Bibliografiska uppgifter för Pesticide monitoring at the catchment scale

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1 Bibliografiska uppgifter för Pesticide monitoring at the catchment scale Författare Adielsson S., Kreuger J. Utgivningsår 2006 Tidskrift/serie NJF Report Nr/avsnitt 5 Ingår i... Utgivare Huvudspråk Målgrupp NJF-Seminar 373. Transport and retention of pollutants fron different production systems Nordiska jordbruksforskares förening (NJF) Engelska Forskare Nummer (ISBN, ISSN) ISSN Denna skrift (rapport, artikel, examensarbete etc.) är hämtad från VäxtEko, databasen som samlar fulltexter om ekologisk odling, växtskydd och växtnäring. Utgivaren har upphovsrätten till verket och svarar för innehållet.

2 NJF373 Tartu 2006 (34 40) Pesticide monitoring at the catchment scale Stina Adielsson and Jenny Kreuger Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. Soil Sciences, PO Box 7014, SE Uppsala, Sweden. Abstract Environmental monitoring of pesticides in Sweden started in 2002 in its present form, financed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Surface water samples are collected in four small catchments (8 16 km 2 ) located in the main agricultural regions of Sweden. Water samples are weekly mean values and each sample is analysed for approximately 80 substances. The total concentration of pesticides varies between zero and a few micrograms per litre. A pesticide toxicity index was used to estimate the potential risk for aquatic organisms in the areas. In one of the catchments monitoring has been performed since 1990 thus enabling long-term evaluation of results. Work was carried out on explaining variations in pesticide leaching based on pesticide properties (DT 50, K oc, log P ow and S w ) using multiple linear regression. With loss rate (percent of applied amount) as a response variable, it was possible to find significant functions explaining up to 99% of the variability for individual years. The highest model efficiency found was The result implies that a large part of the long-term leaching could be explained by pesticide properties when the influence of point sources on pesticide transport in the stream had been eliminated (i.e. concentrations had been lowered by 90% without decreasing the amounts applied in the catchment). 1. Introduction Environmental monitoring of pesticides in Sweden started during the mid-80 as short term, research based, investigations of possible occurrence of pesticides in streams and rivers. Today it includes several monitoring sites with sampling in different matrixes such as surface water, ground water, sediments and precipitation. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is the authority responsible for the pesticide monitoring. The programme is performed by the Division of Water Quality Management, in collaboration with the Section of Organic Environmental Chemistry, at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU). The pesticide monitoring programme in Sweden aims to quantify and follow variations of pesticides in time and space, both regarding concentrations and transported amounts. Results from the monitoring programme was used in a statistical study investigating if pesticide properties was affecting the extent to which different substances leach to surface water. A similar study was made on monitoring data from (Kreuger & Törnquist, 1998).

3 2. Materials and methods Pesticide monitoring at the catchment scale 35 The monitoring programme on pesticides is manly focused in four intensive study areas (M42, N34, O18 and E21) (Figure 1). Beside these, two rivers (Vege å and Skivarpsån) and one site for precipitation sampling (Vavihill) is included. The intensive study areas are catchments ( ha) dominated by agriculture. Surface water samples are taken during the cropping season as weekly time-integrated samples, collected with automatic ISCO-samplers. Samples are analysed for approximately 80 substances. In the area M42 sampling started in 1990 and in the other areas in 2002, yearly reports are published (Kreuger, 1996; Kreuger, 1997; Kreuger & Hessel, 1998; Kreuger, 2000; Kreuger, 2002a; Kreuger, 2002b; Kreuger et al., 2003; Kreuger et al., 2004; Törnquist et al., 2005). Groundwater and sediments are also sampled within the areas. More information in Kreuger (1998). Figure 1. Location of sampling sites within the Swedish pesticide monitoring programme. Data from M42 (the Vemmenhög catchment) was used to calculate the yearly percentage loss rate (transported amounts divided to applied amounts) for Only pesticides used in amounts of at least three kilograms per season was included. The loss rate was compared to the intrinsic properties of the substance. The properties included were the sorption coefficient (k oc ), the degradation half-life (DT 50 ), water solubility (S w ) and the octanol-water partition coefficient (log P ow ). The analysis was performed with multiple linear regression using a stepwise procedure. A more detailed description is available in Adielsson (2005).

4 36 S. Adielsson, J. Kreuger 3. Results and Discussion The amount of pesticides found in the Vemmenhög catchment (M42) has decreased with 90% since the beginning of the sampling (Figure 2). The decrease is not explained by a decreasing pesticide usage (Figure 2), but rather of the mitigation efforts in early 1995 and the economic incentives introduced by the government and the industry in Farmers were educated and the awareness of risks related to pesticide use was improved. With these efforts point sources could be considerably decreased. Average concentration (µg/l) * Figure 2. Average total pesticide concentration (boars) in the Vemmenhög catchment in May- September (*only May-June) and sold amounts of the pesticides included in the analysis (line). How the other three catchments compare to the Vemmenhög catchment can be seen in Figure 3. The amounts vary somewhat over the year depending manly on how close after application in the field, there is a precipitation event. The total concentration per sample ranges from 0.02 µg/l to almost six micrograms per litre, normally the concentration is below two micrograms per litre Applied amount analysed (kg/ha)

5 Pesticide monitoring at the catchment scale 37 Total concentration of pesticides (µg/l) E21 M42 N34 O May 24- May 7- Jun 21- Jun 5- Jul 19- Jul 2- Aug 16- Aug 30- Aug 13- Sep 27- Sep 11- Oct 25- Oct 8- Nov 22- Nov 6- Dec Figure 3. Total concentration of pesticides per sample from the four monitoring areas In Sweden the Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate has developed water quality standards (WQS) for surface water for a number of pesticides (methods described in Asp et al., 2004). The WQS gives the maximum concentration of each pesticide that will not cause negative effects on aquatic organisms. Dividing measured concentrations for a substance with its WQS and summarizing for each sample or season results is an index describing potential toxicity (PTI = Pesticide Toxicity Index) (Asp & Kreuger, 2005). The index was calculated for the areas within the monitoring programme (Figure 4). Two of the areas seam to have a lower toxicity index than the others, but numbers vary somewhat over the years PTI M42 N34 E21 O18 Figure 4. Pesticide toxicity index for the areas within the Swedish monitoring programme

6 38 S. Adielsson, J. Kreuger Using multiple linear regression analysis to study the influence of intrinsic properties on pesticide losses to water, it was possible to find significant functions at P>0.05 for all years (Table 1). However for three of the years (1997, 1999 and 2001), the r 2 value were less than 45% and also with no consistency in parameter selection. For the years with high r 2 values; DT 50 and k oc are included in all the best functions. The quota of DT 50 and k oc is the variable that is chosen most often. The highest single r 2 value was found in 2002 where a function containing DT 50 /k oc and S w had an r 2 value of 99% (P<0.0001). Grouping the years, the best function explained 69% of the variation (P<0.0001). Using the functions to predict pesticide losses for other years, the highest model efficiency found was 0.56 using a function developed on grouped data from , predicting for In this case the data selection was slightly different, so that no pesticide with a zero loss was included but substances applied in all amounts were. The result implies that a large part of the long-term leaching could be explained by pesticide properties when the influence of point sources had been eliminated. The pesticide properties can only be expected to influence transport through the soil profile which is why it is important to reduce point sources before it is possible to find relations to pesticide properties. Table 1. Result from statistical analysis, with the variables that were included in the best possible functions, their significance level and rate of explanation Year Variables P r 2 r 2 ad # N 1997 S w * DT 50 /k oc, log P ow, GUS, log S w * DT 50 /k oc, log P ow, S w * DT 50 /k oc log k oc * k oc, log P ow, S w, log DT 50 * log S w * log P ow * DT 50 /k oc, S w * < DT 50 /k oc < DT 50, S w * DT 50 /k oc, DT 50 * DT 50 /k oc, S w DT 50 /k oc, log P ow * < DT 50 /k oc < # the rate of explanation adjusted for the number of variables included

7 Pesticide monitoring at the catchment scale Conclusions Based on data from long-term monitoring, it has been demonstrated that the transported amounts of pesticides have decreased by 90% due to counselling and political measures taken. The amount of pesticides in the area during the same period has been quite constant. Using multiple linear regression based on results from the same area it was possible to find significant functions explaining up to 99% of the variability for individual years, based on pesticide properties. The highest model efficiency was The result implies that a large part of the long term leaching could be explained by pesticide properties when the influence of point sources had been eliminated. References Adielsson, S Statistical and neural network analysis of pesticide loss to surface water in small agricultural catchments in Sweden. Emergo 2005:2, MSc thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept Soil Sciences, Div Environmental Physics. Asp, J., Kreuger, J. & Ulén, B Riktvärden för bekämpningsmedel i ytvatten. Hur tas riktvärden fram och hur tillämpas de internationellt? Hur förhåller sig svenska riktvärden till uppmätta halter i ytvatten? Förslag till hur de svenska värdena ska tillämpas. Ekohydrologi 82. Division of Water Quality Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. (In Swedish with English abstract) Asp, J. & Kreuger, J Riktvärdering av bekämpningsmedel i ytvatten. Utveckling och värdering av indikatorer baserade på riktvärden och miljöövervakningsdata. Ekohydrologi 88. Division of Water Quality Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. (In Swedish) Kreuger, J Pesticides in stream water within a small catchment in southern Sweden, Report from the Vemmenhög-project Technical report 32. Division of Water Quality Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. Kreuger, J Report from the Vemmenhög-project , Pesticide concentrations and transport in water from a small agricultural catchment in southern Sweden. Technical report 40. Division of Water Quality Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. Kreuger, J. & Hessel, K Report from the Vemmenhög-project 1997, Pesticide concentrations and transport in water from a small agricultural catchment in southern Sweden. Technical report 44. Division of Water Quality Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. Kreuger, J Pesticides in stream water within an agricultural catchment in southern Sweden, The Science of the Total Environment 216: Kreuger, J. & Törnqvist, L Multiple regression analysis of pesticide occurrence in streamflow related to pesticide properties and quantities applied. Chemosphere 37: Kreuger, J Övervakning av bekämpningsmedel i vatten från ett avrinningsområde i Skåne, Årsredovisning för Vemmenhögsprojektet 1998 samt en kortfattad långtidsöversikt. Ekohydrologi 54. Division of Water Quality Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. (In Swedish with English abstract)

8 40 S. Adielsson, J. Kreuger Kreuger, J. 2002a. Övervakning av bekämpningsmedel i vatten från ett avrinningsområde i Skåne, Rapport för Vemmenhögsprojektet Technical report 65. Division of Water Quality Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. (In Swedish) Kreuger, J. 2002b. Övervakning av bekämpningsmedel i vatten från ett avrinningsområde i Skåne, Årsredovisning för Vemmenhögsprojektet Ekohydrologi 69. Division of Water Quality Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. (In Swedish with English abstract) Kreuger, J., Holmberg, H., Kylin, H. & Ulén, B Bekämpningsmedel i vatten från typområden, åar och i nederbörd under 2002, Årsrapport till det nationella programmet för miljöövervakning av jordbruksmark, delprogram pesticider. Ekohydrologi 77/IMA Rapport 2003:12. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. (In Swedish) Kreuger, J., Törnquist, M. & Kylin, H Bekämpningsmedel i vatten och sediment från typområden och åar samt i nederbörd under Ekohydrologi 81/IMA Rapport 2004:18. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. (In Swedish) Törnquist, M., Kreuger, J., Adielsson, S. & Kylin, H Bekämpningsmedel i vatten och sediment från typområden och åar, samt i nederbörd under Ekohydrologi 87/IMA Rapport 2005:14. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. (In Swedish)

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