1 Rehabilitation for Stroke: Inpatient Acute Care Gary Stillman, MS, OTR Carl V. Granger, M.D. Chetan Malik, MBBS Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation Amherst, New York Department of Rehabilitation Medicine University at Buffalo The State University of New York Buffalo, New York 2006 Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMR), a division of UB Foundation Activities, Inc. (UBFA). All rights reserved. All marks associated with AlphaFIM, FIM, LIFEware, and UDSMR are owned by UBFA.
2 Healing is a matter of time, but sometimes it is also a matter of opportunity. - Hippocrates
3 Problem Identification Counting rehabilitation cost mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke estimated at $145, percent, or just over $23,000 will be used for rehabilitation
4 Rehabilitation Outcome percent ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke survivors will regain functional independence percent will be permanently disabled 20 percent will require institutionalized care
5 Epidemiology of Stroke in Buffalo-Niagara Region
6 Epidemiology of Stroke in Buffalo-Niagara Region
7 The Rehabilitation Specialists: PT, OT, Speech, and Swallowing Roles Defined: Physical Therapist: Engages the patient in the active/passive restoration of movement in critical areas such as gait and strength. Occupational Therapist: Facilitates practical applications of movement. (ADL, IADL) Speech/ Swallowing Therapist: Treats deficits and disorders of voice and swallowing.
8 Kalieda Health Kaleida Health was formed in 1998 through the merger of 4 acute hospitals and a children s hospital. It is comprised of over 950 acute care beds, 2 inpatient medical rehabilitation units, 3 sub-acute rehabilitation units, and 5 outpatient rehabilitation sites.
9 Kalieda Health stroke center at Millard Fillmore Hospital First JCAHO and NYSDOH certified stroke center (2004, 2005) in the Western New York region. Total Stroke Discharges 2003: : : : 512
10 Kalieda Health s Stroke Path of Care
11 Early Inclusion of Rehabilitation Services Often, only hours after admission Not necessarily for remediation of stroke deficits Early intervention provides a starting point to the next level of care
12 Early Rehabilitation Intervention Primary purpose of which is to provide the physician and discharge planner early guidance in triaging the stroke patient to the next level of care.
13 Description of Post Acute Services after Stroke Most Frequent Discharge Destinations Inpatient medical rehabilitation units (MRU) - Since PPS in 2002 designated by CMS as IRFs Home with in-home or outpatient services Sub-acute rehabilitation (SNF rehabilitation)
14 Key Point Getting the right patient to the right setting at the right time. This is facilitated using the AlphaFIM Instrument
15 The AlphaFIM Instrument for Adult Inpatient Acute Care Carl V. Granger, M.D. Chetan Malik, MBBS Gary Stillman, MS, OTR Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation Amherst, New York Department of Rehabilitation Medicine University at Buffalo The State University of New York Buffalo, New York 2006 Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMR), a division of UB Foundation Activities, Inc. (UBFA). All rights reserved. All marks associated with AlphaFIM, FIM, LIFEware, and UDSMR are owned by UBFA.
16 AlphaFIM Instrument Is a Short Version of the FIM Instrument and Represents the Beginning of Tracking the Continuum of Care Created for the acute care hospital to measure function during stay and determine next care placement Uses familiar rating and language of the widely used 18-item FIM instrument for inpatient medical rehabilitation AlphaFIM instrument has four motor and two cognition items: eating, grooming, bowel management, toilet transfer, expression, memory Tested on more than 2,000 stroke and orthopedic cases over three years
17 AlphaFIM Instrument Is a Short Version of the FIM Instrument and Represents the Beginning of the Continuum of Care Developed using Rasch analysis, such that hierarchical rating expectations are used to estimate the level of dependence in personal care (burden of care) in the acute care setting The program estimates ratings of unobserved items in order to predict the full 18-item FIM instrument rating Now it is possible for patients to be assessed in all venues of care and functional status linked into the continuum of care
18 UDSMR ADULT REHABILITATION INPATIENT INSTRUMENTS AlphaFIM INSTRUMENT FOR ACUTE CARE INPATIENTS LINK TO THE FIM INSTRUMENT LINKED FIM INSTRUMENT FOR MEDICAL REHABILITATION INPATIENTS 4 motor and 2 cognition items: Eating Grooming Bowel management Transfers-toilet Expression Memory Patients rated by clinicians on 7-point scale: 1 = Total assistance needed from helper; 7 = Complete independence Ratings in between = various levels of dependence or independence Maximum rating = motor and cognition items in these sub-domains: Self-care Sphincter control Transfers Locomotion Communication Social cognition Patients rated by clinicians on 7-point scale: 1 = Total assistance needed from helper; 7 = Complete independence Ratings in between = various levels of dependence or independence Maximum rating = 126 points
19 UDSMR s CONTINUUM OF CARE One picture is created of a patient s functional history through inpatient and outpatient settings, including adult day care. Assessments are converted to a common scale: (100 = better function). Longitudinal record highlights functional deficits for clinicians to address. Item ratings are expressed as above expected and below expected in relation to pre-specified levels of clinical significance. These classifications are based on thousands of assessments in the database. Only items below expected appear on the longitudinal record as an alert for clinical attention.
20 How Does Medicare Define Continuity of Care? Continuous flow of care in a timely and appropriate manner. We are adding flow of information about care across the continuum Linkages between primary and specialty care Coordination among specialists Appropriate combinations of prescribed medications Coordinated use of ancillary services Appropriate discharge planning Timely placement at different levels of care including hospital, skilled nursing, and home health care
21 UDSMR ADULT REHABILITATION INSTRUMENTS/SYSTEMS FIM INSTRUMENT FOR MEDICAL REHABILITATION INPATIENTS 18 motor and cognition items in these sub-domains: Self-care Sphincter control Transfers Locomotion Communication Social cognition Patients rated by clinicians on 7-point scale: 1 = Total assistance needed from helper; 7 = Complete independence Ratings in between = various levels of dependence or independence Maximum rating = 126 points LIFEware SM SYSTEM FOR MEDICAL REHABILITATION OUTPATIENTS, INCLUDING ADULT DAY CARE Self-reporting in these domains: Physical functioning Affective sense of well-being or mood state Experience with pain Community role in terms of work/social roles Overall satisfaction with life Satisfaction with treatment Measures are derived using the Rasch measurement model Rated on scale, with 100 indicating better function
22 UDSMR ADULT REHABILITATION INSTRUMENTS/SYSTEMS FIM INSTRUMENT FOR MEDICAL REHABILITATION INPATIENTS 18 motor and cognition items in these sub-domains: Self-care Sphincter control Transfers Locomotion Communication Social cognition Patients rated by clinicians on 7-point scale: 1 = Total assistance needed from helper; 7 = Complete independence Ratings in between = various levels of dependence or independence Maximum rating = 126 points COMBINED BOTH ON SCALE AND IN ONE REPORT LIFEware SM SYSTEM FOR MEDICAL REHABILITATION OUTPATIENTS Self-reporting in these domains: Physical functioning Affective sense of well-being or mood state Experience with pain Community role in terms of work/social roles Overall satisfaction with life Satisfaction with treatment Measures are derived using the Rasch measurement model Rated on scale, with 100 indicating better function
23 Links Across the Continuum of Care Acute Hospital Care Rehabilitation Program Outpatient Assessment or Program Tying the Present to the Future Making the continuum Understandable Meaningful Cost-effective Manageable
24 Accountability for Outcomes Fundamental to clinical accountability is accountability for outcomes, not just processes Accountability and management, whether it be of a program or of a case, cannot be accomplished without measurement Accountability rests on the notion that clinicians take ownership of the goals of achieving healthy functioning of patients in their care
25 AlphaFIM Instrument Items 4 Motor: Eating, Grooming, Bowel Management. Transfers-Toilet 2 Cognition: Expression, Memory Inferring Probable 18-Item (13 Motor, 5 Cognition) FIM Instrument Rating Models based on Rasch analysis identify expected rating relationship between the two instruments. Hierarchy of item difficulty: some items easy to perform independently, some not. Hierarchy as a staircase: patient progresses upward from easier to more difficult items, achieving functional independence. Hierarchy of rating expectancy estimates dependence in personal care (burden of care) of patient in acute care setting and level of function in terms of the full 18-item FIM instrument rating. All 6 items must be completed to derive benefit from the measure.
26 Staircase from Dependence to Independence Stairs The patient is trained for Trnsfr Tub independence with Walking progressively more difficult tasks. Bathing Dressing - Lower Toileting Trnsfr Toilet FIM Trnsfr Bed Hierarchy Dress - Upper Bladder Control Bowel Control Grooming Eating Easy Difficult
27 Clinicians Uses of the AlphaFIM Instrument Used primarily to facilitate triage in discharge planning, thus assessment must be timed to occur in order that AlphaFIM information contributes to the discharge plan May be used to track changes from acute admission to discharge, if desired Records actual performance, not capacity Lowest rating recorded Best available information used: observation or from reports Patients rated from 1 to 7, complete dependence to independence
28 AlphaFIM Instrument Levels of Function and Rating EATING Includes use of suitable utensils to bring food to mouth, chewing and swallowing, once the meal is presented in the customary manner on a table or tray. Performs safely. NO HELPER 7 Complete Independence Patient eats from a dish while managing a variety of consistencies of food and drinks from a cup or glass with the meal presented in the customary manner on a table or tray. Patient opens containers, butters bread, cuts meat, pours liquids, uses a spoon or fork to bring food to the mouth, and chews and swallows the food. Performs safely. 6 Modified Independence Patient requires an adaptive or assistive device (e.g., long straw, spork, or rocking knife), requires more than a reasonable time to eat, requires modified food consistency or blenderized food, or there are safety considerations. If the patient relies on other means of alimentation, such as parenteral or gastrostomy feedings, then the patient self-administers the feedings. REQUIRES HELPER 5 Supervision or Setup Patient requires supervision (e.g., standing by, cueing, or coaxing) or setup (application of orthoses or assistive/adaptive devices); or another person is required to open containers, butter bread, cut meat, or pour liquids. 4 Minimal Contact Assistance Patient performs 75% or more of eating tasks. 3 Moderate Assistance Patient performs 50% to 74% of eating tasks. 2 Maximal Assistance Patient performs 25% to 49% of eating tasks. 1 Total Assistance Patient performs less than 25% of eating tasks or the patient relies on parenteral or gastrostomy feedings and does not self-administer the feedings.
29 AlphaFIM Instrument Levels of Function and Rating GROOMING Includes oral care, hair grooming (combing or brushing hair), washing hands/face, shaving/applying make-up, or first four tasks only. NO HELPER 7 Complete Independence Patient cleans teeth or dentures, combs or brushes hair, washes hands, washes face, either shaves face or applies make-up, including all preparations. Performs safely. 6 Modified Independence Patient requires specialized equipment (including prosthesis or orthosis) to perform grooming activities, or takes more than a reasonable time, or there are safety considerations. REQUIRES HELPER 5 Supervision or Setup Patient requires supervision (e.g., standing by, cueing, or coaxing) or setup (e.g., applying orthoses or assistive/adaptive devices, setting out grooming equipment, and initial preparation such as applying toothpaste to toothbrush and opening make-up containers). 4 Minimal Contact Assistance Patient performs 75% or more of grooming tasks. 3 Moderate Assistance Patient performs 50% to 74% of grooming tasks. 2 Maximal Assistance Patient performs 25% to 49% of grooming tasks. 1 Total Assistance Patient performs less than 25% of grooming tasks.
30 AlphaFIM Instrument Levels of Function and Rating BOWEL MANAGEMENT Includes complete intentional control of bowel movements and, if necessary, use of equipment or agents for bowel control. NO HELPER 7 Complete Independence Patient controls bowels completely and intentionally and is never incontinent. 6 Modified Independence Patient requires a bedpan, digital stimulation or stool softeners, suppositories, laxatives (other than natural laxatives, e.g., prunes), or enemas on a regular basis, or uses other medications for control. If the patient has a colostomy, the patient maintains it. No accidents. REQUIRES HELPER 5 Supervision or Setup Patient requires supervision (e.g., standing by, cueing, or coaxing) or setup of equipment necessary for the patient to maintain a satisfactory excretory pattern or to maintain an ostomy device; or the patient may have occasional bowel accidents, but less often than every two weeks. REQUIRES HELPER 4 Minimal Contact Assistance Patient requires minimal contact assistance to maintain a satisfactory excretory pattern by using suppositories or enemas or an external device; patient performs 75% or more of bowel management tasks; or patient may have occasional bowel accidents, but less often than weekly. 3 Moderate Assistance Patient requires moderate assistance to maintain a satisfactory excretory pattern by using suppositories or enemas or an external device; patient performs 50% to 74% of bowel management tasks; or patient may have occasional bowel accidents, but less often than daily. 2 Maximal Assistance Despite assistance, patient is soiled on a frequent or almost daily basis, necessitating wearing diapers or other absorbent pads, whether or not an ostomy device is in place. Patient performs 25% to 49% of bowel management tasks. 1 Total Assistance Despite assistance, patient is soiled on a frequent or almost daily basis, necessitating wearing diapers or other absorbent pads, whether or not an ostomy device is in place. Patient performs less than 25% of bowel management tasks.
31 AlphaFIM Instrument Levels of Function and Rating TRANSFERS-TOILET Includes getting on and off a toilet. Performs safely. NO HELPER 7 Complete Independence If walking, patient approaches, sits down on, and gets up from a standard toilet. Performs safely. If in a wheelchair, patient approaches toilet, locks brakes, lifts footrests, removes armrests (if necessary), does either a standing pivot or sliding transfer (without a board), and returns. Performs safely. 6 Modified Independence Patient requires an adaptive or assistive device (e.g., sliding board, lift, grab bars, or special seat), takes more than reasonable time, or there are safety considerations. In this case, a prosthesis or orthosis is considered an assistive device if used for the transfer. REQUIRES HELPER 5 Supervision or Setup Patient requires supervision (e.g., standing by, cueing, or coaxing) or setup (positioning sliding board, moving foot rests, etc.). 4 Minimal Contact Assistance Patient performs 75% or more of transferring tasks. 3 Moderate Assistance Patient performs 50% to 74% of transferring tasks. 2 Maximal Assistance Patient performs 25% to 49% of transferring tasks. 1 Total Assistance Patient performs less than 25% of transferring tasks or does not transfer onto a toilet.
32 AlphaFIM Instrument Levels of Function and Rating EXPRESSION Includes clear vocal or non-vocal expression of language; either intelligible speech or clear expression of language using writing or a communication device. Evaluate and indicate the more usual mode of expression, whether vocal or non-vocal. If both modes used equally, code Both. Complex or abstract ideas include (but are not limited to) current events, religion, and relationships with others. Basic daily needs and ideas refer to daily activities such as nutrition, fluids, elimination, hygiene, and sleep (i.e., physiological needs). NO HELPER 7 Complete Independence Patient expresses complex or abstract ideas clearly and fluently (not necessarily in English). 6 Modified Independence In most situations, patient expresses complex or abstract ideas relatively clearly or with only mild difficulty. No prompting needed. May require an augmentative communication device or system. REQUIRES HELPER 5 Standby Prompting Patient expresses basic daily needs and ideas more than 90% of the time. Requires prompting (frequent repetition) less than 10% of time to be understood. REQUIRES HELPER 4 Minimal Prompting Patient expresses basic daily needs and ideas 75% to 90% of time. 3 Moderate Prompting Patient expresses basic daily needs and ideas 50% to 74% of time. 2 Maximal Prompting Patient expresses basic daily needs and ideas 25% to 49% of the time. Uses only single words or gestures. Needs prompting more than half the time. 1 Total Assistance Patient expresses basic daily needs and ideas less than 25% of the time or does not express basic needs appropriately or consistently despite prompting.
33 AlphaFIM Instrument Levels of Function and Rating MEMORY Includes skills related to recognizing and remembering while performing daily activities in an institutional or community setting. Includes ability to store and retrieve information, particularly verbal and visual. Includes recognizing people frequently encountered, remembering daily routines, and executing requests without being reminded. A deficit in memory impairs learning as well as performance of tasks. NO HELPER 7 Complete Independence Patient recognizes people frequently encountered, remembers daily routines, and executes requests of others without need for repetition. 6 Modified Independence Patient appears to have only mild difficulty recognizing people frequently encountered, remembering daily routines, and responding to requests from others. May use self-initiated or environmental cues, prompts, or aids. REQUIRES HELPER 5 Supervision Patient requires prompting (e.g., cueing, repetition, reminders) only under stressful or unfamiliar conditions, but no more than 10% of time. 4 Minimal Prompting Patient recognized and remembers 75% to 90% of the time. 3 Moderate Prompting Patient recognizes and remembers 50% to 74% of the time. 2 Maximal Prompting Patient recognizes and remembers 25% to 49% of the time. Needs prompting more than half the time. 1 Total Assistance Patient recognizes and remembers less than 25% of the time or does not effectively recognize and remember.
34 AlphaFIM Instrument Calculations Projection of the patient s likely FIM Instrument Ratings FIM-13 Raw Motor Rating: Best approximation of FIM Instrument Motor Rating FIM-13 Rasch Motor Rating: transformation of the FIM-13 Raw Motor Rating FIM-5 Raw Cognition Rating: Best approximation of FIM Instrument Cognition Rating FIM-5 Rasch Cognition Rating: transformation of the FIM-5 Raw Cognition Rating FIM Motor Range: Best approximation of level of assistance FIM Cognition Range: Best approximation of level of assistance FIM Walking Range: Best approximation of assistance needed by patient to walk at least 150 feet Help Needed: Best approximation of daily number of hours of care required from another person to perform personal care tasks of daily living
35 Transforming Raw Scores to Rasch Measures Approximately 1=2 2=30 3=40 4=50 5=60 6=70 7=100
36 Acute Inpatient Rehab Acute Care Hospital Subacute Rehab Homecare Rehab Outpatient Rehab AlphaFIM Instrument Facilitates Triage of Patients from Acute Care to the Next Care Setting
37 Acute Inpatient Rehab FIM instrument Acute Care Hospital AlphaFIM instrument Subacute Rehab Homecare Rehab Outpatient Rehab FIM instrument FIM instrument + LIFEware SM System FIM instrument + LIFEware SM System UDSMR Instruments Are Used in Different Settings and the Continuum of Care Links Inpatient to Outpatient Settings
38 Stroke Patients Study Projecting Rehabilitation Admission FIM Instrument Rating Using the AlphaFIM Instrument Objective Examine validity and applicability of the AlphaFIM instrument ratings obtained in an acute care hospital setting for predicting admission FIM instrument ratings in the comprehensive medical rehabilitation unit.
39 Stroke Patients Study Projecting Rehabilitation Admission FIM Instrument Rating Using the AlphaFIM Instrument Design Retrospective analysis of data from Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMR) using information from 77 patients who were admitted to one stroke center for an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and subsequently transferred to two comprehensive medical rehabilitation units.
40 Stroke Patients Study Projecting Rehabilitation Admission FIM Instrument Rating Using the AlphaFIM Instrument Results Mean age (± standard deviation) of patients was (±13.41), age range 31 to 91 years old 55.8% female; 44.20% male Mean AlphaFIM instrument total rating: (SD 21.48) Mean admission-fim instrument total rating (SD 18.67)
41 Stroke Patients Study Projecting Rehabilitation Admission FIM Instrument Rating Using the AlphaFIM Instrument Results (continued) Pearson correlation coefficients: Positive linear relationship was found between AlphaFIM instrument ratings obtained in the acute care setting and admission-fim instrument ratings obtained in the medical rehabilitation unit. Between AlphaFIM total and total-fim admission: (p=0.01)
42 Stroke Patients Study Projecting Rehabilitation Admission FIM Instrument Rating Using the AlphaFIM Instrument Conclusion AlphaFIM instrument ratings obtained in the acute care hospital setting predict the FIM instrument rating in the medical rehabilitation unit and may assist in triaging patients from the acute care hospital into appropriate settings, such as the medical rehabilitation unit, skilled nursing facilitysubacute rehabilitation, long-term nursing home, or home with or without services.
43 Stroke Patients Study Projecting Rehabilitation Admission FIM Instrument Rating Using the AlphaFIM Instrument Discussion The results of this study are applicable only to stroke patients. Additional study would be needed to determine if patient s length of stay can be reduced while maintaining quality of care. Use of the AlphaFIM instrument requires training and testing of raters.
44 Actual and Projected AlphaFIM Instrument Ratings for Stroke AlphaFIM Motor Rating 22/28 FIM Motor Rating 59/91 Walking AlphaFIM Cog Rating 4/7 7/14 FIM Cog Rating 20/ Actual Projected
45 Translation of Total FIM TM Rating into Burden of Care: Raw or Rasch Score Measure = Approx. 4 hours of assistance = Approx. 2 hours of assistance = Approx. 1 hour of assistance = Minimal or no assistance = No assistance
49 Summary The AlphaFIM instrument: Is used in the acute care hospital Is a shortened version of FIM instrument, using 6 items Is the beginning functional assessment through the inpatient and outpatient venues of the continuum of care Is highly correlated with the FIM instrument Translates into motor and cognitive domains as well as full FIM instrument ratings Predicts burden of care Facilitates triage to the next level of care Ties the present to the future by linking acute hospital care, the rehabilitation program, and outpatient care
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