2 Foreign Exchange Options Option Markets and Terminology A American Options American Options are options that are exercisable for early value at any time during the term of the structure. American Options can be more expensive than the equivalent European-style option. Theoretically, the American Option will be more expensive when the Call currency interest rate is close to or exceeds the Put currency interest rate. Due to the interbank market trading European Options, the hedge risk on American Options will translate to a more expensive price compared to the equivalent European Option in most cases. At-the-Money (ATM) The following two terms are used in the market: ATM Spot. At-the-Money-Forward (ATMF). ATM Spot This is where the strike of the option is equal to the spot rate at which you hedge the option delta. ATM Forward (ATMF) This is where the strike of the option is equal to the outright forward rate at which you hedge the option delta. Options referred to as ATM are normally ATMF.
3 B Barrier Date The Barrier Date is the date on which the barrier(s) of a partial barrier option commence or cease to exist. Barrier Options The existence of Barrier Options are dependant on predetermined market events occurring or not occurring during the term (or portion of the term) of the option. Break-Even Rate The Break-Even Rate is the rate in the market at which, after taking into account any premium costs, the owner s profit and loss on the option is net zero compared to market. C Call A Call gives the owner the right, but not the obligation, to buy (Call in) the specified currency at a predetermined rate and at a predetermined time in the future. A Call will oblige the seller to potentially sell the specified currency at a predetermined rate and at a predetermined time in the future. Consistent Pricing The prices of Vanilla Options with a delta lower than 50 will be less sensitive to volatility. If the same volatility spread is used for a 50 delta option and an Out-of-the-Money (OTM) option, the price spread on the low delta option will be reduced (all other factors remaining the same). The interbank market works on consistent FX points pricing spread, rather than consistent volatility spread pricing. This ensures that the spread of the price, rather than the volatility spread, remains consistent. As a consequence, the volatility spread for low delta options will be wider than the volatility spread quoted on ATM options.
4 Correlation Correlation refers to the association between two currencies. It is the degree of certainty with which the move in one currency can be predicted as a result of a change in the other. Correlation is also the expected ratio of the moves between two currencies, divided by their corresponding volatility. Correlation Options Correlation Options are options in which the hedge amount or rate is dependent on the correlation between two or more assets during the term of the strategy. In general, Correlation Options are unpopular in the corporate market, and are usually not offered by the Global Options desk. Cut Time At the outset of the contract, a Cut Time is agreed between the counter-parties. The Cut Time is the time on the expiry date after which the option ceases to exist. It is at this time that the owner of European Options nominates whether the option will be exercised or lapsed. The Cut Time is also the last opportunity for the owner of American Options to exercise. After the expiry time on the expiry date, the option ceases to exist. Normal market cut times include 3pm Tokyo, 10am New York, 3pm Sydney and 3pm Wellington. D Definition (Vanilla Option) A Vanilla Option is a contract that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to exchange one currency for another at a predetermined rate and at a predetermined time in the future for a nominated amount. Delivery An option will have a nominated delivery date. The delivery date is the date on which the exchange of Face Values on any Vanilla Options or Barrier Options occurs between the counterparties. The delivery day is the day on which the payout due on a European digital option will be paid to the owner. The payout on an American (instantaneous) digital is due two days after the trigger event occurs.
5 Delivery Dates Calculation One Week The one-week run will always be seven days from today to the expiry date (i.e. a one-week option written on a Tuesday will expire on a Tuesday). Delivery date of the one-week option will be two business days after the expiry date. Month or Year Runs Delivery dates for straight-month runs are based on calendar dates, rather than a fixed number of days. The delivery date of a straight-month run will be the same as the value date of the corresponding forward. The delivery date of any option must not be a holiday in the currencies major financial centres or in the US. If there is a holiday on the delivery date, the delivery date automatically moves to the next clear business day. If spot is the last business day of the month, the delivery date for the month run will also be on the last business day of the straight-month run. Calculating Straight-Month Delivery Dates Deal date 22/02/2000 Spot date 24/02/2000 One month delivery date 24/03/2000 (29 days) Deal date 03/03/2000 Spot date 07/03/2000 One month delivery date 07/04/2000 (31 days) For more information, see Straight Dates. Delta The delta of an option describes its premium s sensitivity to changes in the price of the underlying. An option s delta will be the amount of the underlying asset necessary to hedge changes in the option price for small movements in the underlying. An ATM Vanilla Option will have a delta of 50%. The delta falls for OTM Vanilla and increases for In-the-Money (ITM) Vanilla Options. The change as the option moves ITM to OTM is non-linear. In addition, the change in delta will be most rapid when the option is close to the money.
6 Delta Hedging An option is said to be Delta Hedge if a position has been taken out in the underlying asset (currency) in proportion to its delta. This Delta Hedge can cover the spot market, or the spot and forward position. In general, you will only be required to hedge the Spot Delta. With longer dated options or options on illiquid currencies, you may be required to hedge the Forward Delta. Spot Delta Spot Delta is the sensitivity of an option s premium to changes in the spot market. Forward Delta Forward Delta is the sensitivity of an option s premium to changes in the forward market. Derivative Instrument A Derivative Instrument is any instrument whose performance is based on (or derived from) the behaviour of the price of an underlying asset. In the case of a currency derivative, the underlying is usually taken to mean the outright forward. Digital Options Digital Options are options that give the owner a payout dependant on certain market(s) occurring or not occurring during the term of the contract. Unlike Vanilla Options and Barrier Options, no exchange of Face Value occurs. E Effective Rate Effective Rate is the rate the owner of the option achieves, once premium costs have been taken into account. European Options European Options are options that are exercisable at expiry. However, the option can be sold back prior to expiry to receive a premium, and alternative physical cover taken in its place. European Options are traded in the OTC interbank market.
7 Expiry An option has an expiry date that is nominated at the outset of the option. The expiry date is the day after which the option ceases to exist. The owner of a European Option (and American Option that has not been exercised prior to this date) will nominate whether the option will be exercised or lapsed on this day. Expiry Date Calculation Expiry dates are calculated from the Delivery Dates Calculation. The delivery date of an option will generally be the same as the value date for a forward for the same period. One Week The one-week run will always be seven days from today to the expiry date (i.e. a one-week option written on a Tuesday will expire on a Tuesday). Month or Year Runs Delivery dates for straight-month runs are based on calendar dates, rather than a fixed number of days. The delivery date of a straight-month run will be the same as the value date of the corresponding forward. The expiry date is then calculated from the delivery date by moving back two business days. Note: CAD options, like CAD spot, only have a one-day difference between the delivery and expiry dates (i.e. the expiry date is only one day back from the delivery date). Calculating Straight-Month Delivery and Expiry Dates for Non-CAD Options Deal date 22/02/2001 Spot date 24/02/2001 One month delivery date 24/03/2001 (29 days) Therefore: Expiry Date 22/03/2001 Deal date 03/03/2001 Spot date 07/03/2001 One month delivery date 07/04/2001 (31 days) Therefore: Expiry Date 05/04/2001 For more information, see Straight Dates.
8 Extrinsic Value Extrinsic Value is the time value of an option. This includes cost of carry and the probability that the option will be exercised. F Forward Delta Forward Delta is the sensitivity of an option s premium to changes in the forward market. FX Points Price Expression There are two ways that the price of the option can be expressed: The percentage of the Face Value. As an FX points cost. A EUR/USD option with a Face Value of 10mio EUR and a cost of 122FX points will cost 122,000 USD (i.e. 10mio EUR x.0122 = 122,000 USD). G Gamma Gamma is the rate of change in the delta of an option for a small change in the underlying asset. The rate of change is greatest when an option is close to the money. A long (positive) gamma position is one in which a trader is long Vanilla Options, while a short (negative) gamma position is one in which the trader is short Vanilla Options. H Historical (Actual) Volatility Historical Volatility is the degree of price movements of a currency in the past. It is defined as the annualised standard deviation of the natural log of the ratio between two successive prices, and represents the amount of variability of returns on a specified asset.
9 I Implied Volatility Implied Volatility is the volatility parameter derived from the option price. Option traders use the Black&Scholes pricing formula (and its derivatives) to derive volatility. Like a currency, Implied Volatility is a commodity that is traded by dealers and quoted on market screens. Implied Volatility Effect on Option Pricing The Implied Volatility level used will effect the price of a Vanilla Option. All other factors being equal, an option priced with a higher volatility price will be more expensive. 1) EUR Call Volatility of 9.50% 1.89%EUR (208 FX points). 2) EUR Call Volatility of 12.00% 2.39%EUR (262 FX points). This rule will hold true for Vanilla Options, but not for some exotic options that are negative vega. For example, Barrier Options with triggers that are ITM (with respect to the strike) will have negative vega. This is because an increase in volatility can not increase their maximum intrinsic value potential; however, it does increase the likelihood of the option being triggered while it has intrinsic value. In-the-Money (ITM) An option that is ITM will have intrinsic value, compared to the relative outright forward rate in the underlying asset. Options that are ITM are more expensive than options that are ATM. Intrinsic Value An option premium is comprised of the options intrinsic and extrinsic vale. The intrinsic value of an option is the amount it is ITM, as compared to the relative current forward market price for the underlying asset.
10 O Odd Date An Odd Date option is an option that expires on an irregular date (i.e. it expires on a day other than the straight one week, one month, two month dates). Optimal Options 1 Optimal Options are options that provide the buyer with an opportunity to lock in an exercise, against the most favourable rate or chosen rate seen in the market during the life of the option. 1 Optimal and Correlation Options are generally more expensive than Vanilla Options. Due to this expense, these options have proven unpopular in the corporate market, and are usually not offered by the Global Options desk. Out-of-the-Money (OTM) An option that is OTM will not have any intrinsic value compared to the relative outright forward rate in the underlying asset. Options that are OTM are less expensive than ATM options. P Percentage Price (Pricing Expression) There are two ways that the price of the option can be expressed: As a percentage of the Face Value. As an FX points cost. A EUR/USD option with a Face Value of 10mio EUR and a cost of 1.11% will cost 111,000 EUR. Pricing Expression There are two ways that the price of the option can be expressed: As a percentage of the Face Value. As an FX points cost.
11 Percentage A EUR/USD option with a Face Value of 10mio EUR and a cost of 1.11% will cost 111,000 EUR. FX Points A EUR/USD option with a Face Value of 10mio EUR and a cost of 122FX points will cost 122,000 USD (i.e. 10mio EUR x.0122 = 122,000 USD). Pricing Sensitivities of Vanilla Options The price of a Vanilla Option will be effected by three factors: The option strike and proximity to market. The Implied Volatility price used. The tenure of the option. Pricing Sensitivity Lower Price Higher Price Proximity to Market (Intrinsic Value) OTM ITM Volatility Low Volatility High Volatility Expiry Date (Extrinsic Value) Short Dated Long Dated Proximity to Market Effect on Option Pricing The strike of a Vanilla Option as compared to the market (spot and forward) will effect the price of the option. An option with a hedge strike that is ATMF will be more expensive than an option that has a hedge strike that is OTM. The more ITM the option, the more expensive the option will be (all other factors being equal). 1) EUR Call Strike ATMF (1.1050) 1.89% EUR (208 FX points). 2) EUR Call Strike OTM (1.1250) 1.14% EUR (125 FX points). Put A Put gives the owner the right, but not the obligation, to sell (Put in the market) the specified currency at a predetermined rate, and at a predetermined time in the future.
12 A Put will oblige the seller to potentially buy the specified currency at a predetermined rate, and at a predetermined time in the future. R Rho Rho is the measure of an option s sensitivity to a change in the counter (premium) currency interest rates. This will have impact on both the future price of the option and the time value of the premium. Its impact increases towards the maturity of the option. Risk Reversal Risk Reversal is a term used in the interbank market. Compared to ATM volatility, Risk Reversal is a price quoted to purchase a 25 delta Put and sell a 25 delta Call (or vice versa) for the same term and amounts. The Risk Reversal price represents the bias (see Volatility Skew) in the market for either Puts or Calls. Since both options are vega neutral at instigation, the directional bias in the market will be an important consideration. A Risk Reversal will be quoted as a bid/offer price. The price on a USD/JPY R/R may be 0/.3 JPY Puts. This would be quoted as flat at 0.3, JPY Puts. Here, the price is quoted in terms of JPY Puts, as JPY Puts are quoted at a premium in the market. So, the bid is where the bank buys JPY Puts, and the offer is where the bank sells JPY Puts. If JPY Calls were at a premium, the Risk Reversal price would be quoted in terms of JPY Calls (i.e. the bid of the Risk Reversal would represent where the market buys JPY Calls, while the offer would represent where the market sells JPY Calls). For example: The price on a USD/JPY R/R is 0/.3 JPY Puts. This price suggests that 25 delta JPY Puts will be bought (and simultaneously 25 delta JPY Calls sold) for the usual volatility spread. Whereas 25 delta JPY Puts will be sold (and simultaneously 25 delta JPY Calls bought) if the bank receives 0.3% of the volatility spread. This tells us that there is a bias in the market towards JPY Puts (i.e. a bank will only sell JPY Puts if it receives an additional 0.3% volatility spread).
13 If the bias for JPY Puts increases, the price may change to 0.2/0.5 JPY Puts, quoted as 0.2/0.5 JPY Puts. This price suggests that JPY Puts will be bought (and simultaneously JPY Calls sold) where the bank will pay away 0.2% of the usual volatility spread (i.e. the market is keen to buy JPY Puts). Whereas JPY Puts will be sold (and simultaneously JPY Calls bought) if the bank receives an additional 0.5% of the volatility spread. Although Risk Reversals are generally quoted at 25 delta in the interbank market, a price for any delta Risk Reversal can be obtained from your market maker. S Spot Delta Spot Delta is the sensitivity of an option s premium to changes in the spot market. Straight Date A Straight Date option is an option that expires on an even expiry date (i.e. on the day it is quoted, the Straight Day option matures in exactly seven days, one month, two months, and so on). Calculating Straight Date Expiry and Delivery Dates One Week The one-week run will always be seven days from today to the expiry date (i.e. a one-week option written on a Tuesday will expire on a Tuesday). The delivery date of the one-week option will be two business days after the expiry date. Month or Year Runs Delivery dates for straight-month runs is based on calendar dates, rather than a fixed number of days. The delivery date of a straight-month run will be the same as the value date of the corresponding forward. The expiry date is then calculated from the delivery date by moving back two business days. The delivery date of any option must not be a holiday in the currencies major financial centres or in the US. If there is a holiday on the delivery date, the delivery date automatically moves out to the next clear business day. If spot is the last business day of the month, the delivery date for
14 the month run will also be on the last business day of the straight-month run. Note: CAD options, like CAD spot, only have a one-day difference between the delivery and expiry dates (i.e. the expiry date is only one day back from the delivery date). Calculating Straight-Month Delivery and Expiry Dates Deal date 22/02/2000 Spot date 24/02/2000 One month delivery date 24/03/2000 (29 days) Therefore: Expiry Date 22/03/2000 Deal date 03/03/2000 Spot date 07/03/2000 One month delivery date 07/04/2000 (31 days) Therefore: Expiry Date 05/04/2000 Calculating straight-month delivery and expiry dates where there is a holiday on the delivery date in the currencies major financial centre or the US. Deal date 19/01/2000 Spot date 21/01/2000 US holiday 21/02/2000 One month delivery date 22/02/2000 Therefore: Expiry Date: 18/02/2000 Calculating straight-month delivery and expiry dates where the spot date is on the last business day of the month. Deal date 29/03/2000 Spot date 31/03/2000 One month delivery date 28/04/2000 Therefore: Expiry Date: 26/04/2000
15 Strike (K) The Strike is the hedge rate on any barrier or Vanilla Option. It is the rate against which the owner decides whether to exercise or lapse the option. Strike Risk Strike Risk occurs on or near the expiry date of an option. On the expiry date of an option, the option can be ITM, OTM or ATM. In theory, if the option is ITM, the option trader can totally hedge the option in the spot market. Therefore, at expiry, no additional position will result. The option hedge will offset the exercise. If the option is OTM, there will be no hedge and no exercise. If the option is ATM, on expiry date the hedge required on the option will change as the spot moves. The spot market before expiry time may move 20 points. As a consequence of the spot move, the option may shift from slightly ITM to slightly OTM. The resulting hedge required will change rapidly. This rapid change in the hedge required for an ATM option on expiry date is known as the Strike Risk. Smile See Volatility Smile. T Term Term is the length of time for which an option contract is written. In the case of Barrier Options, the option may not exist for any or part of this term. Term is a word that is normally used when the option has a straight date maturity. Term Effect on Option Pricing The tenure of a Vanilla Option will effect the price of an option. All other factors being equal, the longer the term of the option, the more expensive it will be.
16 1) EUR Call Three month term 1.89% EUR (208 FX points). 2) EUR Call One month term 1.10% EUR (122 FX points). Theta Theta (Time Decay) is the measure of the effect on the option price of a one-day decrease in time to expiration. The more the market and strike price diverge, the less effect Theta has on the option price. Non-linear, Theta s value decreases at a faster rate as the option gets closer to maturity. V Vanilla Options A Vanilla Option is a contract that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to exchange one currency for another at a predetermined rate, and at a predetermined time in the future for a nominated amount. The existence of the option contract is not dependent on any market events during the life of the option. In addition, the option has a nominated face value for which the two counter-parties will exchange in full on the delivery date. Vega Vega measures the change in an option s price caused by changes in volatility. Vega is at its highest when an option is ATM, and decreases as the strike and market prices diverge. Options closer to expiry have a lower Vega than those with more time to run. A long (positive) vega position will result when a Vanilla Option is purchased. This position will benefit from an increase in Implied Volatility levels, and if the position is delta hedged from actual volatility levels as well. Volatility Volatility is the amount of variability in the returns of a particular currency. There are two forms of volatility often referred to in the markets: Implied Volatility. Historical (Actual) Volatility. Implied Volatility Implied Volatility is the volatility parameter derived from the option price. Option traders use the Black&Scholes pricing formula (and its derivatives) to derive volatility. Implied Volatility is a
17 commodity, like a currency, that is traded by dealers and quoted on market screens. Historical (Actual) Volatility Historical Volatility is the degree of price movements of a currency in the past. It is defined as the annualised standard deviation of the natural log of the ratio between two successive prices, and represents the amount of variability of returns on a specified asset. Disparity Between Historical Volatility and Implied Volatility Disparity occurs when there is a mismatch between what was expected to occur and what actually occurred during a specified time period. Due to their differences, there will always be some disparity between actual levels of Historical Volatility and Implied Volatility. The former is the annualised standard deviation of the natural log of the ratio between two successive prices; the latter is a measure of future volatility (per annum) implied by the Black&Scholes pricing model. Volatility Skew Volatility Skew is the difference in Implied Volatility between OTM Call and Put. In general, there is a natural skew in the market towards Puts. As a currency depreciates, Implied Volatility will normally increase. Buying volatility when the spot market depreciates is therefore more expensive than buying it when the spot market is appreciating. Therefore, if the market is expecting depreciation in spot, it will want two things: Buy volatility (to sell back at higher level later). Buy Puts (to back the directional move in the spot market). Hence the natural skew towards Puts. The Volatility Skew in a market will also be dependent on: The directional bias of the market in the underlying asset. The bias caused by a forward curve. Volatility Smile Volatility Smile is the implied volatility of OTM options, as compared to ATM options. In most markets, the Implied Volatility of OTM volatility will be higher than the Implied Volatility for ATM options for the same period. Graphically, it looks like a smile hence the name.
18 IMPORTANT INFORMATION: DISCLAIMER ANZ Investment Bank makes no representation and gives no warranty as to the accuracy of the information contained in this document and does not accept any responsibility for any errors or inaccuracies in or omissions from this document (whether negligent or otherwise) and ANZ Investment Bank is not liable for any loss or damage however it arises as a result of any person acting or refraining from acting in reliance on any information contained in this document. No reader should rely on this document as it does not purport to be comprehensive or to render advice. This disclaimer does not purport to exclude any warranties implied by law which may not be lawfully excluded. ANZ Investment Bank is a business name of Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited ABN , which is a licensed securities dealer
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Margining Overview for London Stock Exchange Derivatives Market Equities Department: Risk Management Document Type: Guide Issue no.: 1.0 Issue Date: March 2012 Document History Date Version Author Summary
Answers to Concepts in Review 1. Puts and calls are negotiable options issued in bearer form that allow the holder to sell (put) or buy (call) a stipulated amount of a specific security/financial asset,
INSTRUCTOR S MANUAL: MULTINATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, 9 TH ED. CHAPTER 8 SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO CHAPTER 8 QUESTIONS. On April, the spot price of the British pound was $.86 and the price of the June futures
fx products Managing Currency Risks with Options John W. Labuszewski managing director Research and product development firstname.lastname@example.org cmegroup.com/fx This represents an overview of our currency options
RECOGNIA S Guide to Options Strategies A breakdown of key options strategies to help you better understand the characteristics and implications of each Recognia s Guide to Options Strategies 1 3 Buying
MODEL TEST PAPER COMMODITIES MARKET MODULE Q:1. Which of the following can be the underlying for a commodity derivative contract? (a) Interest Rate (b) Euro-Indian Rupee (c) Gold (d) NIFTY Q:2. Daily mark
FX Options OPTIONS DISCLOSURE For the sake of simplicity, the examples that follow do not take into consideration commissions and other transaction fees, tax considerations, or margin requirements, which
THE EQUITY OPTIONS STRATEGY GUIDE APRIL 2003 Table of Contents Introduction 2 Option Terms and Concepts 4 What is an Option? 4 Long 4 Short 4 Open 4 Close 5 Leverage and Risk 5 In-the-money, At-the-money,
Evolution of Forex the Active Trader s Market The practice of trading currencies online has increased threefold from 2002 to 2005, and the growth curve is expected to continue. Forex, an abbreviation for
F PTINS MRGIN MDEL SEPTEMER 2015, S NK F Expiry Margin Description (1/2) Calculation For a given currency pair the F Expiry Margin model calculates a potential maximum future loss in a given F option strategy
An introduction to the foreign exchange market Moorad Choudhry September 2002 The market in foreign exchange is an excellent example of a liquid, transparent and immediate global financial market. Rates
FOREIGN EXCHANGE BASICS TERMS USED IN FOREX TRADING: The foreign exchange market is global, and it is conducted over-the-counter (OTC) through the use of electronic trading platforms, or by telephone through
Introduction to Equity Derivatives on Nasdaq Dubai NOT TO BE DISTRIUTED TO THIRD PARTIES WITHOUT NASDAQ DUBAI S WRITTEN CONSENT CONTENTS An Exchange with Credentials (Page 3) Introduction to Derivatives»
Understanding Options Gamma to Boost Returns Maximizing Gamma The Optimum Options for Accelerated Growth Enhance Your Option Trading Returns by Maximizing Gamma Select the Optimum Options for Accelerated
Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited Important Facts Statement Currency Linked Deposits - Premium Deposits Currency Linked Deposits 13 April 2015 This is a structured investment product which is NOT protected
BELL FX PRODUCT DISCLOSURE STATEMENT. Incorporating Schedule of Fees Issued by: Bell Potter Securities Limited AFSL No. 243480 ABN 25 006 390 772 Issue Date: 22 July 2008 The information in this Product
International Journal of Economic and Management Strategy. ISSN 2278-3636 Volume 3, Number 1 (2013), pp. 1-6 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/jems.htm Hedging of Currency Option
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