropriate status classification in VISS. This will mean that it becomes easier to see what data underlie a classification. 5.1 Monitoring is a form of cooperation Under the Water Management Ordinance, the water district authorities have to ensure that monitoring programmes are drawn up to monitor the status of lakes, rivers, coastal waters and groundwaters. The programmes are to be implemented in cooperation with the authorities, municipalities, organisations and others the water district authorities consider suitable. The aim is to obtain a coherent and comprehensive overview of water status in each water district. The monitoring programme also has to describe how protected areas are monitored. The monitoring programmes drawn up for the five water districts are reported to the EU by the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management. Formulation of monitoring programmes for water Under the requirements in the Water Management Ordinance the monitoring programmes set up by the water district authorities comprise three types of monitoring: surveillance, operational and quantitative monitoring. The monitoring programmes also have to contain a strategy for when and how investigative monitoring has to be performed. Surveillance monitoring has to provide an overall picture of what water status is like in the district for both surface water and groundwater. In the case of groundwater the purpose of surveillance monitoring is also to confirm the risk assessment made and to contribute data to the assessment of chemical status. The monitoring results also have to be used as a basis for trend analyses in changes in the chemical composition of the groundwater, and for the design of an operational monitoring programme. Operational monitoring is performed in surface water bodies that have a status worse than good or are at risk of having worse than good status. It is also used to follow up whether measures implemented have had an effect. Operational monitoring is used and adapted to follow up the specific impact or the environmental problem that exists in the water body. In a water body that has problems with eutrophication, nutrient levels, for example, are 30

32 measured at a higher frequency than in a water that does not have problems with eutrophication. In groundwaters, operational monitoring is used to establish the chemical groundwater status and has to be carried out in individual or groups of groundwater bodies which have been deemed in the risk assessment to be at risk of not achieving or retaining good chemical groundwater status. Operational monitoring is also used to identify any significant and persistently upward trends in the concentration of pollutants or other indicators of groundwater quality. Quantitative monitoring is also performed in groundwaters. It is then the levels of groundwater that are monitored to check that sufficient groundwater is reformed in relation to the groundwater abstracted from the groundwater reservoir. As well as the types of monitoring mentioned above there is investigative monitoring. This monitoring is used in three cases: To establish the extent and consequences of unintentional pollution incidents. To establish the reasons why the environmental quality standard will probably not be achieved in cases where operational monitoring has not been initiated. When the reason for exceedances of the environmental quality standards is not known. The water district authority's monitoring programmes 2007 and 2012 The water district authority has devised two monitoring programmes that have been reported to the EU, 2007 and As the water district authority does not undertake monitoring under its own auspices, these monitoring programmes were based on monitoring stations for which other actors are responsible. Monitoring programme 2012 The European Commission has identified a number of deficiencies in the monitoring programme reported in In 2012 Sweden made a revision and provided extra reporting of the monitoring to the EU. Monitoring of water in the future There is much that can be improved in Swedish monitoring of surface waters and groundwaters. For surface waters the monitoring of biological quality factors, for example, is not sufficient, and monitoring of priority substances needs to be improved, particularly with regard to organic pollutants. Monitoring of hydromorphological quality factors also needs to be improved. Monitoring is deficient for most groundwater sources, which leads to status classifications being based on an impact model, together with expert assessments, instead of on actual measured values. With regard to future climate change, when drought and torrential downpours will become more common and lead to greater variation in groundwater levels, there must be a conscious strategy for monitoring of quantitative risk and status. As a result of work to put together monitoring programmes and surveying and analysis, the water district authorities and the county administrative boards have obtained an improved basis on which to see where there are needs for development with regard to water-related monitoring. Based on experience and data gathered from the first management cycle, in 31

33 2013 the water district authorities drew up a draft strategy for ways of changing the strategy so that Sweden can meet the requirements of the framework directive. The aim is for the water district authorities to show what changes need to be made to the water-related monitoring for Sweden in future to have more complete data ahead of decisions on environmental quality standards and programmes of measures for water. Monitoring programme 2015 Monitoring of lake water quality in Torneträsk. Photo: Sara Elfvendahl The water district authority's next monitoring programme will be completed in 2015 and is due to be reported to the EU in March This monitoring programme will have been enhanced in several respects in comparison with those reported previously. The point of departure for the monitoring programme is that it should reflect more clearly the monitoring on which the status classifications are based. The water district authority will combine existing water-related monitoring and use this information as a basis for the monitoring programme. The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management is developing its work on the basis of criticism received from the European Commission, such as revision of the basis of assessment, new classification of water bodies, revision of guidance for monitoring and tools that will be used during the management cycle Division into water bodies To enable the present-day status of a water to be described and future quality requirements to de defined in a good way, the waters need to be divided into units that are as similar as possible with regard to type of water, quality and pressure of impact. The units are called water bodies, and the division is done according to the special criteria in which size, among other things, is a clear demarcation. Regardless of whether a water fulfils the size criteria to constitute a water body or not, all waters are indirectly covered by water management. Waters that are not water bodies are referred to in water management as "other water". 32

34 6 Mapping and analysis of groundwaters A groundwater body has to be delimited in a way that makes it possible to make a suitable description of quantitative and groundwater chemical status. Under the Water Management Ordinance, which refers to the Water Management Ordinance, drinking water sources in groundwater reservoirs are to be part of of a groundwater body if they produce more than 10 m³/day, supply more than 50 people or are intended for such use in the future. It is practical if groundwater bodies are defined so that geological/hydrogeological features or pollutant concentrations are similar within the body. Quantitative and chemical status are established for groundwaters. A total of 697 groundwater bodies have been demarcated in the Bothnian Bay water district. Of these, 18 are in glacifluvial deposits, one in moraine and outwash sediment, and three in moraine and glacifluvial material below clay and other cohesion soils, others are not classified. Figure 6.1 shows the location and boundaries of the groundwater bodies on the basis of Sand and gravel deposit and Other (primary rock, moraine/outwash sand aquifers). Figure 6.1 Location and boundaries of the groundwater bodies in the Bothnian Bay water district. 33

35 6.1 The result of the 2014 status classification Chemical status All the water district's 697 groundwater bodies have been assessed as having good chemical status. The reliability classification gives an indication of how well substantiated classification is. The reliability classification of chemical status of groundwater is low or very low, see diagram (Figure 6.2), which shows that there is a great need for more reliable data and more monitoring in groundwaters. Figure 6.2 Reliability classification of chemical status in groundwater in Bothnian Bay water district. D low is by far the most common classification. Changes in chemical status No changes have been made with regard to chemical status of groundwater since the previous management cycle. Quantitative status Of the water district's 697 groundwater bodies, 656 have been assessed as having good quantitative status, while data is lacking at present to assess the remaining (41) bodies. The reliability classification of quantitative status is, however, very low, and all assessed bodies in the district have a low (D) degree of reliability, which reflects the deficient monitoring of groundwater levels and the absence of information on water abstraction. Changes in quantitative status from the previous assessment. No changes have occurred since the previous assessment. 34

36 6.2 Sources of impact and risk assessment As it often difficult to restore a polluted groundwater it is important to designate and deal with sources of impact before a change is made to chemical and/or quantitative status in them. By conducting impact analyses, which show where there are problems in the water bodies and which sources of impact are significant, the sources of impact can be dealt with early so that the risk of impact on the groundwater body diminishes. Significant impact means such impact that, alone or together with other impact, may mean that a water body does not meet, or is at risk of not meeting, the environmental quality standards. As more impact analyses have been done during the period , the number of groundwater bodies at risk of not attaining good chemical status or quantitative status by 2021 is far higher today than in Vulnerability studies are also done, which means that it is analysed whether the ground cover retains pollutants or whether there is a risk of pollutants being dispersed down to underlying groundwater. Procedures and basic assumptions in risk assessment How the assessment of chemical and quantitative risk for groundwater is to be performed is described in the SGU (Geological Survey of Sweden) regulations on mapping and analysis of groundwater (SGU-FS 2013:1). For more detailed information on methodology in risk assessment, see the complete version of the management plan and regulations SGU-FS 2013:1 Results of risk assessment Nine groundwater bodies in the Bothnian Bay water district have been assessed as being at risk of not attaining good chemical status by 2021 (Table 1 and Figure 6.3). The risks originate in a feared spreading of environmentally dangerous substances from polluted sites, previous use of pesticides on agricultural land, risk of impact from infrastructure above and densely built-up areas and the mining industry. One (1) groundwater body has been assessed as being at risk of not attaining good quantitative status by 2021 (Table 1). Table 1. Risk assessment for groundwater bodies in the Bothnian Bay water district. Chemical risk assessment Risk of not attaining good chemical status in No risk of good chemical status not being attained 688 Risk of not attaining good quantitative status in No risk of good quantitative status not being attained in 2021 Number of groundwater bodies

37 Figure 6.3 Groundwater bodies with risk of unsatisfactory chemical status in the Bothnian Bay water district. 36

38 7 Mapping and analysis of surface waters 7.1 Demarcation and classification of surface water bodies Surface waters are divided into water bodies and types. The basic principle is that water is divided such that category, type and status are as similar as possible. A water body must also be continuous and cannot therefore consist of geographically separated parts. The purpose of this is to be able to group and compare waters with similar natural conditions that depend among other things on climate, natural geographically ecoregion, geology, height above sea level, size and depth. Lantmäteriet's overview map provides the basis for the division of lakes and rivers in Sweden. Lakes that have a minimum surface area of 1 km2 and rives with a river basin larger than or equal to 10 km 2 have to be designated as water bodies. Smaller water bodies can also be designated. These may be waters concerned by protection under other EU directives, waters that are of particular ecological value or waters that affect a designated water body in a significant way. In the area from the coastline out to one nautical mile (1 852 m) outside what is known as the baseline water bodies have been demarcated as coastal waters. Each coastal water body is a demarcated area of coastal water, a sound, a bay or (in some districts) a harbour area. The basic principle in division is that the coastal water bodies have to be similar with respect to natural conditions, impact and status. In the offshore area between one and twelve nautical miles outside the baseline (territorial waters) 19 water bodies have been demarcated in Sweden. These water bodies are not included in the classification of chemical or ecological status. Indicators in accordance with the Marine Environment Directive are used instead to identify environmental impact. The division of water bodies is reviewed and revised at the start of each water management cycle. The most recent revision of water bodies was performed in The most important changes made are described below. A total of surface water bodies have been demarcated in the Bothnian Bay water district, of which rivers, lakes and 113 coastal waters. 7.2 Changes in surface water body classification since the previous management cycle The most important changes made during the revision with regard to surface water were that the demarcations for the water bodies established in 2009 were improved and waters constituting protected areas were added, including drinking water sources, waters affected by Natura 2000 sites and waters with EU bathing places. Some water bodies were removed as they did not fulfil the criteria to constitute a water body. The changes in the Bothnian Bay water district meant a gross decrease of 62 surface water bodies. It is very small watercourses between lakes in particular that have been removed as water bodies, the lakes instead having been linked together to form a water body. It is hoped that the new division will provide the necessary basis for better environmental quality standards and targeted action programmes. 37

39 7.3 Status classification an assessment of the status of the water In order to be able to provide a measure of the quality of the water, all water bodies after classified according to how large the deviation is from the "natural status" of the water. Lakes, rivers and coastal waters are classified on the basis of the present-day status of the water for both ecological and chemical conditions. The way in which status classification is to be carried out is governed by regulations from the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management and the Geological Survey of Sweden. This is supplemented by grounds for assessment and manuals. In order to clarify the manuals so that classifications can be done in a more uniform way, the water district authorities in produced a manual consisting of a number of quick guides to various aspects of mapping work. The quick guides are used as support in the work of the county administrative boards to survey surface and ground waters, and they contain guidelines for status classification, assessment of impact, environmental problems and risk, drafting of proposals for environmental quality standards and designation of HMWBs and establishment of ecological potential. A digital Questions Box was introduced to enable questions to be asked on procedures for classification work. Questions received through the Questions Box were answered by administrators at the water district authorities with skills in different areas. Around 450 questions were put to the Question Box, the majority coming from the county administrative boards and being concerned with classification. The results form all parts of the surveying work can be seen in the VISS database, with the exception of the economic analysis. Here it is also possible to read texts explaining why a water for for example has a particular status or environmental problem. Assessment of the measurements and their accuracy The quantity of data underlying status classifications and assessments varies. Measured data is often also complemented by modelling and expert assessments. The quantity of underlying data differs between counties and districts. What is known as a reliability classification is done to clarify how substantiated a status classification is. The assessment of reliability is a new tool introduced in conjunction with the status classification work in this management cycle. An estimate of the reliability of a status classification can provide an indication of where monitoring needs to be expanded or changed. Reliability classifications have been done for ecological status and chemical status, but also for certain other individual parameters, for both groundwater and surface water. Reliability is shown in VISS by four different classes through the letters A-D, where A represents the highest reliability and D indicates the lowest reliability. A corresponds to Very Good, B - Good, C - Medium and D - Low reliability. As well as the different classes (A-D) of reliability there is also information on what type of classification or expert assessment has been used (measured values basis of assessment, measured values expert assessment, modelling, extrapolation or other expert assessment), what EQR (ecological quality ratio) value/content the classification is based on, how many measurements underlie the assessment and from what years data come. It is important to emphasise that the status classifications underpinning standard-setting and programmes of measures are applicable regardless of reliability. If classification with low degree of reliability is questioned, it should be possible to show measurements with higher reliability. 38

40 Working methods and basic assumptions in status classification of surface waters The status classification is based on measured data from national and regional environmental monitoring, and from receiving water control and municipal environmental monitoring. As well as classification according to the bases of assessment, various models and expert assessments have been used in the work. The quick guides and the water district authorities' questions box have put the county administrative boards in a better position to make assessments that are as similar as possible. There are, however, still some unclear aspects in the guidelines, and the assessments for some parameters may vary between different counties and water districts. It is in the assessments of hydromorphology in particular that there are variations. This is due in part to the county administrative boards having widely differing quantities of data and partly to different county administrative boards having applied different considerations. Quality assurance of the classifications is still in progress, to coordinate assessments nationally. Expert assessments when the underlying data is not sufficient The underlying data has been continuously improved, but there is still a lack of complete underlying data for many water bodies, particularly with regard to biological parameters and environmental toxins. What are known as expert assessments have been used to a great extent in status classification for these water bodies. An expert assessment is made on the basis of all available knowledge with data from measurements, impact data, model calculations, previous experience and so on. There are several variants of expert assessments: Classification of individual quality factors where there is date, but where an expert judges that application of the bases of assessment results in an incorrect class. Utilisation of data from parameters without bases of assessment for example for freshwater mussels, crayfish and filamentous algae. Status classification when there is inadequate data. If an expert assessment results in a water body being assessed as worse than good status, this leads at the same time to the water body having to be monitored operationally. A description is given in VISS of how the expert assessment is carried out for each individual water body. The reliability classification also provides a suggestion of how well substantiated a classification is. Classification of ecological status or ecological potential There are five classes for the assessment of ecological status: high, good, moderate, poor and bad status. Ecological potential For waters declared as heavily modified or artificial water bodies, different names of quality classes are used than for natural waters. Further details about ecological potential and the classification of these waters can be found in the section headed Heavily modified and artificial water bodies (Chapter 12). 39

41 Classification of chemical surface water status The classes good and does not achieve good are used for the classification of chemical status in surface waters. Mercury and mercury compounds Mercury levels in fish, principally pike, have been monitored in Sweden since the early sixties, and an extensive body of data is available.. A comparison between this data and the European limit value shows that there are no water bodies where measured mercury levels in fish are stably below the specified target value (0.02 mg/kg). The consequence is therefore that not one of the water bodies in Sweden containing fish meets the requirement for chemical status based on mercury. The requirements to be able deal with the problems of mercury not met in either technical or economic terms. Some improvements can be achieved at national level, for example through measures in forestry and in conjunction with expansion of hydropower, but significant international efforts are needed in particular to reduce the emissions underlying the diffuse inflow of mercury compounds to Sweden. International efforts have been made by EU Member States, and the total input to air from European member states fell by 61% between 1990 and 2008 as a result of bans and reduced use. Result of status classification 2014 Ecological status Just over 40% of surface water bodies have been assessed as having worse than good ecological status. With regard to lakes and rivers, poor connectivity (migration obstacles) and morphological (physical) changes are the most important causes of good ecological status not being attained. The problems with changes in connectivity and morphology are principally manifested in the quality factors of fish and connectivity and fish, hydrological regime and morphological conditions. In the case of coastal waters it is the impact of eutrophication and environmental toxins in particular that result in good ecological status not being attained. The problems with eutrophication are apparent among other things in the biological quality factors of phytoplankton and macrophytes. Among the physicochemical quality factors, nutrients, visibility depth and oxygen are indicators of eutrophication. The results of the classification of ecological status for all surface water categories are collated in Map 7.1 and in Table G.1. 40

42 Figure 7.1 Ecological status in the Bothnian Bay water district. 41

43 Table G.1 Ecological status of surface water bodies in the Bothnian Bay water district. Water bodies declared to be heavily modified water bodies or artificial water bodies are excluded (see chapter on Heavily modified and artificial water bodies). Surface water bodies Rivers Lakes Coastal waters Total number of bodies in each category High Good Moderate Poor Bad The reliability classification of ecological status in the Bothnian Bay water district regarding lakes and rivers is for the most part class C medium (Figure 7.2). In national terms the Bothnian Bay has a very low degree of reliability, which is due to the more deficient monitoring in the district (in comparison with other districts). Number of water bodies Sjö Vattendrag Kustvatten Tillförlitlighet A - mycket bra Tillförlitlighet B - bra Tillförlitlighet C - medel Tillförlitlighet D - låg Figure 7.2 Distribution of the reliability classification for ecological status of lakes, rivers and coastal waters in the Bothnian Bay district. Chemical status All the surface water bodies in the district have been assessed as having worse than good chemical status. Excluding mercury, 35 out of 6885 surface water bodies (0.5%) have been assessed as having worse than good chemical status. The results of the classification of chemical status in surface water bodies are presented in Table G.4 and Figure 7.3. The map shows status when mercury has been excluded. The purpose of excluding mercury from chemical status analysis is for the problem of mercury, which is a general problem applicable throughout Sweden, not to overshadow any problems with other priority substances. When mercury is included in the assessment, all the surface waters in the district are classified as not attaining good status. 42

44 Table G.4 Chemical status excluding mercury for surface water bodies in the Bothnian Bay water district. Surface water bodies Rivers Lakes Coastal waters Total in the district Good chemical status Does not achieve good chemical status Not classified The reliability classification for chemical status in the district for all surface water bodies, except one, is classified as "B good". The exception is a lake where reliability is classified as D low. The fact that reliability has generally been set as B good and that it is unusual to set A very good illustrates that the right quality of measurement data is often lacking to make a correct assessment of chemical status. In national terms the reliability class B good is by far the most common. Changes in chemical status If mercury, which lowers the status of all water bodies in both the previous and present management cycles, is disregarded, more substances have contributed to a lowering of chemical status in this cycle. The change in status is partly due to more measurements having been made since the previous cycle, partly to the limit values for existing priority substances having been revised, and partly because limit values in biota have been added for some of them. The substances included in the previous cycle but not in this one are atrazine and simazine. The substances added are aldrin, specific classifications for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (in the previous cycle only PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) were classified), DDT, DEHP, endosulfan, isodrine, isoproturon, chloroalkanes (C10-C13), chlorfenvinphos and naphthalene. The reason why so many substances have been added is probably that there is greater knowledge of these, and that there are more measurement data. For changes in chemical status, see G.5 Table G.5 Changes in chemical status in the Bothnian Bay district. Status Good Does not achieve good

45 Figure 7.3 Chemical status in the Bothnian Bay water district excluding mercury. 44

46 8 Environmental problems and source of impact To ascertain what measures need to be implemented, an analysis is required of what problems exist in the water bodies and what sources of impact in such cases underlie the problems. This work is referred to as impact assessment. In cases where there is a lack of data, or with insufficient data, from monitoring for a water body, the impact assessment is also a basis for status classification. An important part of the impact assessment is to identify what are known as "significant impacts" for all surface water bodies. Significant impact means impact that, alone or together with other impact, may mean that a body of water does not achieve, or is at risk of not achieving, the environmental quality standards. The programme of measures is aimed at these sources of impact. The most important environmental problems in the Bothnian Bay water district are described in the following section, and an account is also given of the most important sources of impact for each environmental problem. Information from several different national and regional databases is used as a basis for the impact assessment. For more detailed information about the method of work and the data used, see the management plan. Environmental problems and sources of impact in the Bothnian Bay water district The most extensive environmental problem in the Bothnian Bay water district is changed habitats due to physical impact in the form of changes of flow, changes of connectivity and morphological changes, Table H.1. Eutrophication is a problem particularly in coastal waters and in the agriculturally dominated and densely populated parts of the water district. In other areas there are problems with metal load, particularly in coastal waters, alongside mining and metal production and in areas with acidic sulphate soils. Table H.1 Summary of environmental problems in surface waters in the Bothnian Bay water district 45 Rivers Lakes Coastal waters Total number of water bodies Eutrophication Environmental toxins problems with priority substances (excl. Hg) Environmental toxins problems with specific pollutants Environmental toxins total for priority substances and specific pollutants Acidification Changes of flow Changes of connectivity Morphological changes Alien species The total number of unique water bodies is assessed as being affected by environmental toxins, that is to say affected by priority substances and/or specific pollutants.

47 Eutrophication Eutrophication is not a major environmental problem in the Bothnian Bay water district in terms of the number of water bodies affected. From a societal point of view, however, the problems are appreciable as eutrophication problems often arise close to buildings. 19% of coastal water and 5% and 1% of the district's lakes and rivers respectively have been assessed as being affected by eutrophication (Figure 8.1). Figure 8.1 Surface water bodies that have problems with eutrophication. 46

48 Sources of impact that can contribute to eutrophication problems It is the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus in particular that cause eutrophication. In lakes and rivers it is usually phosphorus that is the limiting nutrient, which means that it is the input of phosphorus that determines the possibilities for growth of vegetation. In coastal waters it is more common for nitrogen to be the limiting nutrient. Phosphorus The input of phosphorus to waters in the Bothnian Bay water district is 870 tonnes per year. The breakdown into different sources can be seen in Figure 8.2. Of the leaching of phosphorus caused by human activity, agriculture, industry, treatment plants, stormwater and on-site wastewater treatment systems only account for a small proportion of the total, most being natural input. The source breakdown (Figure 8.2) does not include input from offshore waters. Many of the district's coastal water bodies are, however, affected by phosphorus from these. Figure 8.2 Breakdown of sources of phosphorus in the Bothnian Bay water district. The diagram shows the input of phosphorus to waters in the district. Data from SMED 8 Nitrogen Nitrogen is primarily significant for eutrophication of coastal waters, and input to the sea is therefore most relevant. The input of nitrogen to the sea/coast in the Bothnian Bay water district is just over 4000 tonnes per year. Of the leaching of nitrogen caused by human activity (agriculture, industry, treatment plants, stormwater, on-site wastewater treatment systems and tree-felling), around one-fifth of input to the coast is accounted for by agriculture, industry and wastewater treatment plants. The large contribution of wastewater treatment plants is due to nitrogen not being treated to the same extent as phosphorus and there being a large population in the coastal area of the water district. No input from offshore waters is included in the breakdown of sources (Figure 8.3). Many of the district's coastal water bodies are, however, affected by nitrogen from offshore waters. 8 Ejhed, H. et al Beräkning av kväve- och fosforbelastningen på vatten och hav för uppföljning av miljömålet Ingen övergödning (Calculation of nitrogen and phosphorus load on waters and seas for follow-up of the environmental objective "Zero eutrophication"). SMED report No

49 Figure 8.3 Breakdown of sources of nitrogen in the Bothnian Bay water district. The diagram shows the input of nitrogen to the district's coastal waters. Data from SMED 9 Assessment of significant impacts linked to eutrophication The most important sources linked to eutrophication impact in the Bothnian Bay water district is leaching from agricultural land, wastewater from treatment plants and on-site treatment systems, as well as stormwater. Table H.2 shows how many water bodies have been assessed as being subject to significant impact from the source of impact concerned. Table H.2 Significant source of impact linked to eutrophication problems in the Bothnian Bay water district. The table indicates the number of water bodies in each water category assessed as being subject to significant impact from a particular source of impact. Lakes Rivers Coastal waters Agriculture On-site wastewater treatment systems Stormwater Treatment plants Changed habitats due to physical impact The environmental problem of Changed habitats due to physical impact relates to all types of physical modifications that are caused by human activity and affect hydromorphology and therefore habitats in a water area. Interventions in the aquatic environment such as lake lowering, damming, ditching and dredging are examples of this type of physical modifications. Physical impact is the most extensive environmental problem in many areas, and is the greatest obstacle to achieving good ecological status. Studies have shown the population sizes of species linked to rivers, lakes and wetlands have decreased sharply as a result of the physical modifications. The most marked physical modifications in the aquatic environments are the morphological changes that originate from land drainage, lake 9 Ejhed, H. et al Beräkning av kväve- och fosforbelastningen på vatten och hav för uppföljning av miljömålet Ingen övergödning (Calculation of nitrogen and phosphorus load on waters and seas for follow-up of the environmental objective "Zero eutrophication"). SMED report No

50 lowering, floatway cleaning, straightening and channelling, but hydropower has also left clear marks on the aquatic landscape through its dams and dry river beds. Physical changes are a broad concept. Depending on the type of physical impact the interventions produce these are divided into changes of flow changes in connectivity and morphological changes. Changes of flow The changes of flow in the Bothnian Bay water district principally consist of regulating of water at dams in connection with the production of electric power, zero water flow and dry river beds (Figure 8.4).. There is extensive hydropower production in the Bothnian water district, with substantially expanded river systems such as the Ume, Skellefte and Lule rivers. The Lule river along accounts for around 10% of total Swedish electricity generation. The largest proportion of water bodies where changes of flow can pose an environmental problem have moderate or poor status today. Changes of flow are stated as being an environmental problem in 5% of the district's lakes and 32% of its rivers. This is equivalent to 35% of the aggregated lake surface area and 55% of the aggregated length of rivers in the district. Photo: the County Administrative Board of Norrbotten 49

51 Figure 8.4 Surface water bodies that have problems with changes of flow. 50

52 Changes of connectivity The changes in connectivity in the Bothnian Bay water district (Figure 8.5) mainly consist in dams and incorrectly laid road culverts. The majority of water bodies where changes of connectivity can pose an environmental problem have moderate or poor status today. Ton enable the environmental quality standards to be met, 19% of the lakes and 30% of rivers where changes of connectivity have been assessed as having caused worse than good status need to be dealt with. This is equivalent to 39% of the aggregated lake surface area and 32% of the aggregated length of rivers in the district. Figure 8.5 Surface water bodies that have problems with changes of connectivity. 51

53 Morphological changes Around 18% of rivers and 6% of lakes (or 4% of the aggregated lake surface area and 22% of the aggregated length of rivers) in the Bothnian Bay water district have been assessed as having problems with morphological changes (Figure 8.6). With regard to rivers, it is principally straightening and cleaning that has had an impact on the aquatic environments, and for the lakes it is mainly lowering that is the problem. Figure 8.6. Surface water bodies that have problems with morphological changes 52

54 Sources of impact linked to physical modifications Out of the sources of impact that cause physical modifications in various ways, floatwaycleaned waters, dams and road culverts affect most water bodies in the Bothnian Bay water district, Table H3. Table H.3 Significant sources of impact linked to physical modifications in the Bothnian Bay water district. The table indicates the number of water bodies in each water category assessed as being subject to significant impact from a particular source of impact. Lakes Rivers Hydro-electric dam Power regulation Flow regulation Other dams Physical changes Floatway cleaning 1352 Barriers Road culverts Drainage Environmental toxins Environmental toxins are handled in water management partly as part of the classification of chemical surface water status (priority substances) and partly as a quality factor linked to ecological status (specific pollutants). In the Bothnian Bay water district environmental toxins are an principally a problem in the district's coastal waters, alongside mining and metal production and in areas with acidic sulphate soils. 33 coastal waters (29%), 63 rivers (1%), 15 lakes (1%) and seven groundwaters (1%) have been assessed as affected. It is mercury, lead, cadmium and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs, flame retardants) in particular that cause problems. However, knowledge of how the district's water bodies are affected by environmental toxins is inadequate, and there is a need first to supplement existing knowledge with more measurements and second to improve knowledge of source of impact and effects. Sources of impact linked to environmental toxins Many substances hazardous to the environment and health occur in articles of various kinds. Diffuse spreading through wastewater treatment plants, stormwater, leachate from landfills, spreading of sludge on agricultural land and so on takes place both when the articles are used and when they are thrown away. In recent years attention has been drawn for example to pharmaceutical residues, plasticisers, brominated flame retardants and substances used to impregnate surfaces. It is likely that the largest emissions of environmental toxins today do not take place from point sources but as diffuse emissions. This makes it particularly difficult to decide which are the significant sources of impact (Table H.4). In the Bothnian Bay water district metal extraction has been undertaken on a large scale in several areas of both Norrbotten and Västerbotten. The stocks of mining waste and slag generated by mining and associated industry have led to a picture of pollution dominated by metals. These pollutants often affect conditions locally in soil and water but also contribute to the regional load of pollutants. Many measures have been implemented and have restricted emissions of metals to the aquatic environment, but there are still areas with too 53

55 high a load. High world market prices for various metals have additionally led to increased pressure both to open new mines and to restart mines that have previously not been profitable. Large parts of the coast are affected by emissions from environmentally hazardous activities and former industries. The level of dioxins in sediments is elevated outside timber and paper mills. Dioxins and dioxin-like substances were dealt with during the first management cycle as specific pollutants. During the autumn of 2013, however, changes were implemented which mean that these substances are to be dealt with instead as priority substances with effect from 2018 (Directive 2013/39/EU). For this reason dioxins are not included in the classifications presented in High levels of substances that are diffusely spread via the atmosphere are measured in the district, as they are in the whole of Sweden. Examples of this are mercury and PBDEs (flame retardants), although local sources also occur. Diffuse leaching of metals from acidic sulphate soils is a prominent problem in the district. The methods for assessing significant impact linked to environmental toxins have not yet been fully developed. Many factors need to be weighed into the assessment, including the size of the water body, sensitivity, ph value, the quantity of organic matter and hardness. Devising guidelines that are applicable throughout the country will take time and assessments are therefore widely spread at present. The procedure will be revised so that the methodology is applied more uniformly and so that the assessments, ahead of the decision on the management plan, become more synchronised. A summary of each source of impact can be found in the fully version of the management plan. Table H.4 Significant sources of impact linked to environmental toxins in the Bothnian Bay water district. The table indicates the number of water bodies in each water category assessed as being subject to significant impact from a particular source of impact. Lakes Rivers Coastal waters IPPC industry Industry Contaminated soil Acidic sulphate soils x 21 Diffuse sources x x 17 Acidification 61 lakes and 109 rivers in the Bothnian Bay water district have been assessed as having problems with acidification. The principal sources of impact are atmospheric precipitation of acidifying substances, sulphide soils and forestry. It is mainly along the coastal region in the middle and southern parts of the district that there are surface water bodies that have problems with acidification. Alien species From the international point of view, Sweden has been affected by invasive alien species to a relatively small extent. Increased global trade, more and faster transport combined with a hypothetical change with a warmer climate in Sweden are contributing to an increase in the risk of new and invasive alien species being introduced. In the Bothnian Bay water district there are incidences of the invasive species Canadian water-weed (Elodea canadensis and Elodea nuttallii) and New Zealand mud snail 54

56 (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). There is probably also impact from signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and salmon parasite (Gyrodactylus salaris). Apart from any incidence of G. salaris, it is principally in the middle and southern parts of the district that alien (invasive) species occur. Climate change Climate change is expected to bring more intensive periods of rain leading to high water levels and flows with increased risk of erosion of shores and turbidity of water. At the same time, annual variation will level out we will have wetter winters and drier summers Periods of drought during the summer are probably the most serious threat to water resources, water quality, biodiversity and vegetation. Lowe water levels in lakes, rivers and groundwaters do not just cause restrictions in water supply, we will also have worse water turnover and bathing water. Increased water temperatures also favour the growth of bacteria and toxic algae. The living conditions of fish and other aquatic animals may deteriorate substantially. The probable future scenarios with increased precipitation in wintertime mean a greater input of nutrients to lakes and coastal waters. These areas already have a more or less great impact. More floods may also be a consequence in both wintertime and summertime. A rise in sea level estimated at between 0.6 and 1.2 m for Sweden is also predicted with the effects of climate change. Large areas around the coast may be affected by the higher sea levels, and the risks of flooding will increase in combination with an increased number of storms. Higher seal levels also mean that rives and lakes inland will have higher water levels, as the sea slows down outflowing water. 8.1 Results of risk assessment Almost half (45%) the district's surface water bodies have been assessed as being at risk of not achieving good ecological status/potential, or having worsened status/potential, in 2021, see Table H.5 and Figure 8.7. The water bodies assessed as being at risk are, in principle, all the bodies that today do not achieve good ecological status. The limit values for mercury are exceed in all the surface water bodies in the water district, and as the levels of mercury cannot be expected to fall significantly in the foreseeable future, all the surface water bodies are therefore also at risk of not achieving good chemical status in If mercury is not included in the assessment, there are instead 62 surface water bodies (0.9%) that have been assessed as being at risk of not achieving good chemical status in Current knowledge regarding the priority substances is often deficient. Water bodies for which measurement data are lacking have generally been classified as having good status in the classification of chemical status with regard to all priority substances with the exception of mercury. This is because guidelines from the water district authorities establish that there have to be measurement data pointing to risk or sufficient data to make an expert assessment. The assessment is made for the coastal waters of the water district that those water bodies that do not achieve good ecological status today are also at risk of not achieving good ecological status in The reason is that it may take a long time for the ecosystems to recover even if measures start to be taken. All coastal water bodies have been assessed as being at risk of not achieving good chemical status by The risk assessment has been made using impact analysis in which industrial plants, treatment plants and polluted sites have been surveyed. 55

57 Table H.5 Synopsis of risk assessment for surface water bodies in the Bothnian Bay water district. Number of water bodies Rivers Lakes Coastal waters Transitional waters Total Total in the district Risk of ecological status not being achieved in Rebben island in Luleå archipelago. Photo: Lisa Lundstedt 56

58 Figure 8.7 Surface water bodies at risk of not achieving good ecological status/potential, or of having worsened status/potential, in

59 9 Water and socio-economics Part of the surveying work is economic analysis, which is to provide the socio-economic perspective on water use in the district and the value of the water resources in the district. The aim is describe who uses water, how they affect the water and what significance they have in the economy. The parts of economic analysis that concern cost-effective measures and impact assessments of proposed measures are described in the water district authority's proposals for a programme of measures One reason why the economic analysis is done is that the value of clean water and its contribution to good quality of life are of great significance. The EU's Water Framework Directive is the first Community act in which economics is an integral part of the measures. It is important in political decisions that concern water users to take account of costs and consequences of different decisions. Tools, in the form of calculation of cost-effective measures, the value of ecosystem services and the differing water footprints of users have been developed to measure how our consumption affects the earth's water resources. The tools are used in political decisions both in Sweden and in the EU. The concept of PPP is applied, and is increasingly demanded by various parties concerned. Socio-economic analyses are used more often, but better data and more research are needed at the same time to be able to apply socio-economic aspects in practice, both in general and specifically in water management. 9.1 Increased investments by water users in water Increased consideration of water from industry and other water users is visible in all water districts in Sweden, through increased costs of protective measures such as sewage treatment plants. Both investments and ongoing costs have increased. Out of the environmental protection costs of industry totalling SEK 12.5 billion in 2012, around SEK 3.7 billion was spent on reducing the impact of water. In many sectors environmental impact is no longer increasing as rapidly as production. Water use has in general been stable over a prolonged period in Sweden, but has increased somewhat since The total consumption of freshwater in 2010 was approximately 2.7 billion m 3 in Sweden, where industry accounts for 65% of water use, households for approximately 20%, other use for 11% and agriculture for 4%. Of total renewable water resources in Sweden of just under 200 billion m 3, around one per cent is used in households, agriculture and industry. In international terms this is a low proportion and the lowest in Europe. Despite this there are periodic water shortages locally in Sweden. In the Bothnian Bay water district it is Steel and metal production that accounts for the greatest use of water in the district. In the Bothnian Sea, Northern Baltic Sea and Southern Baltic Sea districts the largest user is the pulp, paper and paper products industry. In the Skagerrak and Kattegat district the industry for the manufacturing of chemicals, refineries and the pharmaceutical industry are the largest users of water, see Figure

60 Millions of m Kommunala vattenverk Industri Enskilt hushåll Jordbruk Figure 9.1 Water use in 2010, broken down by water district and sector. The four most water-intensive industries (pulp, paper and paper products industry, steel and metal production and supply of electricity, gas heating and cooling) account for eight per cent of Swedish gross domestic product and pay nine per cent of total environmental taxes. A large share of water use relates to abstraction of seawater for cooling. Surface water abstraction is the dominant type of water abstraction in Sweden, with groundwater abstraction accounting for around eleven per cent in total. The proportion of water abstraction from groundwaters is around 8% in the Bothnian Bay. Of the waters used by households, 85% comes from municipal water treatment plants, while the remaining 15% is mostly accounted for by permanent residents not connected to municipal water. Water abstraction for holiday homes accounts for around two per cent of total household abstraction and is of very great significance locally. 9.2 Sweden's population and business community in 2021 future scenarios The total population of Sweden is estimated to have reached just over 10 million in The Northern Baltic Sea water district will be the water district that continues to increase most due to high inward migration to the Stockholm area, see Figure 9.2. The Southern Baltic Sea water district is also estimated to have a relatively large increase in population over the next few years. The population trend in the water districts of the Bothnian Sea and the Bothnian Bay are expected to be largely unchanged up to It is therefore principally in the Northern Baltic Sea water district that household water use can be expected to increase greatly, but some increase can also be expected in the districts of Southern Baltic Sea and Skagerrak and Kattegat, although on the assumption that the average consumption of 160 litres per person per day remains unchanged. Counties with a 59

61 positive population trend during the forecast period are Stockholm, Skåne, Halland, Uppsala, Södermanland and Östergötland Bothnian Sea 0 Bothnian Bay Figure 9.2 Population trend in the water districts The projection for population trend is shown as a broken line. 10 A picture of the future trend and impact on water has been obtained in the study on development up to 2021 in twelve different sectors 11 and the business community's own trend forecasts, focusing on water use and the impact on water. All twelve sectors studied are expected to show increased growth, while the number of employees in these sectors is estimated to decrease by 2021 in comparison with The sectors expected to have the strongest trend in production are the chemicals industry, refineries, the pharmaceutical industry and steel and metal production. The forecast for 2021 is generally in agreement with the sectors' own outlook for their development. The exception is the mining and minerals extraction industry, which seems a trend in production significantly higher than is forecast In the Bothnian Bay water district the greatest change in added value by 2021 is expected for the following three sectors: water and wastewater treatment plants; agriculture and steel and metal production. The number of people in gainful employment is expected to increase for the first two sectors mentioned, while it is expected to decline for steel and metal production. In interviews, sector representatives state they consider that a great deal that is positive can happen both in environmental technology through technology development and as a result of consumer demand for environmentally friendly products and services. 9.3 Costs of water and wastewater Northern Baltic Sea Skagerrak and Kattegat Southern Baltic Sea The production of drinking water needs to be financed in the long term for future investments. Large urban areas generally have lower water and wastewater charges due to shorter pipe networks per customer and economies of scale for water treatment and wastewater treatment, while municipalities with a higher water and wastewater charge have 10 Source: Sweco 2013, based on Statistics Sweden population projection 11 The following sectors are included in the analysis: agriculture, forestry, fisheries; mining and minerals extraction industry; food, beverages and tobacco industry; pulp and paper products industry; chemicals, refineries and pharmaceutical industry; steel and metal production; power, gas and heating plants; water and wastewater treatment plants; waste management and recycling and transport 60

62 longer pipe networks per customer and drinking water and treatment plants serve a smaller number of people. Differences in water and wastewater charge are also due to the ways in which investment costs have been handled historically. Water and wastewater costs are governed by the Swedish Water Services Act and are only allowed to be based on the price that corresponds to the cost of production, that is to say cost price. This has the consequence that costs of water and wastewater treatment range from SEK 124 to 889 per household per month or from SEK 10 to 70 per m3 (1-7 öre per litre) depending on place of residence. Sweden has relatively low water and wastewater charges in comparison with countries such as Denmark, Finland, Germany and the Netherlands. Ecosystem services describe the value of water Ecosystem services are the goods, services and processes nature offers to humans. The fish we catch are an ecosystem service, just like the breakdown of environmental toxins in seabed sediments, clean water to swim in or wave energy. Despite many ecosystem systems being far from inexhaustible, they are often taken for granted. Green infrastructure, where natural processes are recreated in cities, for example to deal with stormwater runoff, is an important ecosystem service. This is to reduce flood risks, contribute to a greener city and reduce environmental impact. Services such as drinking water and resources for food production and industry come from water ecosystems. Aquatic environments also contain great assets for tourism, culture and recreation, and provide habitats for many organisms. If our waters achieve good status, this means at the same time that more assets, linked to biodiversity and nature conservation, are created, which is essential to provide us with a number of ecosystem services. 61

63 10 Measures for better water To enable the environmental quality standard to be met, public agencies and municipalities need to implement the proposed measures contained in the programme of measures. The central government agencies need to implement measures, such as amendments to regulations or providing guidelines, so that county administrative boards and municipalities have they need to be able to carry out their work of bringing about physical measures. Certain measures focused on the public agencies are preventive measures for example on advice and information to prevent problems arising or being exacerbated. The county administrative boards have an important guiding role towards the municipalities, but also have the role, together with the municipalities, of ensuring through supervision and examination that physical measures come into being. As well as the need for measures, the water district authorities have identified the need for various types of knowledge-building activities to be implemented by various public agencies. Knowledge-building activities need to be implemented so that the basis for status classification, impact assessments and assessment of needs for measures ahead of the next management is improved. Improvement of environmental monitoring efforts that concern both national and regional monitoring and self-inspection also forms part of knowledge building. There is also a great need for Sweden to implement changes in current legislation and review the public agencies' terms of reference and authorisation in order to create even better prospects of the programme of measures being implemented. Measures to tackle several environmental problems, such as acidification, environmental toxins, spread of alien species and eutrophication of coastal waters, also need to be taken outside the borders of Sweden for Swedish waters to achieve good status. It is therefore necessary for Sweden also to make active efforts within the EU and other international organisations that can have an impact on these transnational environmental problems Step-by-step measures and reporting lead forward As a result of its recurring six-year cycles, water management is an ongoing, continuous process. Methods and aims are adapted after new knowledge is acquired, such as improved mapping, measured effects of implemented measures, improved basis of assessment and so on. The scope of measures, what measures will need to be taken and where these are to be taken may thus need to be reviewed as new knowledge emerges. Annual reporting on implemented measures Municipalities, county administrative boards and the public agencies covered by the programme of measures report annually on progress made in implementing the programme of measures. The follow-up is used partly for the water district authorities to gain an idea implementation, but is also a good opportunity to develop work on measures in dialogue with public agencies implementing the measures. There are differences in the way county administrative boards and municipalities implement their measures. These differences are due to differing circumstances and work models. Examples of implementation are highlighted in the reporting. Documentation from the reporting was used for the national reporting of implementation of the programme of measures to the European Commission in the autumn of The reporting has been shown to have an important function in coordinating measures at municipalities, county administrative boards and public agencies. 62

64 The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, for example, has formed an internal working group for water issues that extends across the agency's different areas of expertise and unit boundaries. There are many different working methods for water management at the municipalities, some municipalities have nominated water politicians to facilitate localgovernment policy-making for the implementation of water management at local level, and at some county administrative boards unit-transcending working groups have been formed. Implementation of the water district authorities' programmes of measures also forms an important element in the scoring by the magazine Miljöaktuellt for its annual ranking of municipalities in the environmental area. Attention given to work on achieving good status for waters may motivate the recipients of the programme of measures to undertake further commitments and take further measures. Two distinct reasons for the work on measures not being undertaken to a sufficient extent to meet the environmental quality standards in time are often evident. The first is inadequate coordination within or between affected organisations. The second reason is shortage of financial resources and as a consequence of this, lack of personnel and expertise. A change of attitude has occurred with regard to coordination, with an adaptation to meet the increased needs for cooperation for effective work on measures. It is more difficult to interpret clearly how the municipalities and public agencies create favourable financial conditions for work aimed at implementing measures. Specific results from implementation of the programme of measures are collated for each year on the water district authorities' websites. A synopsis of the implementation of the programme of measures by public agencies and municipalities is an important basis for the preparation of a revised programme of measures for Some measures have been implemented in fully, while others need to remain or be developed further to meet the environmental quality standards for water. New measures have been developed in dialogue with affected implementing public agencies on the basis of the current programme of measures and the state of the environment Summary of Programme of Measures The water district authority proposes, based on its terms of reference, to target the measures at authorities and municipalities, to establish 81 measures which are to form the basis for implementation of physical measures to meet the environmental quality standards. The water district authority notes in its analysis of measures that extensive and broad work on measures is required to meet the environmental quality standards. The link between the measures in the programme of measures and the actual physical measures and their effect in the aquatic environment is strengthened in the Programme of Measures To clarify this link documentation is drawn up with proposals for physical measures presented per area of measures and per water body. The areas of measures are presented as annexes to the programme of measures, while information per water body can be found in the database VISS (http://www.viss.lansstyrelsen.se/). The areas of measures are geographical areas defined on the basis of the route taken by the water. There are 7582 areas of measures in the Bothnian Bay water district. Readers wishing to obtain detailed descriptions of measures targeted at public agencies and municipalities, the background to why they are proposed, the physical measures needing to be implemented and needs for improvement they are to follow should refer to the water district authorities' Programme of Measures

65 11 Environmental quality standards for water The general rule in water management is that all water bodies have to achieve at least good groundwater status or good ecological potential by 22 December and that status must not worsen. If status is worse than good in 2015, the the year when the standard is to be met can be moved forward using what is known as an exemption. Progress or setbacks in fulfilment of the environmental quality standards in the previous cycle? As there is no national guidance yet on how derogations are to be established, the water district authorities collated methodology and fundamental positions in a "Help guide for environmental quality standards and exemptions" which was responsible for the work of the county administrative boards. The Help Guide is based partly on the work done for standard setting in 2009, partly on the EU-wide guidance 12 and partly on a consultation version on guidance from 2008 by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the recommendations made by the European Commission to Sweden 13, on work concerned with exemptions in the next management cycle have been taken into account as far as possible. The diagram (Figure 11.1) shows that the number of exemptions has increased. This principally due to new information having been obtained and the status classifications being based on more data and new Figure 11.1 Comparison of number of exceptions for the various water district authorities in the first and second management cycles. bases of assessment, particularly for physical impact not on the basis of worsened water quality. In the management cycle good status was set for all bodies where there were no data, while such a water body is given poor status in the management cycle CIS Guidance No Assessments of Member States' progress in the implementation of their Programmes of Measures 64

66 Environmental quality standards and protected areas under other EU legislation For protected areas designed under other EU directives there are special requirements that influence how the environmental quality standards can be set for water bodies covered by these directives. Satisfactory bathing water quality The EU Bathing Water Directive 14 has been transposed in Sweden mainly through provisions in the Bathing Water Ordinance 15 and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's Bathing Water Regulations 16. Based on the Ordinance and the Regulations, bathing water in the Member States has to achieve at least satisfactory bathing water quality by the end of the 2015 bathing season, which in Sweden means by 22 December The water district authorities have to establish requirements that mean that this is followed, based on the criteria contained in the Bathing Water Ordinance and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management regulations. Favourable conservation status for species and habitats Species and habitats in areas included in the network of Natura 2000 sites have to have special protection. The aim in such areas is to ensure that favourable conservation status is achieved for the species or habitats covered by the protection. This governed by the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the Birds Directive 2009/147/EC, which has been implemented in Sweden as provisions on area protection under Chapter 7 of the Environmental Code. Favourable conservation status therefore has to be achieved for water bodies wholly or partially included in Natura 2000 sites under Chapter 7 Section 27 of the Environmental Code. There are overall descriptions of what the quality requirement means in Sections 16 and 17 of the Area Protection Ordinance 17. The more specific requirements to achieve favourable conservation status in a Natura 2000 sites are stated in the conservation plan and/or management plan which is to be drawn up for such areas. In cases where is a conflict between the requirements to achieve favourable conservation status for a Natura 2000 site and to achieve good ecological status/potential in a water body, the requirements that apply in order to achieve favourable conservation status take precedence. These requirements may generally be regarded as representing stricter requirements than the general requirements for good status 18, as they are aimed at the special conditions that need to prevail in the water body to attain the purpose of protection in that particular area. Improved habitats for fish For areas affected by the ordinance on environmental quality standards for fish and mussel waters 19 the requirements in this ordinance apply alongside, and in applicable cases in addition to, the requirements for surface water status. Areas which are fish waters are either salmonid waters or other fish waters. Salmonid waters are fish waters in which fish such as /7/EC 15 SFS 2008: Now Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management Regulations and General Guidelines (HVMFS 2012:14) on bathing water 17 SFS 1998: See Chapter 4 Section 7 of the Water Management Ordinance 19 SFS 2001:554 65

67 salmon, trout, common whitefish, vendace, smelt and grayling live or would be able to live. Other fish waters are areas that accommodate or would be able to accommodate pike, perch, eel and cyprinids. Fish water areas in Sweden are shown in the annex to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's list of fish waters 20. Requirements under the drinking water regulations The Drinking Water Directive 21 only covers water intended for consumption. The requirements under the Drinking Water Directive have been implemented in Sweden mainly through the National Food Agency's drinking water regulations 22. Section 7 of the regulations states the requirements applicable to drinking water after treatment, that is to say the requirements do not apply to raw water quality in the water body. The requirements supplement the other requirements for surface or groundwater quality. Exemptions When the status classification underlying the standards shows that there water bodies that do not achieve good status or good potential in 2015, exemptions can be applied. Decisions on exemption are made pursuant to Chapter 4 Sections 9-13 of the Water Management Ordinance. Each decision on exemption has to be clearly reasoned. There is provision for applying four different types of exemption: Deadlines for when the quality requirements have to be met (Section 9) Less stringent objectives than good status or good potential (Section 10) New operations which under certain circumstances may lead to good status or potential not being achieved or the current status or potential deteriorating (Section 11) Temporary deteriorations of current status due to exceptional natural causes or accidents (Section 12) Only exemptions in the form of deadlines and less stringent objectives were applied in the management cycle , these exemptions only are also applied in this cycle. The prerequisites for applying the exemptions impact from new activity and unforeseen circumstances have not yet been clarified by the European Commission, and a decision has therefore been made not to apply this type of exemption generally. There is a need to develop methodology to deal with impact from new activity during the current cycle, as this will be required in particular to deal with infrastructure projects. The provisions on exemptions state under what circumstances the water delegation can decide on exemptions. There are three main reasons: Technically infeasible, which means that: technology to implement measures by 2015 is lacking the measures are so time-consuming that there will not be time for them to be implemented and have the intended effect by 2015 or there is insufficient knowledge of problems, impacts or measures Disproportionately expensive, which means one of the following: insufficient administrative capacity at public agencies to push through measures insufficient public financing of physical measures 20 NFS 2002: /83/EC 22 SLVFS 2001:30 66

68 insufficient legislation to implement measures the measures are financially unreasonable to implement based on a socio-economic analysis of costs and benefit Natural conditions which are used in those cases where, due to the ability of nature to recover, the effect of an implemented or planned measure cannot be achieved by 2015 but will be possible to achieve later. Deadlines The water authority has made the assessment that there is no possibility of permitting exemptions beyond 2021, the reason being the legislation needs to be amended, increased public financing for restoration is required or increased resources for supervision, review and administration are needed. The aim is for the water bodies to achieve good status in 2027, and for this purpose measures need to be taken step by step up to 2024 so that the directive can be fully implemented by Less stringent quality requirements More detailed data is required to decide on less stringent requirements than for deadlines. In addition to the requirement for the data only to be applied to a water body that has lower than good status, it has to be known what source of impact causes lowered status, that sharing of burden and responsibility for measures has been clarified, the need for measures has to be defined and there has to be specific basis on which to assess the technical and financial prospects of implementing the measures with some form of socio-economic analysis. Depending on the general incidence of mercury in surface waters, the water authority has decided on a general exemption for all surface water bodies 23. Groundwater Groundwater bodies that have unsatisfactory chemical status and are objects for remediation with a clean-up plan implemented by2021 have been given a deadline of 2021 on the grounds of technically infeasible. Bodies as objects for remediation with a clean-up plan by 2027 or without a clean-up plan have been given a deadline of 2027 on the grounds of technically infeasible. The same deadline and reason are also used for bodies that contain prohibited pesticides or other prohibited substances. Physical changes (flow, connectivity and morphology) Lakes and rivers in the water districts of the Bothnian Sea, the Bothnian Bay, the Northern Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak and Kattegat with worse than good ecological status due to physical modifications have been granted exemptions until 2021 on the grounds of of disproportionately expensive. The reason is that there is a lack of legislation for effective review and re-examination of water judgments and administrative capacity at authorities to initiate supervision, review and measures. Eutrophication Coastal water bodies with worse than good status have been granted exemptions in the form of a deadline of 2021 on the grounds of technically infeasible when the land-based load of phosphorus exceeds 40%. Where the land-based load is below 40% and the main load is the 23 See the section on mercury 67

69 offshore impact and dependent on measures in BSAP 24, OSPAR 25 and the programme of action in marine environment management, 26 the exemption of deadline by2027 has been applied on the grounds of natural conditions. The limit of 40% has been chosen in view of the uncertainties that exist in the data used in calculations of phosphorus load. Lakes and rivers where the combined effect of proposed and priority measures fulfils the calculated phosphorus commitment with a margin of ±25 per cent or where continued investigation of problems, impacts or measures is required have been allocated a deadline of 2021 on the grounds of technically infeasible. Lakes and rivers where the measures needed are dependent on changes in legislation have instead been given a deadline of 2021 on the grounds of disproportionately expensive. Examples of measures requiring changes in legislation are structural liming, lime filter ditches, adapted protection zones, uncultivated buffer zones, phosphorus fertiliser application, single doses of phosphorus, incorporation of farmyard manure into soil without vegetation cover, spreading of farmyard nature on a growing crop from the point of view plant nutrient uptake, placing of farmyard manure below the surface in a growing crop, wetlands, ponds and two-stage ditches for nutrient retention. In the case of lakes and rivers where the effects of proposed and priority measures to not meet comply with the calculated phosphorus commitment with a margin of ±25 per cent, a deadline of 2027 has been applied on the grounds of of technically infeasible. Acidification For acidified lakes and rivers which are included in the liming programme and where biology has recovered the environmental quality standard, good ecological status in 2015 applies, but the water bodies are stated in the status classification as being at risk of deterioration to indicate the present-day measures should not cease. Acidified water bodies which are included in the liming programme but where status is still worse than good, or where information status is lacking, have been set to deadline by 2021 on the grounds of of technically infeasible. The same deadline and reason are used for acidified water bodies not included in the liming programme. For reference lakes and reference rivers in the liming programme a deadline by 2027 is applied on the grounds of of natural conditions. Environmental toxins in surface waters The time exemptions for environmental toxins in surface waters following the same principles as for groundwater bodies. Water bodies with unsatisfactory chemical status, and which are objects for remediation with a clean-up plan implemented by 2021 have been given a deadline of 2021 on the grounds of technically infeasible. Objects for remediation with a clean-up plan by 2027 or without a clean-up plan have been given a deadline by 2027 on the grounds of technically infeasible, like water bodies for example with PBDE, that is to say bodies with pollutants in sediment for which technology and knowledge for clean-up are lacking at present and with a great impact on water quality. Although relevant technology is lacking today, it is been deemed to be too early to rule out future technological development, and less stringent requirements have not therefore been set. On the other hand, it may become relevant in the management cycle Baltic Sea Action Plan 25 Oslo-Paris Convention 26 SFS 2010:

70 For water bodies with well investigated problems and cases and where it has been noted that good chemical surface water status will not be achieved, and where technical and financial conditions are not meet for good chemical surface water status to be achieved, exemptions have been decided upon in the form of less strict requirement for the substance or substances that occur or occurs at too high levels. Mercury Sweden has high levels of mercury in the soil, which does not originate just from (historical) emissions, but also form long-range historical and present-day emissions sources which as a result of atmospheric conditions are deposited across the Arctic regions. The status classification shows that all surface water bodies throughout the country exceed the EU limit value for mercury. The assessment of the water authorities is that it will not be possible in the foreseeable future to lower the present-day mercury levels in Swedish surface water bodies as there is a lack of technically possible and financially affordable measures to bring this about. A decision has therefore been made to apply a general exemption for all surface water bodies throughout the country in the form of a less stringent quality requirement for mercury and mercury compounds on the grounds of technically infeasible. Alien species In lakes and rivers with worse than good status due to the establishment of alien species, a deadline by 2021 is applied on the grounds of economically disproportionate on the grounds that there is a lack of legislation and public financing for measures. Environmental quality standards Tables 11.1, 11.2 and 11.3 contain a synopsis of previous and proposed environmental quality standards for groundwater and surface water and exemptions for the Bothnian Bay area of responsibility. Table 11.1 Synopsis of environmental quality standards for groundwater bodies for the and management cycles Management cycle Total number of groundwater bodies EQS for quantitative status Good quantitative status in EQS for chemical groundwater status Good chemical status in Good chemical status with deadline by Good chemical status with deadline by Management cycle

71 Table 11.2 Synopsis of environmental quality standards (EQS) for surface water bodies Management cycle Lakes Rivers Coastal waters Total in management cycle Total number of water bodies EQS for ecological status/potential High ecological status in Good ecological status in Good ecological status in Good ecological status in Good ecological potential in Moderate ecological potential in EQS for chemical surface water status Good chemical status in 2015 (excluding mercury) Good chemical status in 2015 with deadline of 2021 for one or more substances Good chemical status in 2015 with deadline of 2027 for one or more substances Good chemical status in 2015 with less strict requirement for mercury Table 11.3 Synopsis of exceptions per environmental problem in management cycle Environmental problem Eutrophication Physical impact Acidification Environmental toxins surface waters excluding mercury 1 Management cycle Less stringent quality requirement (mercury) Alien species 7-1 Also includes exemptions due to specific pollutants The number of surface water and groundwater bodies with high and good status or potential in the water district decreases in the management cycle , as does the number of exemptions. Precisely like the analysis of national level, one reason for this is greater knowledge in status classifications and for eutrophication, for example, better methods for calculating needs for measures and the effect of different measures. For physical impact, new grounds for assessment also result in lowered status for many water bodies. In addition the number of water bodies in the district has increased, in particular lakes and rivers, which has also had some effect on the number of exemptions. The increase in the number of exemptions should not be interpreted as meaning that water quality has deteriorated and 70

72 instead means today we have truer picture of the status of the water in the Bothnian Bay water district. The main reason why the number of exemptions is increasing, however, is that the rate at which measures are implemented is too low in relation to the standards set in The physical work on measures has started in a small number of waters and consequently neither have status and, in longer term, the standards been changed in a more positive direction. Proposals for regulation and environmental quality standards Proposals for environmental quality standards for the water district concerned have been drawn up (see Annex 5, the complete management plan). In the annex to the regulation, as for the water body concerned in VISS, current status and potential and the environmental quality standards, any exemptions and other provisions proposed for the water body concerned are stated. It can be seen in VISS what environmental problem underlies the exemption concerned per water body, which was not the case in the draft regulation. 71

73 12 Artificial and heavily modified water bodies A water that has been created by human activity may constitute an artificial water body (AWB). Canals and ponds constructed where water was not previously present are examples of AWBs. Water bodies that have acquired a substantially changed physical character, as a result of human activity of high community benefit, can be designated as heavily modified water bodies (HMWBs). A condition to be met in order to designate AWBs or HMWBs is that the physical modifications in turn have led to the ecology of the water having been adversely affected and it not being possible to achieve good ecological status, a significant adverse impact occurring instead on the environment at large or on the activity that has caused the physical modifications. The activities that can be stated as reasons for designating AWBs and HMWBs are listed in Chapter 4 Section 3 of the Water Management Ordinance. Mention is made here of energy, that is to say hydropower, but also agriculture, flood protection, shipping, cultural artefacts and infrastructure. Photo: The County Administrative Board of Norrbotten Good ecological potential, not good ecological status The same requirements for ecological status are not applied to HMWBs and AWBs as for natural water bodies. They instead have to achieve good ecological potential which is a parallel environmental quality standard for good ecological status but signifies a less stringent requirement. The quality requirements for natural, artificial and heavily modified water bodies are established in relation to a reference condition. With regard to AWBs and HMWBs the reference condition corresponds to maximum ecological potential. Maximum ecological potential is equivalent to the biological status of the most closely comparable water body, but with consideration of the fact that the water body needs to be modified for it to be possible for the activity to be undertaken. 72

74 Good ecological potential differs from maximum by the measures that do not provide significant ecological benefit not needing to be implemented. This should only mean a minor change in biological status compared with maximum ecological potential. An environmental quality standard is also to be established and measures implemented to achieve the environmental quality standard for water bodies designated as heavily modified, or artificial. The same limits apply to all other quality factors as to natural waters. All HMWBs in the Bothnian Bay water district have been classified as inadequate ecological potential (IEP). Two of the AWBs in the district have been classified as having good ecological potential (GEP), while the remaining two have not yet been classified with respect to ecological potential (Figure 12.1). Figure 12.1 Ecological potential of surface water bodies that have been declared to be heavily modified or artificial. 73

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