Leah Wickham. The Rehabilitation and Reintegration Process for Women and Children Recovering from the Sex Trade

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1 LeahWickham TheRehabilitationandReintegrationProcessforWomenandChildren RecoveringfromtheSexTrade Practicum Submitted by Leah Wickham to Dr. Max Stephenson, Chair Dr. Suchitra Samanta, Committee Member Dr.Rupa Thadani, Committee Member on April 21,

2 LeahWickham Introduction Womenandgirlshaveendurednumerousformsofviolence,exploitation,and repressionworldwide.indeed,theonlytrendsconsistentlyfoundaroundtheworldare rape,domesticviolence,andsonpreference(miesandshiva,2001).thus,regardlessof theirculturalroots,race,ethnicity,nationality,religiousaffiliation,oreconomicstatus, womenandgirlsliveinvolatileenvironmentsinwhichtheirfemaleidentity automaticallyplacestheminvaryingdegreesofvulnerabilityandinferiority.under theseconditions,itisnosurprisethesextradecontinuestothrive. 1 Whileanunderstandingoftheoverallsizeandscopeofthesextradeis necessaryinordertodesigneffectiveameliorationinitiatives,womenandchildren involvedinthesextradeshouldnotbereducedtoaseriesofstatisticsand generalizationsasaresult.moreover,therehabilitationandreintegrationofindividuals seekingtoescapethesextradehasbeenlargelyignoredand/orunderrepresentedby academics,governments,andinternationalorganizations.thoughlocaland internationalnongovernmentalorganizations(ngos)haveincreasinglyrecognizedthe importanceofrehabilitationandreintegrationfromthesextrade,sucheffortshavenot receivedtheattentionorassistanceneededtoprovideeffectiveshort andlong term care. AimsofthePaper Thispaperaddressesthechallenges,strategies,andsupportsystemsregarding therehabilitationandreintegrationprocessforwomenandchildrenrecoveringfrom thesextrade.inordertoaddressissuessurroundingtherehabilitationandreintegration process,itisimportanttounderstandthecomplexitiesofthesextradeinabroader sense.whileitisbeyondthescopeofthispapertoprovideadetailedanalysisofthesex industry,iwillpresentabriefsketchsufficienttounderstanditsgeneralsizeandscope. Thereafter,Iaddresstheviolenceandexploitationexperiencedbywomenandchildren bothpriortoandduringtheirinvolvementinthesextradewhilealsoprovidingan overviewoftheformsofsupportandprotectionsavailabletothem.ialsosummarize theprimarystrategiesthatngos,interestedgovernmentsandinternational organizationsarenowemployingtosupporttherehabilitationandreintegrationof womenandchildrenseekingtoleavethesextrade.next,thepapersketchesthe principalpolitical,economicandinstitutionalobstaclesthatassistingorganizationsand governmentsencounterastheyseektosupportwomenandchildrenwhoaretryingto overcomethesextrade.finally,iprovideabriefassessmentofrehabilitationand reintegrationstrategiesaswellasrecommendationsforhowexistingeffortsmaybe mademoreeffective. 1 Thesextradecanbebroadlydefinedastheexchangeofsexualservicesformoneywithinaglobal context. 2

3 LeahWickham OverviewoftheSexTrade Accountsanddescriptionsofthesextrademaybedividedintotwogroups.For some,sextrafficking 2 andprostitution 3 areconflatedintooneissue.thisgroupargues thatallsexforsaleisexploitationagainstwomenregardlessof choice andthusshould beillegal.inopposition,othersseparatesextraffickingfromprostitution.thisgroup condemnssextraffickingandotherformsofforcedsexwork,yetatthesametime acceptsprostitutionasanacceptableformoflaborthatshouldbelegalizedand regulated.whileaddressingthisdebateisbeyondthescopeofthispaper,itshouldbe understoodthatwhethersextraffickingandprostitutionareconflatedorseparated, theypropagatethesamesextrade.furthermore,regardlessofhowawoman,man,or childisincorporatedintothesextrade,themajorityofsexprovidersexperiencesimilar formsofviolenceandexploitation.itisalsoimportanttonoteariseinmalesex workers,especiallyinlatinamericaandthecaribbean 4 (Brennan,2004;Kempadooand Doezema,1998).However,thesextradeisoverwhelminglysustainedthroughmale purchasesofsexualservicesprovidedbywomenandchildren.consequently,thesex industryischaracterizedbytheviolenceandexploitationexperiencedbywomenand childrenassexproviders. Whilesextraffickingandprostitutionbothproliferateviolenceandexploitation againstwomenandchildren,itisnecessarytocontextualizetheseincidentswithinthe sextrade.sextraffickingisoftenconsideredoneofthemostexploitativeformsof humantraffickingandslavery.annually,around70%oftheonetofourmillion traffickingvictimsarepressedintosexwork 5 (GlobalFundforWomen,2008).Theterms sexslave and victimofsextrafficking 6 exemplifythe controloverapersonforthe purposeofexploitation (UnitedNationsOfficeonDrugsandCrime,2004).Sexslaves typicallyareheldindebtbondageanddonotreceivepaymentforprovidingsexual services.ontheotherhand,prostitutessellsexualservicestogenerateincome.those 2 SextraffickingisdefinedbytheUnitedNationsas therecruitment,transportation,transfer,harbouring, orreceiptofpersons,bymeansofthethreatoruseofforceorotherformsofcoercion,ofabduction,or fraud,ofdeception,oftheabuseofpowerorofapositionofvulnerabilityorofthegivingorreceivingof paymentsorbenefitstoachievetheconsentofapersonhavingcontroloveranotherperson,forthe purposeofexploitation.exploitationshallinclude,ataminimum,theexploitationoftheprostitutionof othersorotherformsofsexualexploitation,forcedlabourorservices,slaveryorpracticessimilarto slavery,servitudeortheremovaloforgans. 3 Thecommondefinitionofprostitutionistheactorpracticeofengaginginsexualintercourseformoney asanunworthyuseorcause. 4 Malesexworkersareoftenfoundinthecontextofsextourism,sellingsexualservicesinboth homosexualandheterosexualrelations. 5 Statisticsreportedonthesextradevarydependingondefinitions,methods,andresources. 6 Sexslave and victim willbeusedinterchangeablyinordertorefertowomenandchildrenwhowere boughtand/orsoldbytraffickerswithinthesextrade. 3

4 LeahWickham engaginginprostitutionarecommonlyreferredtoas sexworkers. 7 Sexworkersmay workforthemselvesorforanemployersuchasabrothelownerorapimp.whilesex workersaregenerallyconsideredtohavealargerdegreeofagencythansexslaves,sex workers abilitytocontroltheirbodiesandincomevariesconsiderablybasedon individualcircumstances(brennan,2004;kempadooanddoezema,1998).millionsof sexworkersareemployedthroughsellingsex,dancing,stripping,pornography,and escortservices 8 (Farr,2005). Itisnecessarytodistinguishwomenandchildreninthesextradeaseithersex slavesorsexworkersasthisdistinctionaffectshoweachgroupisregardedin preventioninitiatives,migrationlaws,criminalizationofactivities,andrescuestrategies. However,regardingrehabilitationandreintegrationinitiativesthesexslave/sexworker distinctionmaybemoreharmfulthanbeneficial(dewey,2008).asmentionedabove, regardlessofhowwomenandchildrenbecameinvolvedinthesextrade,they experiencesimilarformsofviolenceandexploitation.withinthecontextof rehabilitationandreintegration,thedistinctionmayplaceunnecessarypolitical,social, orculturallimitationsonwomenandchildreninneedofservices.inotherwords, womenandchildrenrecoveringfromthesextradeshouldbeviewedpurelyas individualsseekingassistancefromtheviolenceandexploitationtheyendured. Almosteverycountryworldwidehasbeenincorporatedintothesextradeasa source,transit,ordestinationsite 9 (Farr,2005)Theindustryisorganizedaroundtwo distinctphenomena sextraffickingandsextourism.insextrafficking,womenand childrentravelawayfromtheirhomes,eitherwithinorbeyondtheirnationalbordersin ordertoaccommodatedemandfortheirservices.conversely,insextourismforeign mentraveltosourcecountries(predominatelythoseinthethirdworld)inorderto purchasesexualservices.again,whileexpandinguponthesextrafficking/sextourism distinctionisbeyondthescopeofthispaper,itisimportanttonotethedualflowof men,women,andchildrenbetweenandwithinsourceanddestinationsites.likesex trafficking/prostitution,sextraffickingandsextourismarepartofthebroadersextrade. Whileitiscriticalnottoignorethecomplexitiesofthesextrade,itsfoundation canbereducedtosupplyanddemand.putanotherway,asaneconomicanalysiswould explain, certainmarketforcescreateademandforaproduct;othermarketforces createasupplytomeetthatdemand (Kara,2009).Thus,thesexindustrycannotexist withoutbothforces.therearemanyfactorsthatcontributetothesupplysideofthesex tradeincluding poverty,biasagainstgenderorethnicity,lawlessness,militaryconflict, 7 Theterm sexworker suggestsan income generatingactivityorformoflabor asopposedto prostitute whichsuggestsanegativeidentityofthosesellingsexualservices(kempadooanddoezema, 1998). 8 Duetotheillicitnatureofthesextrade,reliablestatisticsdocumentingthenumberofsexworkersis unavailable. 9 Sourcecountriesidentifywhereindividualsoriginate,transitcountriesarethosewhichindividualspass throughfromsourcetodestination,anddestinationcountriesarewhereindividualsarereceived. 4

5 LeahWickham socialinstability,economicbreakdown, andpowerrelations.thedemandsideofthe sextradeiscreatedandsustainedbytwomainforces:maledemandandprofit.male demandforsexualservicessustainstheprofitabilityofthesextradeasamulti billion dollarindustry(kara,2009). 10 Thereachofthesextradehasbeenexacerbatedbythe recentphenomenonofglobalizationthroughincreasedeconomicintegration, transnationalmigration,andinternationaltourism(brennan,2004). Insum,thesextradeisaglobalissuerequiringaninternationalresponse(Global FundforWomen,2008).Governments,internationalorganizations,andNGOshave developednumerousconventionsandstrategiestargetingthesextrade.however,since thereisnotauniversalagreementonthenatureofthesextradeorhowtheindustry shouldberegulated,effortstoimplementthesestrategiesvaryconsiderably. Nevertheless,thesexindustrycontinuestothriveduetoitsenormousprofitabilityand aseeminglyendlessnumberofsexprovidersandbuyers. ViolenceandExploitationwithintheSexTrade Beforeaddressingtheviolenceandexploitationexperiencedbywomenand childrenwithinthesextrade,itisimportanttomentionsimilarformsofabusethat occurpriortotheirinvolvementinthetrade.inmanycultures,womenandgirlsare regardedasinferiortomenandboys.thatsituationmakesthemvulnerabletoviolence andexploitationwithinthehome,thecommunity,andiftheycanlocateemployment, atwork.moreover,thoseexperiencesoftendirectlyshapehowwomenandchildren initiallybecameinvolvedinthesextrade. Manywomenandchildrenoftenvoluntarilymigratetoobtainsex relatedwork ortofollowfalsepromisesforemploymentinordertoescapeabusiverelationshipsat home,eitherfromtheirfamilies,husbands,orboyfriends.inmoldova,sincetheyear 2000,sevenofeverytensextraffickingvictimsassistedbytheNGO,LaStrada,reported domesticviolenceincludingrape,beatings,andpsychologicalabusebytheirhusbands, uncles,orfathersastheprimaryfactorintheirdecisiontoacceptworkabroad(kara, 2009).InKerala,IndiatheFoundationforIntegratedResearchinMentalHealth(FIRM) 11 foundthatmorethanfiftypercentofsexworkerswerepreviouslymarriedand experienceddomesticviolence,desertionbytheirhusbands,beingsoldbytheir husbandsorhavingtheirpropertyseizedbytheirhusbandsandlaterdivorced (Jayasree,2004).Sincethesewomenhadbeeneconomicallydependentontheir husbandsandwerenotemployed,theywentinsearchforwork.however,inindia,asin manyothercountries,therearefeweconomicopportunitiesavailableforpoorwomen. Furthermore,whentheyfoundemploymenttheyearnedminimalwagesandwereoften 10 Foranin deptheconomicanalysisofthesextrade,see:kara,s.(2009).sextrafficking:insidethe BusinessofModernSlavery.NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress. 11 FIRM is a nongovernmental organization that works among stigmatized and marginalized groups in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. 5

6 LeahWickham sexuallyexploitedbytheirmaleemployers.intheend,manywomenresortedtosex workforpaymentasameansofsurvival(jayasree,2004). Irrespectiveofhowindividualswereintegratedintothesextrade,womenand childrencontinuetoexperienceextremeandoftensustainedformsofviolenceand exploitationwhileworkinginit.theyexperiencevariousformsofemotional,physical, andsexualabuse.suchexperiencesbefore,during,andafterthesextradeoccasiona varietyofshort andlong termpersonalproblemswhichcanbedividedintothreemain categories:physical,psychological,andbehavioraleffects.whileeachindividual undergoesandinternalizestheirinvolvementinthesextradedifferently,severalstudies ofchildren,youth,andadultswhohadpreviouslybeenengagedintheindustryoffer broadlysimilarconclusions. PhysicalEffects Whetherasexworkerorsexslave,theconditionsinwhichthesewomenand childrenlivewhileengagedinthesextradearegenerallyequallyhorrendous.many individualslackadequatesleepingconditionsandoftensleepandprovidesexual servicesinthesamebed.facilitiesforbathing,washingclothes,andpersonalhygiene,if available,arepoorlymaintained.additionally,theyareroutinelydeniedorunableto acquirepropernutritionandhealthcare.asaresult,womenandchildrencansuffer fromarangeofhealthconditions.survivorsofsextraffickingreportchronicsymptoms suchasfrequentheadaches,stomachpain,lowerabdomenpain,skindisease,body itching,andfatigue(crawfordandkaufman,2008).inaddition,sexworkersalso experienceasthma,andotherrheumaticdisorders(jayasree,2004). Engaginginsexualactivitywithnumerouspartners,especiallywithouta condom,resultsinahighprobabilityofcontractingsexuallytransmitteddiseases(stds), includinghiv/aids.individualsarealsohighlysusceptibletoothergenitaltract infectionsandpelvicinflammatorydiseases(pid)duetofrequentandsometimes violentsexualactivity.recurringpregnancyresultingineitherdeliveryorabortion, especiallyfollowedbyimmediatesexualactivitycanoverwhelmafemale sbodyand cansometimescausepermanentdamageincludingfutureinfertility.insituationswhere womenandgirlshavelittleornocontrolovertheirbodiesduringsexualactivity,they aremoresusceptibletoinfection,disease,andpregnancybecausetheyareunableto negotiatesafesexpractices.furthermore,youngadolescentgirlsexperienceahigher riskofinfectionandlong termdamagebecausetheirimmaturereproductivetractsare moresensitive(chatterjee,chakraborty,srivastava,anddeb,2006). Theprevalenceofviolencewithinthesextradealsohasextremeeffectsonthe physicalhealthofwomenandchildreninvolved.duetothelargedegreeofcontroland exploitationinvolvedinsextrafficking,almostallvictimsexperiencedvariousformsof violencebytheircaptors,includingbutnotlimitedto rape,gangrape,burningof breastsandgenitalswithcigarettes,beating,andchainingwithfetters (Crawfordand 6

7 LeahWickham Kaufman,2008).Moreover,ofthetwohundredsexworkersinterviewedfromthedropinclinicsofTamilNadu,India,overninety fivepercentexperiencedviolencebytheir clients,streetcriminals,and/orthepolice. 12 Reportedformsofviolenceincluded beatings,acidattacks,stabbingorcuttingwithknives,breakingarmsorlegs,sexual harassment,rape,hittingwithhardobjects,throwingstones,shavingheads,putting chilipowderintheeyes,beatingthesolesoffeetandthenforcingthemtojumpupand down,andmurder (Jayasree,2004). PsychologicalEffects Repeatedactsofphysical,mental,andsexualviolenceandexploitationhave significantrepercussionsforthementalhealthofwomenandchildrenincorporatedinto thesextrade.counselorsforsextraffickingvictimsreportanarrayofemotional problemsincluding: impatience,irritability,short temperandviolence,lackof obedience,distrusttowardsothers,lackofself confidence,emotionalinstability, depression,stress,feelingsofisolation,hopelessnessordesperationforthefuture, shameandguilt,humiliation,lossofvirginity,negativeattitudes,withdrawal,posttraumaticstressdisorder,andself mutilation (Chatterjeeetal,2006).Fortypercentof thesexworkersgoingtotheclinicsintamilnadu,indiasufferedfrom depression, anxiety,post traumaticstressdisorder(pts),mooddisorders,andschizophrenia. Itwas alsocommonforsexworkerstoattemptsuicideandengageindeliberateself harmby cuttingtheirveins,takingpoison,andburningthemselves (Jayasree,2004). BehavioralEffects Thephysicalandpsychologicaltraumaexperiencedbywomenandchildren involvedinthesextradealtertheirshortandlong termbehavior.inonestudy,children andyouthsurvivorsofsextraffickingwerereportedtohavethefollowingbehavioral problems: inabilitytoexpressfeelings,poorcommunicationskills,inabilitytomake friendships,frightenedofadultsand/orstrangers,addictiontodrugsandsubstances, sexualactiveness,vulnerabilitytosexualabuseorexploitation,difficultywithsleeping ornightmares,commitmentofsuicide,anddifficultywithadjustments (Chatterjeeet al,2006).anotherstudyinnepalreportedbehavioralsymptomsamongsextrafficking survivorsincluding socialwithdrawal,alteredbehaviorinfrontofmales,lackof motivation,andaggression. Additionally,survivorsreportedaninabilitytodreamand hopeandalackofaspirationandvisionforthefuture(crawfordandkaufman,2008). Sexworkersalsoreportedsimilarbehavioraleffects(Jayasree,2004). SocialRamificationsandPersonalIdentityCrises 12 Information was gathered by FIRM from case histories between 1999 and 2001 from the Drop-in Centre Clinics in Thiruvananthapuram and Thrissur. 7

8 LeahWickham Thephysical,psychological,andbehavioraleffectsexperiencedbywomenand childrenasaresultoftheviolenceandexploitationtheyexperiencebothbeforeand duringthesextradelingerfarintotheirfutures.regardlessofhowtheywere introducedintotheindustry,familiesandcommunitiesoftenrefusetoaccept individualsupontheirreturn.also,menoftenviewwomenandchildrenpreviously engagedinthetradeasspoiledandrefusetomarrythem(chatterjeeetal,2006; CrawfordandKaufman,2008;Jayasree,2004;Kara,2009;KempadooandDoezema, 1998).Withoutthesupportoffamiliesorhusbands,itisextremelydifficultformany womentosurviveontheirown.asaresult,notonlyaretheyoftencondemnedto penury,butalsotoalifetimeofisolationanddiscrimination. Moreover,womenandchildrenhavedifficultyformulatingtheiridentityapart frombeingasexualobject(chatterjeeetal,2006).womenandchildrenrecovering fromthesextradeoftencannotrememberthepersontheyusedtobepriortotheir incorporationintotheindustry.norcantheyperceivealifeawayfromtheir occupations.often,womenandchildrendevelopdistortedimagesofthemselvesand theirfutures.inaddition,whentheyareunabletocopewiththeirexperiences,mental andphysicaldestructionoccurs(robinsonandpáramo,2007). PrimaryFormsofSupportandProtectionforRehabilitationandReintegration Whensocietiesandfamiliesrejectindividualsandthoseaffectedrelinquish hope,theirrehabilitationandreintegrationcanbeextremelychallenging.however, despitethesedifficulties,governments,internationalorganizations,andngos continuouslystrivetoprovidesupportandprotectionforwomenandchildreninvolved inthesextrade. SupportandProtectionfromGovernmentsandInternationalOrganizations Whilegovernmentsandinternationalorganizationsprovidesupportand protectionforwomenandchildrenaffectedbythesextrade,themajorityofsuch effortsarefocusedonmigrationcontrol,security,andprosecutionofillegalactivity.a portionofeffortsandlegislationadvocatesfortheprovisionoflegalandfinancial supportforthereintegrationofwomenandchildrenrecoveringfromthetrade.itis importanttonote,however,thatthemajorityoflegislationincorporatingrehabilitation andreintegrationstrategiesfocusesonvictimsofsextrafficking,notsexworkers(farr, 2005). Severalinternationalconventionshavefocusedonthesextrade,includingthe U.N.ConventionontheEliminationofAllFormsofDiscriminationAgainstWomen,the U.N.ConventionfortheSuppressionoftheTrafficinPersons,andthe2000U.N. ProtocoltoPrevent,SuppressandPunishTraffickinginPersons,EspeciallyWomenand Children.Inadditiontomanyothers,therearealsonationalconventionssuchasthe 8

9 LeahWickham UnitedStatesVictimsofTraffickingandViolenceProtectionActof2000(TVPA)andthe 1956ImmoralTrafficPreventionAct(ITPA)inIndia.Internationalandnational conventionsadvocateforsupportandprotectionintwodifferentarenas:1)destination countriesand2)sourcecountries.fordestinationcountries,provisionsforvictim protectionservices,assistanceinobtainingspecialresidencystatus,temporaryshelter, medicalcare,andpsychologicalsupportareprovided.however,legalprotectionand financialsupportpromisedbysomelegislationsuchastheu.s.tvpaisonlyprovidedif thevictimagreestotestifyagainstthetraffickers.inaddition,supportisonlyprovided untilthevictimisdeported(farr,2005).insomecountries,includingindiaandthailand, conventionsagainstthesextradeoftengounenforcedorinsteadareusedtopunish womenandchildrenwithintheindustry(jayasree,2004).ultimately,insomenations includingthailandandindia,prostitutionissociallysanctionedandevendemanded despiteitsillegality. Thefactthatrehabilitationandreintegrationofsexworkersisnotprovidedby themajorityoflegislationhassignificantrepercussionsforrecoveryprogramsinsource countries.inordertoreceivesupportfromsomegovernmentsandinternational organizations,suchastheunitedstatesandtheinternationalorganizationfor Migration(IOM)serviceprovidersmustdistinguishbetweensexslavesandsexworkers. Incountrieswhereprostitutionisillegal,ifthedistinctionisnotmade,serviceproviders areineligibletoreceivefunding.inmanysourcecountries,corruptionisalsoalarge issue.corruptgovernmentandlawenforcementofficialsoftensiphonoffresources providedbynationalconventionsand,accordingly,thesedonotreachrehabilitation andreintegrationprograms(farr,2005;kara,2009). Moreover,governmentlegislationallows thepowerfultospeakforthe marginalizedandtodefinetheircircumstances (Dewey,2008).Thereisasignificant distinctionbetweentheviewsofpolicymakersandinstitutionsandthoseofwomenand childreninvolvedinthesextrade.often,legislationandservicesprovidedby governmentsandinstitutionsdonotreflectthedemandsofsexworkersandsexslaves. Instead,womenandchildrenintheindustryarefrequentlyusedtodevelopand advocatepoliticalagendas(dewey,2008). SupportbyNongovernmentalOrganizations Overall,supportandprotectionbygovernmentsandinternationalorganizations fortherehabilitationandreintegrationofwomenandchildrenrecoveringfromthesex tradeisextremelylimited.consequently,themajorityofrehabilitationand reintegrationprogramsmustbedevelopedandimplementedbyngos. WhilebothlocalandinternationalNGOsproviderecoveryservicestoprevious sexslavesandsexworkers,themajorityoforganizationsandcentersworkinginthis areaaresmall,autonomouswomen sgroups(ploumen,2001).asoftenaspossible, NGOsworkwithgovernmentsandinternationalorganizationstoprovidelegaland 9

10 LeahWickham financialsupport,recoveryfacilities,counseling,medicalcare,andeducation.following isanoverviewoftherangeofrehabilitationandreintegrationeffortsofferedbyngos. RehabilitationandReintegrationProgramsandStrategies Rehabilitationandreintegrationprogramsandstrategiestargetingindividuals recoveringfromviolenceandexploitationwithinthesextraderequiremultifaceted approachesinvolvingavarietyofactors.recoveryeffortsmustsimultaneouslyaddress thephysical,psychological,behavioral,social,andeconomicissuesencounteredby theseindividuals.moreover,successfulrecoverymustincludeservicecoordinationby governments,internationalorganizations,ngos,localagencies,surrounding communities,andfamilies(crawfordandkaufman,2008). Regardlessofhowwomenandchildrenfirstbecameinvolvedinthetrade, whetherassexworkersorsexslaves,therehabilitationandreintegrationstrategiesfor theirrecoveryaresimilar.allsurvivorsrequireacentrallocationforsupport,counseling, educationandskillstraining,medicalservices,andasupportivecommunity(crawford andkaufman,2008;farr,2005;jayasree,2004;kara,2009;kempadooanddoezema, 1998).However,forthosewhowereremovedfromtheiroriginalcommunities counselorsoftensuggestthataperiodofrecoverybasedonindividualneedprecede reintegrationintosociety(chatterjeeetal,2006). SheltersversusDrop incenters Manywomenandchildrenrecoveringfromthesextraderequiretemporary housing.suchindividualsweremorethanlikelytraffickedintothesextradeandare unabletoreturntotheircommunitiesduetodistance,dangerfromcriminalnetworks, orcommunityrejection.recoveringsexslavesmayalsorequireextensivepsychological counselingandlong termcare(chatterjeeetal,2006;crawfordandkaufman,2008). Otherwomenandchildrenenteredthesextradeneartheirownhomesandtherefore requirelocalfacilitiesinwhichtheycanaccessservices.someoftheseindividualsmay alsoremainactiveintheindustryandseekservicestoimprovetheirexperiencessuchas condomdistribution,safe sextraining,healthclinics,sleepingandbathingfacilities, childcare,andsecurity(jayasree,2004). Counseling Becauseoftheextensivepsychologicalandbehavioraleffectsarisingfrom involvementinthesextrade,counselingservicesareimperative.fewnongovernmental organizationsareabletoemploystaffcounselorsoftheirown.instead,recoverycenters 10

11 LeahWickham oftenpartnerwithprivatecarefacilitiesandpublicsocialworkersinordertooffer counselingservices.increasingnumbersofngosarerecognizingtheimportanceof providingcounselorswithpreviousexperiencesofviolenceandexploitationaswellas thesameethnicandculturalbackgroundofsurvivors.individualsparticipatingin counselingarebetterabletoidentifywithsomeonewhohasundergonesimilar experiencesorsufferedsimilarethnicorculturaldiscrimination.additionally,group therapysessionsandfamilyintegrationarealsoincreasinglyincorporatedinto counselingprograms(chatterjeeetal,2006;kempadooanddoezema,1998;robinson andpáramo,2007).overall,counselingservicesaredevelopedtoaccommodateeach individualasappropriate. MedicalCare Mostsheltersordrop incentersareonlycapableofprovidingbasichealth servicessuchasnutrition,hygiene,andprimarycare.similartocounselingservices, medicalcareisprovidedlargelybyprivateorpublichealthcareproviders.doctorsor nursesperiodicallyvisitrehabilitationcentersorindividualsmustbetakentoclinicsor hospitals(chatterjeeetal,2006;theministryofwomenandchilddevelopmentof India). EducationandEmployment Theincorporationofwomenandchildrenintothesextradeisoftenattributed toalackofeducationalandeconomicopportunities.thus,educationandemployment playalargeroleintheirrehabilitationandreintegration.becauseeachcommunityhas uniqueculturesandindustries,educationandemploymenttrainingmustbelocally applicable.forexample,anorganizationinnepalfocusesonprovidingeducationand skillssuchasdriving,hotelcooking,communityheath,andmicro creditopportunities (CrawfordandKaufman,2008).AlocalorganizationinIndiacalledShaktiSamuha providesvocationaltrainingtopreparewomenforelectricalwork,rolesinbeautysalons andofficeworkthengoalsoprovidesloanstosupportsmallbusinessessuchasgoatrearing,astationeryshopandagroceryshop(shaktisamuha,2007).becausemany womenandchildrenwereoftendeniedaccesstoschoolandeducationalopportunities, itisimportantforthemtolearntoreadandwrite.rehabilitationcentersseekto provideliteracyprograms. Empowerment Whiletherehabilitationandreintegrationprocessdependonavarietyof services,developingincreasedself esteemandasenseofself empowermentamong recoveringwomenisperceivedasthemostimportantelementforrecoveryfrom 11

12 LeahWickham violenceandexploitation,especiallysexualabuse(crawfordandkaufman,2008; Jayasree,2004;Kara,2009;KempadooandDoezema,1998;ShaktiSamuha,2007).As mentionedabove,affectedindividualsinvolvedinthesextradedevelopadistorted perceptionofthemselvesassexobjectswiththeironlyskilltopleasemen. Empowermentprogramsenablewomenandchildrentorecognizethesourcesoftheir lowself esteemandtoconstructamorepositiveidentity.robinsonandpáramo(2007) refertothisprocessascognitiverestructuring whichenablestheidentificationand alterationofabuse distortedthoughts,beliefsandassumptions bygentlychallenging abuse distortedviewsofoneselfandofothers,aswellasofone sfutureandthe world. Empowermentprogramsoftenincludeleadershiptraining,education, employmentskills,andlegalsupport(crawfordandkaufman,2008).inaddition,some organizationsusearttherapyasameansofemotionalandeconomicempowerment. Forexample,FAIRFund,anonprofitorganizationfocusedontheempowermentof younggirlsrecoveringfromgenderviolence,hasimplementedaprogramtitled JewelGirlsinwhichsurvivorsofsextraffickingmakeandselljewelry.Thesegirlsreporta senseofself worthintheirabilitytocreatesomethingthatotherswanttopurchase (FAIRFund).Manyprogramshavealsofoundwhensurvivorsofviolenceand exploitationassistothersurvivorsintheirrecoverytheydevelopalargersenseof purposeintheirownlives.mentorshipsandpeereducationbythosewhohave experiencedsimilarsituationsalsoenablewomenandchildrentoenvisionafuture withoutviolenceandexploitation(chatterjeeetal,2006;crawfordandkaufman,2008; Jayasree,2004;Ploumen,2001). Reintegration Ultimately,sheltersanddrop incentersforindividualsrecoveringfrom involvementinthesextradeseektoreintegratetheirclientsintosociety,preferablyin theirhomecommunities.however,reintegrationisoftenoneofthegreatestchallenges forindividualsbecauseofthestigmaattachedtothesextraderegardlessofhowthey wereinvolved.withoutthesupportoftheirfamiliesorthepossibilityofmarriage,many womenandchildrenrequiremarketableskillstobeself sufficient,alargechallengein economicallypoorareas.nonetheless,despitethedifficultiesinherentinreintegration, manyngosreportthatsuccessfulstrategiesincludefamilyvisitsduringrehabilitation, gradualreintroductionintothecommunity,jobtraining,andseedmoneytoestablisha self sufficientlivelihood(chatterjeeetal,2006;crawfordandkaufman,2008). Mostaidorganizationsadvocatethattherecoveryprocessnotendonce reintegrationintosocietyhasbeenachieved.womenandchildrenrecoveringfromthe sextradeneedconsistentandreliableaccesstocounseling,medicalcare,andtraining. Mostimportantly,theycontinuouslyneedtofeelempoweredinordertoconfrontthe manyobstaclestheywillencounter.inotherwords,therehabilitationprocessshould continuefarintothefutureandpotentiallymayneverend. 12

13 LeahWickham ObstaclesConfrontingRehabilitationandReintegrationProgramsandStrategies Therearemanychallengesindevelopingeffectiverehabilitationand reintegrationprogramsforwomenandchildrenrecoveringfromthesextrade.in additiontothecomplexphysicalandpsychologicalobstaclesconfrontingsurvivors, thereareseveralpolitical,economicandinstitutionalobstacleshinderingprograms designedtoassistthem. LackofSensitivitytoandUnderstandingoftheSexTrade Thecomplexitiesofthesextradeareoftenreducedtospecificconcernssuchas migration,prostitution,globaleconomics,internationalpolitics,orindividualcultures. Eachofthesefactorsuniquelyshapesthesextrade,butinordertounderstandhowand whywomenandchildrenareincorporatedintoit,itisimperativetoanalyzethesex tradeholistically. Ineverycountry,manygovernmentandlawenforcementofficials,service providers,andcitizensremaininsensitivetothechallengesandobstaclesfacingwomen andchildreninthesextrade.theirsituationsarebothoversimplifiedandjudgedby peoplewhodonotunderstandtheircomplexcircumstances.often,sextrafficking victimsareviewedasnaïveorstupid.justasoften,sexworkersareperceivedas immoralanddirty.inordertoprovideeffectiverehabilitationandreintegration programsforbothsexslavesandsexworkers,itisnecessaryforgovernmental representativestounderstandandempathizebetterwiththeirsituations. Often,beforegovernmentsorinternationalorganizationsprovidefundingor legalsupportforsextraffickingsurvivors,stipulationstotestifyagainsttheirtraffickers arerequired.however,duetothreatsagainstthemselvesandtheirfamiliesaswellas humiliationandtraumafromtheirexperiences,survivorsoftenrefusetotestify.inthe endinthesescenarios,survivorsaredeniedassistanceandareforcedtoreturnhome withoutrehabilitationorreintegrationassistance(kara,2009).governmentand internationalorganizationpoliciesdonotaccountforexternalfactorsthatmaybe influencingsurvivor sdecisions. Additionally,manygovernment spoliciesattributeincorporationintothesex trade,assexslavesorsexworkers,tolackofeconomicopportunities.therefore, educationalandskillstrainingisoftenpromotedasthebestwaytorehabilitateand reintegratewomenandchildrenbackintosociety.whileeconomicstabilityisan importantdimensioninfluencingbothparticipationinandrehabilitationfromthesex trade,itisbynomeanstheonlyfactoratplay.often,governments,international organizations,andcommunitiesoverlooktheneedtoaddressthephysical, psychological,andbehavioralrepercussionsofviolenceandexploitationexperiencedby 13

14 LeahWickham womenandchildrenbothbeforeandduringthesextrade.nevertheless,thesourceof andsolutiontowomenandchildren sinvolvementinthesextradecontinuestobe focusedontheeconomy. Funding Whiletherearemanyorganizationsseekingtohelpthoseexploitedbythesex trade,therearefewergroupsprovidingrehabilitationandreintegrationservicesfor womenandchildrenwhohavebeenrescuedorarefightingtogetoutofthesextrade. Asmentionedabove,themajorityoforganizationsandcentersprovidingservicesto previoussexslavesandsexworkersaresmall,autonomouswomen sgroups.itis difficultfortheseorganizationstoobtainandsecurefundingforseveralreasons.first, manyoftheseorganizationsandcentersareunawareofpotentialfunding opportunities.however,whenpossiblefundingislocated,largegrant makingbodies oftenarenotwellequippedtodealwithsmallgrantsrequestedforgrassrootsprojects (Ploumen,2001).Also,grantsandotherformsofdonationsarerarelygivenwithout extensiveapplications,auditedfinancialreports,visitstoorfromthedonor andother requirementsthatthesecentersareunabletoprovideduetotimeandresource constraints(kara,2009).finally,rehabilitationandreintegrationprogramsareoften viewedbydonororganizationsasriskyandpoliticallyandsociallysensitive(ploumen, 2001).Whengovernmentsandinternationalorganizationsdoprovidefundingfor rehabilitationandreintegrationprograms,itoftencomeswithextensivereporting requirements.moreover,thistypeoffundingisalsohighlypoliticalandunreliable. Fundingorganizationsoftenoverlookoutreachinterventionasanimportant dimensionofrehabilitationstrategies.inordertolocatevictimsofsextraffickingand buildrelationshipswithsexworkers,manyserviceorganizationsmustengagein outreachinterventionbeforerehabilitationandreintegrationprogramscanevenbegin (KempadooandDoezema,1998).Also,sincemanywomenandchildrenreturntothe sextradeinthemidstofrehabilitationorafterreintegration,serviceorganizationsmust continuetoreachouttothemwhentheirservicesareneededagain(robinsonand Páramo,2007). ServiceCoordination Oneoftheprimaryobstaclesfacingrehabilitationandreintegrationstrategiesis servicecoordination.recoverycentersrelyheavilyongovernmentsandinternational organizationsforfinancialandlegalsupport,foradditionalfinancialassistance,public andprivatefacilitiesformedicalandpsychologicalcare,andcommunitiesfor reintegrationsupport.withoutstrongexternalsupportandtheservicessuchimplies,it isdifficulttoprovidereliable,long term,andeffectivecare.additionally,duetothe limitedresourcesavailabletoeachserviceprovider,dedicationanddevelopmentof personalrelationshipsisdifficulttoachieve(fairfund). 14

15 LeahWickham 15 Long termcommitments Rehabilitationandreintegrationrequireslong termcommitmentsfrom participants,serviceproviders,anddonororganizations.however,withfrequent returns/relapsetothesextradeand/orlackofreliablefunding,providinglong termcare canbechallenging(fairfund;robinsonandpáramo,2007).also,itisdifficultfor survivorsoftheindustrytoconfronttheirexperiencesandundertakeintensecounseling toovercomethem.underthesecircumstances,serviceprovidersanddonor organizationsareoftenunabletoprovidethetimeandfinancialresourcesnecessaryto achievesuccessfulrehabilitationoutcomes. OutcomeAssessment Similartomanyprogramsandstrategiesaimedatindividualandsocietalchange, evaluationandassessmentoftherehabilitationandreintegrationofthoserecovering fromthesextraderemaininadequate.someanalysesreporttheneedformore systematicdiagnosis,recordkeeping,andoutcomestudies (CrawfordandKaufman, 2008).Others,however,emphasizethecontextualandpersonalexperiencesofwomen andchildreninvolvedinthesextrade.thus,thesegroupsadvocateforimproved assessmentofrecoveryservicesbasedontheneedsexpressedbyindividuals themselves,arguingthattheyknowbetterthananyonewhattheyneed(ploumen, 2001). ResistancetoRehabilitationandReintegration Despitetheultimategoalofrehabilitationandreintegration,itisimportantto recognizethedangertoandresistanceofwomenandchildrenwhohavebeen incorporatedintothesextrade.returningtotheircommunitiesmaycondemnsextrade workersandtheirfamiliestoseverepoverty,communityrejection,orevendeath(kara, 2009).Somewhohaveattemptedrehabilitationhaveencounteredfacilitieswerewith poorlivingstandardscomparabletoprison.womenandchildrenoftenfeltstrippedof theiragencyandisolatedfromtheirchildrenand/orsociety.manyalsoreported accountsofdiscriminationandprejudicefromserviceproviders(chatterjeeetal,2006; CrawfordandKaufman,2008;Jayasree,2004).Inaddition,sexworkersoftenexpress feelingsofoppressionbyrehabilitationcentersthroughmoralcondemnationoftheir involvementinthesextrade(jayasree,2004;kempadooanddoezema,1998).inthe end,aidorganizationsreportnumerousdecisionsbybothsexslavesandsexworkersto rejectrehabilitationandreintegrationandinsteadremaininthesextrade(jayasree, 2004;RobinsonandPáramo,2007).Despitetheexperiencesofviolenceand exploitation,somewomenandchildrenviewthesextradeastheonlymeansofsurvival forthemselvesandtheirfamilies(kara,2009). AnalysisofRehabilitationandReintegrationStrategiesandRecommendations

16 LeahWickham Intheend,thebestwaytocombattheobstaclesconfrontingtherehabilitation andreintegrationofsexslavesandsexworkersisbyconsultingthewomenandchildren themselves.forexample,sextraffickingsurvivorssupportedbyshaktisamuhainnepal performstreettheaterasawayofinteractingwithfamilies,communities,andborder policeinordertoraiseawarenessandchallengesocietalnormssurroundingthesex trade(ploumen,2001).additionally, theremustbeconstantcollaborationwith[victims ofsextrafficking]andsexworkers,inwhichaspaceiscreatedtoallowthemtodefine theirownneedsandpriorities,tocreatetheirownmaterialsandactivities,andtomake theirowndemands (KempadooandDoezema,1998).Theymustalsobeinvolvedinthe implementationofprogramsandmentorshipofothersextraffickingvictimsandsex workers(ploumen,2001). Localwomen sngosthatworkalongsidesexslavesandsexworkershavethe mostpromisingopportunitiestoengagewiththewomenandchildrenincorporatedinto thesextrade.theseorganizationshavethecapacitytobuildrelationshipswith individualsandtailortheirprogramstomeeteachperson sspecificneeds.aslocal organizations,theyalsoknowhowtonavigatepolitical,cultural,andeconomic challengessurroundingthesextradeinordertochangeattitudesandshiftpolicies. Moreover,directfundingtolocalNGOsmaybreakimperialisticrelationshipsbetween WesterncountriesandtheThirdWorld(Ploumen,2001). However,whilethemostsuccessfulrehabilitationandreintegrationprograms arethosedevelopedandimplementedbylocalwomen sngos,theinvolvementof otherinterestedactorsisimperative.successfulrecoverymustincludecoordinationby governments,internationalorganizations,ngos,localagencies,surrounding communities,andfamilies(crawfordandkaufman,2008).forexample,anngoin KolkatacalledDurbarMahilaSamanwayaCommitteefounditnecessarytobuild partnershipswithlocalandnationalgovernmentalorganizationssuchasthe DepartmentofHealthandsocialwelfareofficesandpublic/privateactorssuchas doctors,lawyers,counselors,andthepoliceforceinordertoprovideafullrangeof servicesforwomenandchildreninrecovery(gayen,2006). Byincorporatingtheinvolvementofwomenandchildrenrecoveringfromthe sextradeanddevelopingadedicatednetworkofserviceproviders,long term commitmenttotherehabilitationandreintegrationofsexslavesandsexworkersis possible.furthermore,outcomeassessmentismoreattainablewithincreasedpersonal involvementinthelivesofindividuals.tampep,theeuropeannetworkforhiv/sti PreventionandHealthPromotionamongMigrantSexWorkers 13 usesamethodof outcomeassessmentbasedonparticipationandcollaborationwithindividualsin rehabilitationandreintegrationprograms.programsandstrategiesareexamined througha continuousprocessofinvestigation,productionofmaterial,implementation, 13 See their website at 16

17 LeahWickham andevaluation inordertodeveloprecoverystrategiestailoredtoindividualsneeds (KempadooandDoezema,1998). Increasedinvolvementanddedicationbyallactorsfocusedontherecoveryof sexslavesandsexworkers,canimproveprograminterventionsandstrategiesdesigned toaddressthephysical,psychological,behavioral,social,andeconomicneedsofthose involvedintheindustry.allorganizationsworkingwithwomenandchildrenrecovering fromthesextraderecommendavariationofthefollowingservices:acentrallocation forsupport;properhealthcare;psychologicalcare;counselingandtherapy;vocational andjobtraining;andliteracyeducation(crawfordandkaufman,2008;farr,2005; Jayasree,2004;Kara,2009;KempadooandDoezema,1998).Inaddition,themost successfulprogramshaveexhibitedthefollowingcharacteristics:maintenanceof confidentiality;eliminationofstigmatizationanddiscriminationbyserviceproviders; andfrequentcontactswithfamilies(chatterjeeetal,2006). Conclusion Thesextradeisamulti billiondollarindustrysustainedbyconsistentdemand forsexualservicesprovidedbycountlesswomenandchildrensufferingfrompoverty, genderandethnicdiscrimination,andsocial,politicalandeconomicinstability.itis unclearhowmanywomenandchildrenareinvolvedinthesextrade.however,itis clearthatsexslavesandsexworkersfrequentlyendureviolenceandexploitationby theirclients,employers,pimps,police,andfamilies. Small,autonomouswomen sngoshavedevelopedsuccessfulstrategiestohelp womenandchildrenwhowishtoescapeandrecoverfromthesextrade.rehabilitation andreintegrationprogramssimultaneouslyaddressthephysical,psychological, behavioral,social,andeconomicissuesencounteredbytheseindividuals.allsurvivors requireacentrallocationforsupport,counseling,educationandskillstraining,medical services,andasupportivecommunity.programsarebestimplementedbyorganizations operatinginthesamecountriesassexslavesandsexworkersinordertoensurecultural sensitivity.however,withrelianceonnumerousexternalresources,successfulrecovery programsmustalsoassureservicecoordinationbygovernments,international organizations,otherngos,localagencies,surroundingcommunities,andfamilies. Severalpolitical,economicandinstitutionalobstacleshinderprogramsdesigned toassistwomenandchildrenrecoveringfromthesextrade.often,anarrowanalysisof theindustrymasksthereasonswhywomenandchildrenbecameinvolvedinitand thereforemakesitmoredifficulttocreatestrategiesbywhichtheymayberehabilitated andreintegratedintosociety.governmentsandinternationalorganizations overwhelminglystipulateveryspecificconditionsfortheprovisionofservices.funding isalsohighlypoliticalandunreliable.additionally,withtheneedforservice 17

18 LeahWickham coordinationandlong termcommitmentbyallactorsinvolved,rehabilitationand reintegrationprogramsaredifficulttomaintainandassess. Ultimately,therehabilitationandreintegrationofwomenandchildren recoveringfromthesextradeisalongandchallengingprocess.manywomenand childrenrelyonassistancetoescapeandrecoverfromtheviolenceandexploitation theyhaveendured.however,despitetheirabusiveexperiences,somewomenand childrenviewthesextradeastheonlymeansofsurvivalforthemselvesandtheir families.therefore,whiletherehabilitationandreintegrationofsexslavesandsex workersisimperative,governments,internationalorganizations,andngosmustalso continuetoeradicatetheviolentandexploitivenatureofthesextradeitself. 18

19 LeahWickham References (2009,January22).Mozambique:GovernmentRepatriatesZimbabweSexWorkers. RetrievedfromPlusNewswebsite: ABCPrimetime.(2006,February9).TeenGirls'StoriesofSexTraffickinginU.S. RetrievedfromABCNewswebsite: Agustín,L.(2001).SexWorkersandViolenceAgainstWomen:Utopicvisionsorbattleof thesexes?development,44(3), Bertone,A.M.(2004).TransnationalActivismtoCombatTraffickinginPersons.The BrownJournalofWorldAffairs,X(2),9 21. Bilefsky,D.(2008,December8).World soldestprofession,too,feelscrisis. InternationalHeraldTribune.Retrievedfrom Brants,C.(1998).TheFineArtofRegulatedTolerance:ProstitutioninAmsterdam. JournalofLawandSociety,25(4), Brennan,D.(2004).What'sLoveGottoDowithIt?:TransnationalDesiresandSex TourismintheDominicanRepublic.NorthCarolina:DukeUniversityPress. Brown,D.L.(2008,October9).Call+Response RaisesaVoiceAgainstHuman Trafficking.TheWashingtonPost,pp.1C,11C. Bykowicz,J.(2008,October25).Officialssayraidonsuspectedbrothelexposeshuman traffickingfrommexico.baltimoresuntimes.retrievedfrom md.trafficking25oct25,0, story Chatterjee,P.andChakraborty,T.,Srivastava,N.,Deb,S.(2006).ShortandLong Term ProblemsFacedbytheTraffickedChildren:AQualitativeStudy.SocialScience International,22(1), Chew,L.AddressingTraffickingofPersonsintheHumanRightsFramework.Retrieved fromwomen sfundingnetworkwebsite:http://www.wfnet.org/resource/pastarticles/addressing trafficking of persons in the human rights framework Contreras,J.(2001,April30).TheDarkTourists.NewsweekInternational,30,20. Retrievedfromhttp://www.newsweek.com/id/

20 LeahWickham Crawford,M.andKaufman,M.R.(2008).SexTraffickinginNepal:Survivor CharacteristicsandLong TermOutcomes.ViolenceAgainstWomen,14(8), Retrievedfromhttp://vaw.sagepub.com.ezproxy.lib.vt.edu:8080/cgi/reprint/14/8/905 DeHart,D.D.(2008).PathwaystoPrison:ImpactofVictimizationintheLivesof IncarceratedWomen.ViolenceAgainstWomen,14(2), Retrievedfrom Dewey,S.(2008)HollowBodies;InstitutionalResponsetoSexTraffickinginArmenia, Bosnia,andIndia.KumarianPress. FAIRFund,(n.d.)HumanTrafficking.Retrievedfrom Farr,K.(2005).SexTrafficking:TheGlobalMarketinWomenandChildren.NewYork: WorthPublishers. Gayen,S.(2006).InnovativeApproachestoCombatTraffickingofWomeninSexTrade bydurbarmahilasamanwayacommittee(kolkata).interasiaculturalstudies,7(2). Retrievedfrom &gid=19&itemid=198 GlobalAllianceAgainstTrafficinWomen.(n.d.)Retrievedfromhttp://www.gaatw.org/ GlobalFundforWomen(2008).HotTopic:Trafficking.Retrievedfrom topics/trafficking Gonzales,S.(2006).PovertyandSexTrafficking.RetrievedfromCaptiveDaughters website:http://www.captivedaughters.org/gatesfoundation.htm Jayasree,A.(2004).SearchingforJusticeforBodyandSelfinaCoerciveEnvironment: SexWorkinKerala,India.ReproductiveHealthMatters,12(23),58 67.Retrievedfrom pdf&cookieset=1 Kara,S.(2009).SexTrafficking:InsidetheBusinessofModernSlavery.NewYork: ColumbiaUniversityPress. Kempadoo.K.andDoezema,J.(Eds.)(1998).GlobalSexWorkers:Rights,Resistance,and Redefinition.NewYork:Routledge. Kristof,N.D.(2008,December31).TheEvilBehindtheSmiles.NewYorkTimes. Retrievedfromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/01/opinion/01kristof.html?_r=2&hp 20

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