1 Grant Compliance Risk and Responsibility Scott McLeod, Special Agent Dept. of Commerce, Office of Inspector General
2 Who We Are We are an independent oversight function overseeing DOC operations, and are primarily staffed with: Special Agents / Investigators / Attorneys Auditors and Evaluators Our responsibility is to pursue allegations of fraud and other crimes related to DOC operations and employees, and promote regulatory compliance for both the government and the grantees. All NOAA grant agreements include provisions for OIG access to records.
3 Grant Compliance Issues Biggest mistake: Not taking compliance seriously Rules with reason Corporate culture Professionalism For-profit risks Non-profit risks Hindrance or Help? Boundaries Keeping the doors open Keeping me away Employee retention
4 What You Should Know Every submission is a claim of truth made to a government official Grant application and amendments Bills, Vouchers or Invoices Periodic performance and financial reports or certifications Every time you request payment, it is certifying you are in compliance with all material terms and conditions of the grant
5 Why You Should Care Consequences of Non-compliance Administrative sanctions Reduction in payments; recovery actions & penalties Termination or Restructuring of Grant Suspension and Debarment Corrective action plans and forced compliance plans PFCRA or CMP remedies Criminal and Civil Penalties Parallel proceedings Personal liability possible. Civil False Claims treble damages + fines for each false claim
6 Recognizing Risk Most Common Compliance Risk Issues Policies and procedures inadequate or nonexistent Inadequate accounting system to assemble, analyze, classify, record, manage and report on costs and assets No ability to track costs by job or order no separate financial administration for each award (i.e., commingling costs) Difficult to audit, records messy or missing; unnecessarily complex accounting transactions or moving of money (adjusting entries) Contentious or unusual accounting practices No original receipts or original source records to support claimed costs Cash transactions not well documented; many cash deposits Records retention; photocopies instead of originals Losses on commercial contracts; low number of bidders; cost shifting
7 Recognizing Risk Most Common Compliance Risk Issues Costs that are not allowable, allocable, and/or reasonable Labor Charging Direct v. Indirect Labor Costs and associated burden Allocation when an employee worked on more than one project Consistent with Approved Grant Budget Lack of subrecipient monitoring no flow-down No segregation of duties Travel documentation inadequate Cost-sharing between projects or related entities Violations of institutional conflict of interest rules Residual funds accounting and disposition
8 What is Grant Fraud? An act of deceit, trickery or deliberate neglect, committed by a federal funding recipient against the funding agency for the purpose of gaining something of value. One or more of the following acts has usually occurred: Misappropriation of federal funds or property Deliberate neglect of grant rules and guidelines Deliberate falsification of information
9 Nature of Grant Fraud May be programmatic, financial or both May be hidden, discreet or completely overt May involve a large OR small portion of an award May involve a conspiracy between subcontractors/subgrantees and/or government officials May be a one-time incident or ongoing matter
10 What Fraud Looks Like Encompasses theft, embezzlement, false or illegal commissions, kickbacks, false statements, false claims, collusive arrangements, and similar devices. Creating Fictitious Records Forgery Diverting Funds Double billing
11 What Fraud Looks Like Inflating enrollment and attendance records Fees for non-existent consulting services Issuing checks payable to friends or relatives Submitting invoices for personal expenses False statements on grant application Using funds for unintended purposes Not providing services Falsifying research/data
12 What Fraud Looks Like Grantee Employees Submitting false claims in travel vouchers/cost reports Using credit cards for personal use Diverting funds to phantom companies Kickbacks Conflict of Interest and Self-Dealing
13 Investigation Examples A grant recipient was convicted for misapplying approximately $500,000 of grant funds to pay for personal expenses, including rent, home renovations, cleaning services, restaurant meals, and miscellaneous household items. Four officials of a grantee were convicted of fraud, conspiracy and money laundering after converting nearly $800,000 to their personal use.
14 Investigation Examples A NOAA grantee used about 55% of the total grant to buy, among other things, methamphetamines and a Rolex watch. The one-year grant was for developing a program to train on new fishing techniques. The Controller of a grantee embezzled grant funds from his employer by contracting out unnecessary construction services to a company a co-conspirator owned, and who kicked back a portion of the proceeds. A grantee shifted rent expenses for a related private company to make it appear costs were for the grantee. A grantee disguised hockey and baseball season tickets by breaking up the costs in the accounting records submaterial costs.
15 Compliance Aimed at a Triangle Incentive/Pressure. Pressure, such as a financial need, is the motive for committing the fraud. Examples: meeting expectations in an economic downturn or a gambling problem. Rationalization. The person frequently rationalizes the fraud - I ll pay the money back, They will never miss the funds, They don t pay me enough, or I won t get caught. Opportunity. The person committing the fraud sees an internal control weakness and, believing no one will notice if funds are taken, begins the fraud with a small amount of money, which grows over time.
16 Control Environment Management s philosophy and operating style No interest in managing fraud risk from the top poor design Decentralized mgmt without monitoring No prior audits; audit firm collusion; evasive audit answers Failure to act on complaints Poor timekeeping systems (often intentional) Organizational structure One person in control; no separation of duties High turnover Lack of training staff, vague work assignments Personnel policies and practices Missing or incomplete control policies Reality of their actual practice is not consistent with policies
17 Myth About Fraud - #1 Only certain types of people will commit fraud
18 And.. Certain types of people will NOT commit fraud
19 Who Commits Fraud?
20 Profile of Perpetrators of Fraud Older Church Attendance Stable Family Good Mental Health High Self-esteem Outgoing, charismatic Trusted
21 The Perpetrators - Age 2008 Study by Association of Certified Fraud Examiners found more than half of fraud cases in study involved a fraudster over the age of 40, and over one-third of the schemes were perpetrated by individuals between the ages of 41 and 50.
22 The Perpetrators Age of Perpetrator Median Loss
23 The Perpetrators Tenure of Perpetrator Frequency and Median Loss
24 The Perpetrators Position of Perpetrator - Frequency
25 The Perpetrators Gender of Perpetrator Frequency Gender of Perpetrator Median Loss 2008 by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc.
26 The Perpetrators Education of Perpetrator Median Loss
27 The Perpetrators Education of Perpetrator Frequency
28 Myth - #2 Fraud is not material.
29 Fact. Fraud Grows. Consistently amounting to 7 to 10% - as high as 20% in some settings.
30 Myth #3 Fraud is well concealed and too hard to detect
31 Myth # 4 Auditors[Project Officers/Grant Managers] can t detect fraud. You are on the front line of defense against fraud.
32 Playing it Safe Follow government rules, regulations and guidelines Act in good faith Ask questions - do not assume the answers Report accurate information Promote efficiency, honesty and professionalism Maintain fraud prevention refresher training Provide employees with a copy of contracting rules and regulations
33 Avoid gray areas or risky situations with subcontractors Require full disclosure from employees and subcontractors Reward employees for identifying project weaknesses, waste, fraud and abuse Playing it Safe Do s Stay organized Report any problems timely and with full disclosure Communicate openly and often with your agency representative
34 Double billing Inflated billing Poor accounting system Deliberate accounting error Playing it Safe Don ts Deliberate product overage Product substitution Shifting costs often from one category or cost account to another without approval Fail to maintain adequate internal controls
35 Playing it Safe Embezzlement of project funds or equipment Misappropriation of project funds or equipment Deliberate waste of project funds, equipment and resources Don ts Unauthorized travel costs Conflicts of interest Less than arms length transactions Use of fictitious vendors Falsify time & attendance records
36 Playing it Safe Don ts Co-mingle project funds Give control of ASAP to the wrong person Alter or destroy documents Mislead government contracting/program officials Mislead auditors/inspectors Mislead your employees
37 The Golden Rule The Golden Rule of Fraud Prevention WHEN IN DOUBT.DON T DO IT. Call your agency representative for appropriate guidance.
38 Please Contact Us We want to hear ANY CONCERNS you may have regarding grant and procurement recipients or other Commerce program or employee fraud lying, stealing and cheating. We DO NOT require that you detect evidence of a crime. We DO NOT require that there be a specific allegation. If you have suspicions.please contact us.
39 Legal Protections - Employees Department Administrative Order (DAO) Requires employees to report to the OIG any information indicating possible existence of: any violation of law, rules or regulations, mismanagement, gross waste of funds, conflicts of interest, standards of conduct. Government-wide Standards of Ethical Conduct, 5 CFR Section (b)(11) Employees shall disclose waste, fraud, abuse and corruption to appropriate authorities.
40 Whistleblower Protections Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 IG Act Section 7(c) Federal employees may not be retaliated against or harassed by management for reporting information regarding potential crimes, frauds or violations of law to the OIG. A federal agency violates the Whistleblower Protection Act if it takes or fails to take (or threatens to take or fail to take) a personnel action with respect to any employee or applicant because of any disclosure of information by the employee or applicant that he or she reasonably believes evidences a violation of a law, rule or regulation; gross mismanagement; gross waste of funds; an abuse of authority; or a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety.
41 Whistleblower Protections The Recovery Act and various other statutes provides explicit protections for non-federal whistleblowers. These protections apply to all contractor and grantee staff working on Recovery Act awards or other types of contracts or grants. The laws prohibit recipients from discharging, demoting or discriminating against any employee for disclosing any concern to their supervisor, the head of a federal agency or his/her representatives, or the OIG, information that the employee believes is evidence of: Gross mismanagement or waste of grant or contract funds. Danger to public health or safety related to the use of funds. Abuse of authority related to the implementation or use of funds. Violation of law, rule or regulation related to an agency contract or grant awarded or issued related to funds.
42 Contact Information OIG HOTLINE Phone: (800) Fax: (202) U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General Office of Investigations Scott McLeod Special Agent (303)
43 Grant Fraud Awareness Knowing Your Risks and Responsibilities William Tokash Special Agent, CFE U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General May 5, 2015 Silver Spring, MD
44 Overview Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General What is Grant Fraud Types of Grant Fraud Case Examples How to Stay out of Trouble: Do s and Don ts Whistleblower Protection Consequences 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 2
45 Office Of Inspector General Authorized by the 1978 IG Act Investigative jurisdiction includes all funding, programs and employees of DOC to include all bureaus Independent Investigative Agency Federal Law Enforcement Officers Investigative Attorneys Auditors Agents: Conduct Independent Investigations 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 3
46 What We Investigate Grant Fraud Contract Fraud Antitrust Violations Embezzlement Theft Conflicts of Interest Bribery/Kickbacks False Claims False Statements/Certifications Bank Fraud Money Laundering Employee Misconduct 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 4
47 What is Grant Fraud? An act of deceit, trickery or deliberate neglect, committed by a federal funding recipient against the funding agency for the purpose of gaining something of value. Lying Cheating Stealing One or more of the following acts has usually occurred: Conflict of Interest Lying/Misappropriation of Funds Theft 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 5
48 Nature of Grant Fraud May be programmatic, financial, or both May be hidden, discreet, or completely overt May involve a large OR small portion of an award May involve a conspiracy subcontractors/subgrantees and/or government officials May be a one-time incident or ongoing matter 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 6
49 Process Safeguards Grantee s Internal Controls Grant Management / Desk Audit Grantor Monitoring OIG Audits A-133 / Single Audit Act Public Availability of Reports 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 7
50 Who Commits Grant Fraud? Recipients Company Officers Business Partners Board Members Employees Contractors/Subcontractors Consultants 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 8
51 Conflicts of Interest Grantees are required to use federal funds in the best interest of their program and these decisions must be free of undisclosed personal or organizational conflicts of interest both in appearance and fact. The typical issues in this area include: Less than Arms-Length or Related Party Transactions Sub Grant Award Decisions and Vendor Selections Consultants 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 9
52 Lying or Failing to Properly Support Grant Agreement Legally Binding Grantees Obligated to use funds as outlined in the agreement To act with integrity when applying for and reporting their actual use of funds Grantees to track the use of funds and maintain adequate supporting documentation The typical issues in this area include: Matching Funds Labor Hours/Wages Indirect Cost Rates Redirecting Funds False Statements 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 10
53 Theft Most Common Embezzlement of Funds Cost Reimbursement Schemes Weak or Lack of Internal Controls Profit Not Allowed 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 11
54 Investigation Examples A NIST Advanced Technology Program recipient was convicted for misapplying approximately $500,000 of grant funds to pay for personal expenses, including rent, home renovations, cleaning services, restaurant meals, and miscellaneous household items. Four officials of an EDA Revolving Loan Fund program were convicted of fraud, conspiracy and money laundering after converting nearly $800,000 to their personal use. 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 12
55 Investigation Examples A NOAA grantee used about 55% of the total grant to buy, among other things, methamphetamines and a Rolex watch. The one-year grant was for developing a small boat tuna pole and line training program to train native Hawaiian people in fishing techniques. The Controller of a grantee embezzled grant funds from his employer by contracting out unnecessary construction services to a company a co-conspirator owned, and who kicked back a portion of the proceeds. The controller paid these through spare company checks using a check protector. A grantee shifted rent expenses for a related private company to make it appear costs were for the grantee. A grantee disguised hockey and baseball season tickets by breaking up the costs in the accounting records submaterial costs 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 13
56 Avoid Grey Areas Require Full Disclosure Reward for Reporting Fraud/Waste/Abuse Stay Organized Report Problems Communicate Openly Follow Government Rules, Regulations and Guidelines Act in Good Faith Ask Questions Report Accurate Information Promote Efficiency, Honesty, and Professionalism Fraud Awareness Do TIPS FOR KEEPING IT SAFE 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 14
57 Don t POST-AWARD THINGS NOT TO DO Embezzlement Misappropriation Deliberate Waste Unauthorized Costs Conflicts of Interest Fictitious Vendors Falsify Records 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 15
58 Whistleblower Protection Whistleblower Protection Recovery Act The Recovery Act provides explicit protections for non-federal whistleblowers. These protections apply to all contractor and grantee staff working on Recovery Act awards. The Act prohibits funding recipients from discharging, demoting or discriminating against any employee for disclosing any concern to their supervisor, the head of a federal agency or his/her representatives, or the OIG information that the employee believes is evidence of: Gross mismanagement or waste of grant or contract funds. Danger to public health or safety related to the use of funds. Abuse of authority related to the implementation or use of funds. Violation of law, rule or regulation related to an agency contract or grant awarded or issued related to funds. 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 16
59 Consequences Program Impairment / Failure Administrative Cancel awards Recover funds Withhold future funds Suspension & Debarment Civil False Claims Act Treble Damages Criminal Prison Fines & Restitution Asset seizure 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 17
60 Summary Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General What is Grant Fraud Types of Grant Fraud Case Examples How to Stay out of Trouble: Do s and Don ts Whistleblower Protection Consequences 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 18
61 Fraud Awareness Please be on the lookout for ANYTHING that indicates fraud, waste, or abuse 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 19
62 Contact Information OIG HOTLINE Phone: (800) Fax: (202) U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General Office of Investigations William Tokash Special Agent (202) For more information please visit our website 11 May 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General 20
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