ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ COMPANION. Revised Edition

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1 ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ Level B2 COMPANION 6 Practice Tests Revised Edition

2 Practice Test 1 Module 1 Activity 1 Step 1 oversleep *Uv*/sli:p v If you oversleep, you sleep longer than you should have done. u I m really sorry I m late, Andrew. I forgot to set my alarm and I overslept. t ðáñáêïéìüìáé under the microscope /Vnd*(r) D* /maikr*sk*up If you say that sth is under the microscope, you mean that it is being studied very closely, usually because it is believed that sth is wrong with it. u The media put their every decision under the microscope. t õðü ó ïëáóôéêþ åîýôáóç science fiction /sai*ns /fiksn n Science fiction consists of stories in books, magazines, and films about events that take place in the future or in other parts of the universe. t åðéóôçìïíéêþ öáíôáóßá campaigner n A campaigner is a person who campaigns for social or political change. u Anti-hunting campaigners protested outside the city hall. t áõôüò ðïõ óõììåôý åé óå åêóôñáôåßá sleep on it sli:p On It phr If you are trying to make a decision and you say that you will sleep on it, you mean that you will delay making a decision until the following day, so you have time to think about it. u He said that he would sleep on it and answer me tomorrow. t èá ôï óêåöôþ, áíáâüëëù íá êüíù êüôé vague veig adj If sth written or spoken is vague, it does not explain or express things clearly. u The description was pretty vague. t áóáöþò desperate /desp*r*t adj An effort or a kind of behaviour that is desperate occurs as a final possible solution to a problem, when everything else has failed. u He made one last desperate attempt to bring her back. t áðåãíùóìýíïò tactic n Tactics are the methods that you choose to use in order to achieve what you want in a particular situation. u He pressed on in the hope that a few others would join him. The tactic paid off. t ôáêôéêþ get to grips with get t* grips wiq phr If you get to grips with a situation or a problem or if you come to grips with it, you consider it seriously, and start taking action to deal with it. u The government s first task is to get to grips with the economy. t áíôéìåôùðßæù v If you act on advice or information, you do what has been advised or suggested, you use the advice or information. u A patient will usually listen to the doctor s advice and act on it. t áêïëïõèþ óõìâïõëýò, ñçóéìïðïéþ ðëçñïöïñßåò consolidate k*n/solideit v If you consolidate sth that you have, for example power, knowledge or success, you strengthen it so that it becomes more effective or secure. u He has consolidated his position in the Government. t åäñáéþíù, åìðåäþíù deprivation depri/veisn n If you suffer deprivation, you do not have or are prevented from having sth that you want or need. u Millions of people suffer from serious sleep deprivation caused by long work hours. t óôýñçóç interfere Int*/fI*(r) v Sth that interferes with a situation, activity, or process has a damaging effect on it. u Drug problems frequently interfered with his work. t åðåìâáßíù, ðáñåìðïäßæù burn the midnight oil be:n D* midnait CIl phr If sb is burning the midnight oil, they are staying up very late in order to study or do some other work. u Chris is asleep after burning the midnight oil trying to finish his article. t îåíõ ôþ ìåëåôþíôáò wrestle /resl v When you wrestle with a difficult problem, you try to deal with it. u We re wrestling with an economical crisis. t ðáéäåýïìáé, ðáëåýù tricky /triki adj If you describe a task or problem as tricky, you mean that it is difficult to do or deal with. u It s a very tricky problem, but I think there are a number of things you can do. t ðåñßðëïêïò, åðéêßíäõíïò absorb *b/sc:b v If you absorb information, you learn and understand it. u Too often he only absorbs half the information in the manual. t áöïìïéþíù, áðïññïöþ cellular /selj*l*(r) adj Cellular means relating to the cells of humans, animals or plants. u Many toxic effects can be studied at the cellular level. t êõôôáñéêüò precise pri/sais adj You use precise to emphasize that you are referring to an exact thing, rather than sth vague. u We will never know the precise details of his death. t áêñéâþò sensitive /sens*tiv adj Sth that is sensitive to a physical force, substance, or treatment is easily affected by it and often harmed by it. u He works in a dark room because he uses a chemical which is sensitive to light. t åõáßóèçôïò, åõðáèþò deprive di/praiv v If you deprive sb of sth that they want or need, you take it away from them, or you prevent them from having it. u They ve been deprived of the fuel necessary to heat their homes. t óôåñþ crucial /kru:sl adj If you describe sth as crucial, you mean it is extremely important. u It is crucial for children to understand the implications of drugs to one s health. t êñßóéìïò, æùôéêüò lengthy /lenqi adj You use lengthy to describe an event or process which lasts for a long time. u Last night I had a lengthy meet- 42

3 ing with my boss. t ìáêñýò (óå äéüñêåéá), ðáñáôåôáìýíïò beneficial beni/fisl adj Sth that is beneficial helps people or improves their lives. u Using computers has a beneficial effect on children s learning. t ùöýëéìïò, åõåñãåôéêüò impair Im/pe*(r) v If sth impairs sth such as an ability or the way sth works, it damages it or makes it worse. u Drinking alcohol impairs your ability to drive a car or operate machinery. t öèåßñù, åîáóèåíþ orientation C:ri*n/teISn n Orientation is the ability to find your position in relation to your surroundings, to adapt to a new environment. u It is said that women s orientation in space is worse than men s. t ðñïóáíáôïëéóìüò recognition rek*g/nisn n Recognition is the act of recognizing sb or identifying sth when you see it. u He searched for a sign of recognition on her face, but there was none. t áíáãíþñéóç surroundings s*/raundinz n When you are describing the place where you are at the moment, or the place where you live, you can refer to it as your surroundings. u Schumacher adapted effortlessly to his new surroundings. t ðåñéâüëëïí electric shock I/lektrIk SOk n If you get an electric shock, you get a sudden painful feeling when you touch sth which is connected to a supply of electricity. t çëåêôñïóüê, çëåêôñïðëçîßá distinctive di/stinktiv adj Sth that is distinctive has a special quality or feature which makes it easily recognizable and different from other things of the same type. u His voice was very distinctive. t áñáêôçñéóôéêüò, åõäéüêñéôïò setting /setin n A particular setting is a particular place or type of surroundings where sth is or takes place. u The house is in a lovely setting in the Malvern hills. t ðåñßãõñïò, ðåñéâüëëïí generate /djen*reit v To generate sth means to cause it to begin and develop. u The Employment Minister said the reforms would generate new jobs. t ðáñüãù, äçìéïõñãþ location l*u/keisn n A location is the place where sth happens or is situated. u The first thing he looked at was his office s location. t ôïðïèåóßá, èýóç freeze fri:z v If sb who is moving freezes, they suddenly stop and become completely still and quiet, usually out of fear. u She froze when the beam of the flashlight struck her. t áêéíçôïðïéþ, -ïýìáé, êáèçëþíù, -ïìáé Activity 1 Step 2 pill pil n Pills are small solid round masses of medicine or vitamins that you swallow without chewing. u Why do I have to take all these pills? t Üðé Activity 2 Step 1 chop tsop v If you chop sth, you cut it into pieces with strong downward movements of a knife or an axe. u Chop the onions very finely. t ôåìá ßæù, êüâù teaspoon /ti:spu:n n A teaspoon is a small spoon that you use to put sugar into tea or coffee. You can refer to an amount of food resting on a teaspoon as a teaspoon of food. u He wants three teaspoons of sugar in his coffee. t êïõôáëüêé ôïõ ãëõêïý bring to the boil brin t* D* bcil phr When you bring a liquid to the boil, you heat it until it boils. When it comes to the boil, it begins to boil. u Put water and butter into a saucepan and bring slowly to the boil. t æåóôáßíù ìý ñé í áñ ßóåé íá âñüæåé simmer /sim*(r) v When you simmer food or when it simmers, you cook it by keeping it at boiling point or just below boiling point. u Turn the heat down so the sauce simmers gently. t óéãïâñüæù pan n A pan is a round metal container with a long handle, which is used for cooking things in, usually on top of a cooker or stove. u Heat the butter and the oil in a large pan. t êáôóáñüëá, ôçãüíé crusty /krvsti adj Crusty bread has a hard, crisp outside. u He prepared breakfast with a crusty French loaf of bread. t îåñïøçììýíïò thoroughly /QVr*li adv An action or activity that is done thoroughly is one that is done very carefully and in a detailed way so that nothing is forgotten. u Food that is being offered hot must be reheated thoroughly. t ìå åðéìýëåéá Activity 3 brochure /brous6(r) n A brochure is a magazine or thin book with pictures that gives you information about a product or service. u...travel brochures. t äéáöçìéóôéêü öõëëüäéï speech spi:ts n A speech is a formal talk, which someone gives to an audience. u She is due to make a speech on the economy next week. t ëüãïò defendant di/fend6nt n A defendant is a person who has been accused of breaking the law and is being tried in court. u The defendant has a very good lawyer. t êáôçãïñïýìåíïò proceedings pr6'si:din n Legal proceedings are legal action taken against someone. u...criminal proceedings against the former prime minister... t íïìéêþ äéáäéêáóßá fiction 'fiks6n n Fiction refers to books and stories about imaginary people and events, rather than books about real people or events. u Diana is a writer of historical fiction. t ìõèéóôüñçìá, ëïãïôå íéêü åßäïò ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ B2 - Practice Tests - Companion 43

4 gruesome 'gru:s6m adj Something that is gruesome is extremely unpleasant and shocking. u There has been a series of gruesome murders in the capital. t áðå èþò epitome I'pIt6mI n If you say that a person or thing is the epitome of something, you are emphasizing that they are the best possible example of a particular type of person or thing. u The Dorchester Hotel is the epitome of luxury in the heart of London. t áíôéðñïóùðåõôéêü äåßãìá, ðïõ óõìðåñéëáìâüíåé üëá ôá áñáêôçñéóôéêü groomed gru:m adj You use groomed in expressions such as well groomed and badly groomed to say how neat, clean, and smart a person is. u...a very well groomed man... t (êáëþò) óõìðåñéöïñüò, áíáôñïöþò cane kein n A cane is a long thin stick with a curved or round top, which you can use to support yourself when you are walking, or which in the past was fashionable to carry with you. u He wore a grey suit and leaned heavily on his cane. t ìðáóôïýíé suspense s6'spens n Suspense is a state of excitement or anxiety about something that is going to happen very soon, for example about some news that you are waiting to hear. u The suspense over the two remaining hostages ended last night when the police discovered the bullet ridden bodies. t áãùíßá, Üã ïò ãéá ôï ôé èá óõìâåß gradually 'gradflbln adv If something changes or is done gradually, it changes or is done in small stages over a long period of time, rather than suddenly. u Electricity lines to 30,000 homes were gradually being restored yesterday. t óôáäéáêü intriguing Nn'tri:gNE adj If you describe something as intriguing, you mean that it is interesting or strange. u This intriguing book is both thoughtful and informative. t óõíáñðáóôéêüò, åíäéáöýñùí twist n A twist in something is an unexpected and significant development. u As so often happens, this little story has a twist in the tail. t áëëáãþ áðüôïìç, áðñüóìåíç (ð.. óôçí ðëïêþ ìéáò éóôïñßáò) Activity 4 up to phr Up to shows disapproval and suspicion. u His behaviour is very strange; what is he up to? t åôïéìüæïìáé íá êüíù êüôé, ôß ìáãåéñåýåé áõôüò; keep up phr.v. To keep up with something that is changing means to be able to cope with the change, usually by changing at the same rate. u Things are changing so fast, it's hard to keep up. t óõíå ßæù ìå áäéüðôùôï ñõèìü let down phr.v. If you let someone down, you disappoint them, by not doing something that you have said you will do or that they expected you to do. u The company now has a large number of workers who feel badly let down. t áðïãïçôåýù cut down phr.v. If you cut down on something or cut down something, you use or do less of it. u He cut down on coffee and cigarettes, and ate a balanced diet. t ìåéþíù, ðåñéïñßæù give up phr.v. If you give up something, you stop doing it or having it. u Coastguards had given up all hope of finding the two divers alive. t ìåéþíù, ðåñéïñßæù up and coming adj Likely to be successful and popular in the future. u...up-and-coming young actors t áíåñ üìåíïò down and out adj If you describe someone as down-and-out, you mean that they have no job and nowhere to live, and they have no real hope of improving their situation. u He looked unshaven, shabby, and down-and-out. t åêôüò ìü çò, îïöëçìýíïò down the line phr If something happens somewhere down the line, it happens during the course of a situation or activity, often at a point that cannot be exactly identified. u It would depend how far down the line the relationship was. t ðýñá ãéá ðýñá mischievous 'mnstgnvbs adj A mischievous person likes to have fun by playing harmless tricks on people or doing things they are not supposed to do. u She rocks back and forth on her chair like a mischievous child. t "ðïíçñüò", Üôáêôïò, óêáíôáëéüñéêïò grin grnn n A grin is a broad smile. u Bobby looked at her with a sheepish grin. t åéñùíéêü/ìï èçñü/ðåñéöñïíçôéêü/ áíôéðáèçôéêü áìüãåëï deadline 'dddlann n A deadline is a time or date before which a particular task must be finished or a particular thing must be done. u We were not able to meet the deadline because of manufacturing delays. t äéïñßá, ðñïèåóìßá Activity 5 classified 'klasnfand adj With information arranged in groups according to subjects. u...a classified catalogue t èåìáôéêüò, ôáîéíïìçìýíïò Þ åõñåôçñéáóìýíïò êáôü èýìáôá disbelief dnsbb'li:f n Disbelief is not believing that something is true or real. u She looked at him in disbelief. t äõóðéóôßá, óêåðôéêéóìüò Activity 6 Step 1 renew ri/nju: v When you renew sth such as a licence or a contract, you extend the period of time for which it is valid. u The job was for a fixed term and the contract is not being renewed. t áíáíåþíù online On/laIn adj You are online when your computer is connected to 44

5 the Internet. u You can chat to other people who are online. t óõíäåäåìýíïò ìå ôï Äéáäßêôõï borrow /bor*u v If you borrow a book from a library, you take it away for a fixed period of time. u I couldn t afford to buy any, so I borrowed them from the library. t äáíåßæïìáé overdue *Uv*/dju: adj An overdue library book has not been returned to the library, even though the date on which it should have been returned has passed. t åêðñüèåóìïò, êáèõóôåñçìýíïò fine fain n A fine is a punishment in which a person is ordered to pay a sum of money because they have done sth illegal or broken a rule. t ðñüóôéìï Activity 6 Step 2 rate reit n The rate of taxation or interest is the amount of tax or interest that needs to be paid. It is expressed as a percentage of the amount that is earned, gained as profit, or borrowed. u The government insisted that it would not be panicked into interest rate cuts. t åðéâüñõíóç, ôýëïò, öüñïò homeless 'holmlbs adj Homeless people have nowhere to live. u...the growing number of homeless families... t Üóôåãïò Activity 7 half-hearted adj If someone does something in a half-hearted way, they do it without any real effort, interest, or enthusiasm. u Joanna had made one or two half-hearted attempts to befriend Graham's young wife. t áðñüèõìïò, ëéáñüò Practice Test 2 Module 1 Activity 1 Step 1 check up tsek Vp phr.v If you check up on sb, you obtain information about them, usually secretly. u I m sure he knew I was checking up on him. t åëýã ù, åîáêñéâþíù óôïé åßá threaten /Qretn v If sth or sb threatens a person or thing, they are likely to harm that person or thing. u The unity of our society is threatened by restless minorities. t áðåéëþ workplace /we:kpleis n Your workplace is the place where you work. u For women, their houses are also their workplaces. t åñãáóéáêüò þñïò Big Brother big /brvd*(r) n People sometimes use Big Brother to refer to a person, government, or organization when they think it has complete control over people and is always checking what they do. u Do remember that our speed limit is 75mph and Big Brother is watching you. t ÌåãÜëïò Áäåñöüò, ç ðñïóùðïðïßçóç ôïõ ïëïêëçñùôéêïý êáèåóôþôïò technical /teknikl adj Technical means involving the sorts of machines, processes, and materials that are used in industry, transport, and communications. u Many technical experts at the time had doubts about the technology. t ôå íéêüò advance *d/va:ns n An advance in a particular subject or activity is development and progress in understanding it or in doing it well. u Air safety has not improved since the dramatic advances of the 1970s. t ðñüïäïò tool up tu:l Vp phr.v If you tool sb or sth up, you provide sb or sth with the necessary equipment in order to do or achieve sth. u His factory is not tooled up to produce this type of engine. t åîïðëßæù ìå ìç áíþìáôá unaware Vn*/we*(r) adj If you are unaware of sth, you do not know about it. u She was unaware that she was being filmed. t áðëçñïöüñçôïò, áíßäåïò, ùñßò åðßãíùóç observe *b/ze:v v If you observe a person or thing, you watch them carefully, especially in order to learn sth about them. u Stern also studies and observes the behaviour of babies. t ðáñáôçñþ observation Obz*/veISn n Observation is the action or process of carefully watching sb or sth. u In hospital she ll be under observation all the time. t ðáñáôþñçóç supervisor /su:p*vaiz*(r) n A supervisor is a person who supervises activities or people, especially workers or students. u Each student has a supervisor to advise on the writing of the dissertation. t åðüðôçò listen into phr.v If you listen into a private conversation, you secretly listen to it. u They had a fight because he listened into her calls. t êñõöáêïýù tele-sales / teliseilz n(pl) Tele-sales is the selling of a company s products or services by telephone, either by phoning possible customers or by answering calls from customers. u Many people start their careers in tele-sales. t ðùëþóåéò ìýóù ôçëåöþíïõ call centre kc:l sent*(r) n A call centre is an office where people work answering or making telephone calls for a particular company. t ôçëåöùíéêü êýíôñï keep to phr.v If you keep to a rule, plan, or agreement, you do exactly what you are expected or supposed to do. u You ve got to keep to the speed limit. t ôçñþ, áêïëïõèþ script skript n The script of a play, film, or television programme is the written version of it. u Jenny s writing a film script. ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ B2 - Practice Tests - Companion 45

6 t óåíüñéï intercept Int*/sept v If you intercept sb or sth that is travelling or communicating one place to another, you stop them or interrupt them before they get to their destination. u His letter was intercepted by the Secret Service. t õðïêëýðôù, ðáñáâéüæù surveillance se:/veil*ns n Surveillance is the careful watching of sb, especially by an organization such as the police or the army. u He was arrested after being kept under constant surveillance. t ðáñáêïëïýèçóç armoury /A:m*ri n You can refer to a large number of things which sb has available for a particular purpose as their armoury. (BRIT) u The strongest weapon in the government s armoury is the price cuts announced on Saturday. t ïðëïóôüóéï (ìôö) CCTV si: si: ti: /vi: abbr. CCTV is an abbreviation for Closed Circuit Television. A closed circuit television or video system is one that operates within a limited area such as a building. u There s a closed circuit television camera in the reception area. t êëåéóôü êýêëùìá ôçëåüñáóçò visibly /viz*bli adv If sth is done visibly, it is done in a way that can be seen or noticed. u They were visibly distressed and crying. t ïñáôü deploy di/plci v To deploy sth means to use it effectively. u They had to deploy their resources so as to stay alive. t ñçóéìïðïéþ áðïôåëåóìáôéêü premises /premisis n (pl) The premises of a business or an institution are all the buildings and land that it occupies in one place. u The business moved to premises in Brompton Road. t åðáããåëìáôéêüò þñïò, ãñáöåßá deter di/te:(r) v To deter sb from doing sth means to make them not want to do it or continue doing it. u Jeremy was not deterred by this criticism. t áðïôñýðù, åìðïäßæù detect di/tekt v To detect sth means to find it or discover that it is present somewhere by using equipment or making an investigation. u Most skin cancers can be cured if detected and treated early. t åíôïðßæù break-in /breikin n If there has been a break-in, sb has got into a building by force. u The break-in had occurred just before midnight. t äéüññçîç install In/stC:l v If you install a piece of equipment, you fit it or put it somewhere so that it is ready to be used. u They had installed a new phone line in the apartment. tåãêáèéóôþ intruder In/tru:d*(r) n An intruder is a person who goes into a place where they are not supposed to be. t åéóâïëýáò, ðáñåßóáêôïò intrusive In/tru:sIv adj Sth that is intrusive disturbs your mood or your life in a way you do not like. u The cameras were not an intrusive presence. t áäéüêñéôïò, åíï ëçôéêüò pinhole /pinh*ul n A pinhole is a tiny hole. t ìéêñþ ôñýðá lens lenz n A lens is a thin curved piece of glass or plastic used in things such as cameras, telescopes, and pairs of glasses. You look through a lens in order to make things look larger, smaller, or clearer. u I packed your sunglasses with the green lenses. t öáêüò sprinkler /sprinkl*(r) n A sprinkler is a device used to spray water. Sprinklers are used to water plants or grass, or to put out fires in buildings. t (ðõñïóâåóôéêüò) øåêáóôþñáò, ðïôéóôþñé conceal k*n/si:l v If you conceal sth, you cover it or hide it carefully. u Five people were arrested for carrying concealed weapons. t áðïêñýðôù unpopular Vn/pOpj*l*(r) adj If sth or sb is unpopular, most people do not like them. u In high school, I was very unpopular. t ìç äçìïöéëþò monitor /monit*(r) v If you monitor sth, you regularly check its development or progress, and sometimes comment on it. u Officials had not been allowed to monitor the voting. t åðïðôåýù, ðáñáêïëïõèþ device di/vais n A device is an object that has been invented for a particular purpose, for example for recording or measuring sth. u We believe that an explosive device had been left inside a container. t óõóêåõþ habit n A habit is sth that you do regularly. A habit is also the behaviour people have concerning various aspects of their activity, like eating, sleeping, driving etc. u There has been a survey on the eating habits of Europeans. t óõíþèåéá, óõíþèçò óõìðåñéöïñü breakthrough /breikqru: n A breakthrough is an important development or achievement. u The breakthrough came hours before a UN deadline. t óçìáíôéêþ åîýëéîç, áíáêüëõøç positively /poz*tivli adv You use positively to emphasize that you really mean what you are saying. u This is positively the worst thing that I can even imagine. t åíôåëþò, áðïëýôùò pleasurable /plej*r*bl adj Pleasurable experiences or sensations are pleasant and enjoyable. u He found sailing more pleasurable than skiing. t áðïëáõóôéêüò scan v When you scan a place or group of people, you look at it carefully, usually because you are looking for sth or sb. u The officer scanned the room. t áíé íåýù, äéáôñý ù output /autput n Output is used to refer to the amount of sth that a person or thing produces. u Police look at the security camera output every day. t áðüäïóç, óõíïëéêþ ðáñáãùãþ 46

7 Activity 1 Step 2 discreetly di/skri:tli adv If sth is done or said discreetly, it is done or said in a polite and careful way, so that the real purpose of it is not revealed. u Everyone tried to make him welcome, and, more discreetly, to find out about him. t äéáêñéôéêü imply Im/plaI v If you imply that sth is the case, you say sth which indicates that it is the case in an indirect way. u `Are you implying that I have sth to do with those attacks? she asked coldly. t õðïíïþ relative /rel*tiv n Your relatives are the members of your family. u Get a relative to look after the children. t óõããåíþò infer In/fE:(r) v Some people use infer to mean `imply. The police inferred, though they didn t exactly say it, that they found her behaviour rather suspicious. t óõìðåñáßíù, õðïíïþ Activity 2 capture 'kaptgb(r) v If something or someone captures a particular quality, feeling, or atmosphere, they represent or express it successfully. u Chef Idris Caldora offers an inspired menu that captures the spirit of the Mediterranean. t áðáèáíáôßæù feature 'fi:tgb(r) v When something such as a film or exhibition features a particular person or thing, they are an important part of it. u The hour-long programme will be updated each week and feature highlights from recent games. t áíáäåéêíýù, "ôïíßæù" conveniently kbn'vi:nnbntln adv u He chose Simi Valley in Ventura County mainly because it was conveniently close to Los Angeles. t êïíôü, óå âïëéêþ áðüóôáóç áðü.. district 'dnstrnkt n A district is a particular area of a town or country. u I drove around the business district. t ðåñéï Þ, ðåñéöýñåéá hub hhb n You can describe a place as a hub of an activity when it is a very important centre for that activity. u The island's social hub is the Cafe Sport. t åðßêåíôñï äñáóôçñéüôçôáò, åíäéáöýñïíôïò Þ óðïõäáéüôçôáò, "êýíôñï", "êüìâïò" contemporary kbn'tdmpbrbrn adj Contemporary things are modern and relate to the present time. u Perhaps he should have a more updated look, a more contemporary style. t ôçò óýã ñïíçò åðï Þò, óýã ñïíïò grain grenn The grain of a piece of wood is the direction of its fibres. You can also refer to the pattern of lines on the surface of the wood as the grain. u Brush the paint generously over the wood in the direction of the grain. t "íåñü" (êõìáôïåéäåßò áðï ñþóåéò) îýëïõ splash n A splash of colour is an area of a bright colour which contrasts strongly with the colours around it. u Anne has left the walls white, but added splashes of colour with the tablecloth and the paintings. t (áíïé ôü ñùìç) êçëßäá äéáöïñåôéêïý ñþìáôïò, "ðéôóéëéü" vibrancy 'vanbrbnsn n Vibrancy is when someone or something is full of life, energy, and enthusiasm. ushe was a woman with extraordinary vibrancy and extraordinary knowledge. t æùíôüíéá Activity 3 insurance Nn'su:rBns n Insurance is an arrangement in which you pay money to a company, and they pay money to you if something unpleasant happens to you, for example if your property is stolen or damaged, or if you get a serious illness. u The insurance company paid out for the stolen jewellery and silver. t áóöüëåéá, áóöüëéóç caution 'kc:gbn n Caution is great care, which you take in order to avoid possible danger. u The Chancellor is a man of caution. t åðéöýëáîç, ðñïöýëáîç subscribe sbb'skranb v If you subscribe to a magazine or a newspaper, you pay to receive copies of it regularly. u My main reason for subscribing to New Scientist is to keep abreast of advances in science. t ãßíïìáé óõíäñïìçôþò vacancies 'venkbnsns n A vacancy is a job or position, which has not been filled. u Most vacancies are at senior level, requiring appropriate qualifications. t êåíþ èýóç åñãáóßáò instant 'NnstBnt adj You use instant to describe something that happens immediately. u He had taken an instant dislike to Mortlake. t óôéãìéáßïò Activity 5 overwhelm olvb'wdlm v If you are overwhelmed by a feeling or event, it affects you very strongly, and you do not know how to deal with it. u He was overwhelmed by a longing for times past. t êáôáâüëëù overcast 'olvb(r)ka:st adj If it is overcast, or if the sky or the day is overcast, the sky is completely covered with cloud and there is not much light. u It was a cold, windy, overcast afternoon in Washington. t íåöïóêåðþò take over phr.v. If you take over a job or role or you take over, you become responsible for the job after someone else has stopped doing it. u In 1966, Pastor Albertz took over from him as governing mayor. t áíáëáìâüíù (Ýëåã ï, äéïßêçóç êëð.) Activity 6 Step 1 graduate v In Britain, when a student graduates from university, they have successfully completed a degree course. ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ B2 - Practice Tests - Companion 47

8 u She graduated in English and Drama from Manchester University. t áðïöïéôþ Open University /*Up*n ju:ni/ve:s*ti n In Britain, the Open University is a university that runs degree courses using the radio and television, for students who want to study part-time or mainly at home. u She was holding down a job she was enjoying and studying at the Open University. t Áíïé ôü ÐáíåðéóôÞìéï - ÓðïõäÝò åî áðïóôüóåùò lifelong /laiflon adj Lifelong means existing or happening for the whole of a person s life. u Her lifelong friendship with Naomi was very important to her. t åö üñïõ æùþò, éóüâéïò temporary /tempr*ri adj Sth that is temporary lasts for only a limited time. u His job here is only temporary. t ðñïóùñéíüò setback n A setback is an event that delays your progress or reverses some of the progress that you have made. u He has suffered a serious setback in his political career. t áíáðïäéü, åìðüäéï flexibility fleks*/bil*ti n The flexibility of sth or sb is the ability to change easily and adapt to different conditions and circumstances as they occur. u The flexibility of distance learning would be particularly suited to busy managers. t åõåëéîßá, ðñïóáñìïóôéêüôçôá upgrade Vp/greId v If equipment, knowledge or services are upgraded, they are improved or made more efficient. u Medical facilities are being reorganized and upgraded. t áíáâáèìßæù existing Ig/zIstIN adj Existing is used to describe sth which is now present, available, or in operation, especially when you are contrasting it with sth which is planned for the future. u This facility is open to both new and existing borrowers. t õðüñ ùí qualification kwolifi/keisn n The qualifications you need for an activity or task are the qualities and skills that you need to be able to do it. u That time with him is my qualification to write this book. t ðñïóüí advancement *d/va:nsm*nt n Advancement is progress in your job or in your social position. u He cared little for social advancement. t ðñüïäïò, ðñïáãùãþ seek si:k v When sb seeks sth, they try to obtain it. u The prosecutors have warned they will seek the death penalty. t áíáæçôþ fulfilment ful/film*nt n Fulfilment is a feeling of satisfaction that you get from doing or achieving sth, especially sth useful. u When he got the promotion he had a constant feeling of fulfilment. t ïëïêëþñùóç, ðëçñüôçôá demonstrate /dem*nstreit v To demonstrate a fact means to make it clear to people. u You have to demonstrate that you are reliable. t áðïäåéêíýù, äåß íù flexible /fleks*bl adj Sth or sb that is flexible is able to change easily and adapt to different conditions and circumstances as they occur. u Look for software that s flexible enough for a range of abilities. t åõýëéêôïò higher education /hai*(r) edju/keisn n Higher education is education at universities and colleges. t ôñéôïâüèìéá åêðáßäåõóç (ðáíåðéóôçìéáêþ) era /I*r* n You can refer to a period of history or a long period of time as an era when you want to draw attention to a particular feature or quality that it has. u It was an era of economic crisis. t åðï Þ norm nc:m n If you say that a situation is the norm, you mean that it is usual and expected. u Families of six or seven are the norm in Borough Park. t ðñüôõðï, íüñìá exception Ik/sepSn n An exception is a particular thing, person, or situation that is not included in a general statement, judgement, or rule. u The law makes no exceptions. t åîáßñåóç certificate s*/tifik*t n A certificate is an official document that you receive when you have completed a course of study or training. The qualification that you receive is sometimes also called a certificate. u To the right of the fireplace are various framed certificates. t ðéóôïðïéçôéêü, áðïäåéêôéêü vocational v*u/keis*nl adj Vocational training and skills are the training and skills needed for a particular job or profession. u Vocational courses are often given more respect and funding than arts or philosophy. t åðáããåëìáôéêüò combination kombi/neisn n A combination of things is a mixture of them. u His painting was a fantastic combination of colours. t óõíäõáóìüò correspondence kor*/spond*ns n Correspondence is the act of writing letters to sb. u His interest in writing came from a long correspondence with a close college friend. t áëëçëïãñáößá tuition tju/isn n If you are given tuition in a particular subject, you are taught about that subject. u The courses will give the beginner personal tuition in all types of outdoor photography. t äéäáóêáëßá, åêðáßäåõóç broadcast /brc:dka:st n A broadcast is a programme, performance, or speech on the radio or on television. u In a broadcast on state radio the government also announced that it was willing to resume peace negotiations. t (ñáäéïöùíéêþ Þ ôçëåïðôéêþ) åêðïìðþ, ìåôüäïóç kit kit n A kit is a group of items that are kept together, often in the same container, because they are all used for similar purposes. u The kit consisted of about twenty cosmetic items and a lady s shaver. t óýíåñãá ãéá ìßá óõãêåêñéìýíç äñáóôçñéüôçôá, óåô 48

9 software /softwe*(r) n Computer programs are referred to as software. u His work is to write the software for big computer projects. t ëïãéóìéêü multi-media mvlti/mi:di* n In education, multimedia is the use of television and other different media in a lesson, as well as books. t ðïëõìýóá lecture /lekts*(r) n A lecture is a talk sb gives in order to teach people about a particular subject, usually at a university or college. u In his lecture, Riemann covered an enormous variety of topics. t äéüëåîç tutorial tju:/tc:ri*l n In a university or college, a tutorial is a regular meeting between a tutor and one or several students, for discussion of a subject that is being studied. u The methods of study include lectures, tutorials, case studies and practical sessions. t ðáñüäïóç ìáèþìáôïò in between In bi/twi:n prep.phr If sth happens between or in between two times or events, it happens after the first time or event and before the second one. u Berlin was well known for its good living in between the two world wars. t óôï ìåôáîý unlike Vn/laIk prep You can use unlike to contrast two people, things, or situations, and show how they are different. u Unlike aerobics, walking entails no expensive fees for classes or clubs. t áíôßèåôá ìå outset /autset n If sth happens at the outset of an event, process, or period of time, it happens at the beginning of it. If sth happens from the outset it happens from the beginning and continues to happen. u Decide at the outset what kind of learning programme you want to follow. t áñ Þ, îåêßíçìá yearlong ji*(r)/ lon adj Yearlong means once a year, annual. t åôþóéïò tailor /teil*(r) v If you tailor sth such as a plan or system to sb s needs, you make it suitable for a particular person or purpose by changing the details of it. u We can tailor the program to the patient s needs. t ðñïóáñìüæù BSc bi: es /si: abbr. A BSc is a first degree in a science subject. BSc is an abbreviation for `Bachelor of Science. u He completed his BSc in chemistry in t ðôõ ßï ôñéôïâüèìéáò åêðáßäåõóçò óôéò èåôéêýò åðéóôþìåò BA bi: /ei: abbr. BA is a first degree in an arts or social science subject. BA is an abbreviation for `Bachelor of Arts. u I did a BA in film making. t ðôõ ßï ôñéôïâüèìéáò åêðáßäåõóçò óôéò èåùñçôéêýò åðéóôþìåò duration dju/reisn n The duration of an event or state is the time during which it happens or exists. u Courses are of two years duration. t äéüñêåéá Activity 6 Step 2 estimate 'DstNmeNt v If you estimate a quantity or value, you make an approximate judgement or calculation of it. u He estimated the speed of the winds from the degree of damage. t åêôéìþ, õðïëïãßæù workload 'wm:klold n The workload of a person or organization is the amount of work that has to be done by them. u This office's resources and staff would have to be increased to cope with the extra workload. t åñãáóßá ðïõ ðñýðåé íá åêôåëåóèåß, öüñôïò åñãáóßáò Activity 7 arrogant 'arbgbnt adj Someone who is arrogant behaves in a proud, unpleasant way towards other people because they believe that they are more important than others. u He was so arrogant. t áëáæüíáò, õðåñüðôçò boast bolst v If someone boasts about something that they have done or that they own, they talk about it very proudly, in a way that other people may find irritating or offensive. u Carol boasted about her costume. t êáõ éýìáé, êáìáñþíù Practice Test 3 Module 1 Activity 1 Step 1 skip skip v If you skip sth that you usually do or sth that most people do, you decide not to do it. u Her daughter started skipping school. t äå óõììåôý ù, áíôéðáñýñ ïìáé substantial adj Substantial means large in amount or degree. u That is a very substantial improvement in the present situation. t ïõóéáóôéêüò, ïõóéþäçò recipe /res*pi n A recipe is a list of ingredients and a set of instructions that tell you how to cook sth. u Do you know a recipe for Italian pizza? t óýíôáãç nutritionist nju/tris*nist n A nutritionist is a person whose job is to give advice on what you should eat to remain healthy. u Nutritionists say only 33% of our calorie intake should be from fat. t äéáôñïöïëüãïò, äéáéôïëüãïò novelist /nov*list n A novelist is a person who writes novels. u The key to success as a romantic novelist is absolute belief in your story. t ìõèéóôïñéïãñüöïò boost bu:st v If one thing boosts another, it causes it to increase, improve, or be more successful. u They want the government to take action to boost the economy. t áõîüíù, ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ B2 - Practice Tests - Companion 49

10 ôïíþíù, åíéó ýù brainpower /breinpau*(r) n Brainpower is intelligence or the ability to think. u Ginseng boosts your brainpower and makes you feel good. t íïçôéêþ éêáíüôçôá slim slim adj A slim person has an attractively thin and well-shaped body. u The young woman was tall and slim. t ëåðôüò supplement /svplim*nt n A supplement is a pill that you take or a special kind of food that you eat in order to improve your health. u I took regular supplements and exercised every day. t óõìðëþñùìá (äéáôñïöþò) evidence /evid*ns n Evidence is anything that you see, experience, read, or are told that causes you to believe that sth is true or has really happened. u There is a lot of evidence that stress is partly responsible for disease. t Ýíäåéîç, áðïäåéêôéêü óôïé åßï pauper /pc:p*(r) adj A pauper is a very poor person. u He died a pauper and is buried in an unmarked grave. t öôù üò, Üðïñïò decrease di/kri:s v When sth decreases or when you decrease it, it becomes less in quantity, size, or intensity. u Since 1945 air forces have decreased in size. t ìåéþíïìáé, åëáôôþíïìáé intake /InteIk n Your intake of a particular kind of food, drink, or air is the amount that you eat, drink, or breathe in. u Reduce your salt intake. t ðñüóëçøç, äüóç thrombosis QrOm/b*UsIs n Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot in a person s heart or in one of their blood vessels, which can cause death. u It is accepted that thinning of the blood reduces the chances of thrombosis. t èñüìâùóç glucose /glu:k*us n Glucose is a type of sugar that gives you energy. t ãëõêüæç starve sta:v v If a person or thing is starved of sth that they need, they are suffering because they are not getting enough of it. u He doesn t know how to trust people because he was starved of love when he was a child. t óôåñþ adversely *d/ve:sli adv If sth effects you adversely it affects you in a bad way. u Price changes must not adversely affect the living standards of the people. t äõóìåíþò notably /n*ut*bli adv You use notably to specify an important or typical example of sth that you are talking about, meaning particularly u The divorce would be granted when more important problems, notably the fate of the children, had been decided. t óõãêåêñéìýíá, åéäéêü calorie n Calories are units used to measure the energy value of food. People who are on diets try to eat food that does not contain many calories. u A glass of wine does have quite a lot of calories. t èåñìßäá creativity kri:ei/tiv*ti n Creativity is the ability to invent and develop original ideas, especially in the arts. u American art reached a peak of creativity in the 50s and 60s. t äçìéïõñãéêüôçôá verbal /ve:bl adj You use verbal to indicate that sth is connected with words and the use of words. u The test has scores for verbal and mathematical skills. t ëåêôéêüò fluency /flu:*nsi n Fluency in a particular language or in a particular skill such as writing, reading or speech, is the ability to speak the language or use the skill easily and correctly. u To work as a translator, you need fluency in at least one foreign language. t åðüñêåéá, åõ Ýñåéá óôç ñþóç (ôçò ãëþóóáò) newly /nju:li adv Newly is used before a past participle or an adjective to indicate that a particular action is very recent, or that a particular state of affairs has very recently begun to exist. u She was young at the time, and newly married. t ðñüóöáôá acquired */kwai*(r)d adj Sth that is acquired, such as a skill or a habit, is learnt, or developed through daily life or experience. u Having read the book she will be able to pass on the acquired knowledge to her students. t áðïêôçìýíïò excuse Ik/skju:s n An excuse is a reason that you give in order to explain why sth has been done, has not been done, or will not be done. u There is no excuse for this happening in a new building. t äéêáéïëïãßá paradoxically adv You use paradoxically in a statement when it involves two facts or qualities which seem to contradict each other. u Paradoxically, the less you have to do the more you may resent the work that does come your way. t ðáñáäüîùò cereal /si*ri*l n Cereal or breakfast cereal is a food made from grain. It is mixed with milk and eaten for breakfast. u I have a glass of fruit juice and a bowl of cereal every morning. t äçìçôñéáêü metabolic met*/bolik adj Metabolic means relating to a person s or animal s metabolism. u People who have inherited a low metabolic rate will gain weight. t ìåôáâïëéêüò workout /we:kaut n A workout is a period of physical exercise or training. u Give your upper body a workout. t ðñïðüíçóç, óùìáôéêþ Üóêçóç top up top Vp phr.v If you top sth up, you make it full again when part of it has been used. u We topped up the water tanks. t îáíáãåìßæù contented k*n/tentid adj If you are contented, you are satisfied with your life or the situation you are in. u Whenever he returns to this place he is happy and contented. t åõ áñéóôçìýíïò, éêáíïðïéçìýíïò 50

11 sociable /s*us*bl adj Sociable people are friendly and enjoy talking to other people. u Some children have more sociable personalities than others. t êïéíùíéêüò outgoing aut/g*uin adj Sb who is outgoing is very friendly and likes meeting and talking to people. u She s very outgoing. t êïéíùíéêüò alert */le:t adj If you are alert, you are paying full attention to things around you and are able to deal with anything that might happen. u We all have to stay alert. t îýðíéïò, óå åãñþãïñóç Activity 1 Step 2 weekday /wi:kdei n A weekday is any of the days of the week except Saturday and Sunday. u If you want to avoid the crowds, it s best to come on a weekday. t êáèçìåñéíþ (ìýñá) uncomfortably Vn/kVmft*bli adv You use uncomfortably to describe a situation where you are not physically content and relaxed, and feel slight pain or discomfort. u He felt uncomfortably hot. t åíï ëçôéêü, äõóüñåóôá aid eid v If sth aids a process, it makes it easier or more likely to happen. u Calcium may aid the prevention of cancer. t âïçèþ Activity 2 Step 1 scald skc:ld n A scald is a burn caused by very hot liquid or steam. t Ýãêáõìá ointment /CIntm*nt n An ointment is a smooth thick substance that is put on sore skin or a wound to help it heal. u A range of ointments and creams is available for the treatment of eczema. t áëïéöþ blister /blist*(r) n A blister is a painful swelling on the surface of your skin. Blisters contain a clear liquid and are usually caused by heat or by sth repeatedly rubbing your skin. t öïõóêüëá infection In/fekSn n An infection is a disease caused by germs or bacteria. u Ear infections are common in pre-school children. t ìüëõíóç sticky /stiki adj A sticky substance is soft, or thick and liquid, and can stick to other things. Sticky things are covered with a sticky substance. u Peel away the sticky paper. t êïëëþäçò, êïëëçôéêüò dressing /dresin n A dressing is a covering that is put on a wound to protect it while it heals. u Miss Finkelstein will put a dressing on your thumb. t åðßäåóìïò minor /main*(r) adj A minor illness or operation is not likely to be dangerous to sb s life or health. u His mother had to go to the hospital for minor surgery. t ìéêñüôåñïõ ìåãýèïõò Þ óïâáñüôçôáò outer /aut*(r) adj The outer parts of sth are the parts which contain or enclose the other parts, and which are furthest from the centre. u He heard a voice in the outer room. t åîùôåñéêüò layer /lei*(r) n A layer of a material or substance is a quantity or piece of it that covers a surface or that is between two other things. u A fresh layer of snow covered the street. t óôñþìá swollen /sw*ul*n adj If a part of your body is swollen, it is larger and rounder than normal, usually as a result of injury or illness. u My eyes were so swollen I could hardly see. t ðñçóìýíïò tender /tend*(r) adj If part of your body is tender, it is sensitive and painful when it is touched. u Treat any tender points by massaging. t åõðáèþò flood flvd v If you flood sth or an area that is usually dry or if the area floods, it becomes covered with water. u The kitchen flooded. t ðëçììõñßæù, êáôáâñý ù tap n A tap is a device that controls the flow of a liquid or gas from a pipe or container, for example on a sink. u She turned on the taps to fill the bath with water. t âñýóç ease i:z v If sth unpleasant eases or if you ease it, it is reduced in degree, speed, or intensity. u I gave him some brandy to ease the pain. t áíáêïõößæù, êáôáðñáûíù gently /djentli adv If you do sth gently, you do it carefully and without using force, in order to avoid hurting sb or damaging sth. u I shook her gently and she opened her eyes. t åõãåíéêü, ìå ðñïóï Þ tight tait adj Tight clothes or shoes are rather small and fit closely to your body. u His jeans were too tight. t óôåíüò fluffy /flvfi adj If you describe sth such as a towel or a toy animal as fluffy, you mean that it is very soft. u It s a very fluffy kind of wool. t ðïëý ìáëáêüò, íïõäùôüò polythene /poliqi:n n Polythene is a type of plastic made into thin sheets or bags and used especially to keep food fresh or to keep things dry. u Simply put them into a polythene bag and store them in the freezer for a day. t ðïëõáéèõëýíéï Activity 2 Step 2 remedy 'rdmbdn n A remedy is something that is intended to cure you when you are ill or in pain. u There are many different kinds of natural remedies to help overcome winter infections. t öüñìáêï ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ B2 - Practice Tests - Companion 51

12 victim 'vnktnm n A victim is someone who has been hurt or killed. u Statistically our chances of being the victims of violent crime are remote. t èýìá Activity 3 consume k*n/sju:m v If you consume sth, you eat or drink it. u Martha would consume nearly a pound of cheese per day. t êáôáíáëþíù superb su:/pe:b adj If sth is superb, its quality is very good indeed. u The waters are crystal clear and offer a superb opportunity for swimming. t åîáßñåôïò, Ýîï ïò cast ka:st n The cast of a play or film is all the people who act in it. u The show is very amusing and the cast is very good. t äéáíïìþ ñüëùí set set n The set for a play, film, or television show is the furniture and scenery that is on the stage when the play is being performed or in the studio where filming takes place. u From the first moment he got on the set, he wanted to be a director too. t óêçíéêü book buk v When you book sth such as a hotel room or a ticket, you arrange to have it or use it at a particular time, you reserve it. u British officials have booked hotel rooms for the women and children. t êüíù êñüôçóç recruit ri/kru:t v If you recruit people for an organization, you select them and persuade them to join it or work for it. u He helped to recruit volunteers to go to Pakistan to fight. t åðéóôñáôåýù, ðñïóëáìâüíù mind maind v If you tell sb to mind sth, you are warning them to be careful not to hurt themselves or other people, or damage sth. u Mind that bike! t ðñïóý ù, äßíù ðñïóï Þ gap n A gap is a space between two things or a hole in the middle of sth solid. u He pulled the thick curtains together, leaving just a narrow gap. t êåíü platform n A platform in a railway station is the area beside the rails where you wait for or get off a train. u The train was about to leave and I was not even on the platform. t ðëáôöüñìá åðéâßâáóçò Activity 4 turn up phr.v. If you turn something up or if it turns up, you find, discover, or notice it. u Investigations have never turned up any evidence. t îå þíù, áíáêáëýðôù make up phr.v. If you make up something such as a story or excuse, you invent it, sometimes in order to deceive people. u I think it's very unkind of you to make up stories about him. t åðéíïþ, óêáñößæïìáé start up phr.v. Start up means the same as start. u He said what a good idea it would be to start a community magazine up. t âüæù ìðñïò, âüæù óå ëåéôïõñãßá give up phr.v. If you give up something, you stop doing it or having it. u Coastguards had given up all hope of finding the two divers alive. t óôáìáôþ, êüâù pile up phr.v. If you pile up work, problems, or losses or if they pile up, you get more and more of them. u Problems were piling up at work. t óõóóùñåýïìáé shoot up phr.v. If something shoots up, it grows or increases very quickly. u Sales shot up by 9% last month. t öôüíù óôá ýøç hang up phr.v. If you hang up or you hang up the phone, you end a phone call. If you hang up on someone you are speaking to on the phone, you end the phone call suddenly and unexpectedly. u He said he'd call again, and hung up on me. t êáôåâüæù ôï áêïõóôéêü, êëåßíù ôï ôçëýöùíï take up phr.v. If you take up an activity or a subject, you become interested in it and spend time doing it, either as a hobby or as a career. u He did not particularly want to take up a competitive sport. t áñ ßæù íá åðéäßäïìáé óå.. Activity 6 Step 1 objective *b/djektiv adj If sb is objective, they base their opinions on facts rather than on their personal feelings. u I believe that a journalist should be completely objective. t áíôéêåéìåíéêüò stand back phr.v If you stand back and think about a situation, you think about it as if you were not involved in it. u Stand back and look objectively at the problem. t áíôéìåôùðßæù áíôéêåéìåíéêü ìéá êáôüóôáóç detrimental detri/mentl adj Sth that is detrimental to sth else, has a harmful or damaging effect on it. u Many foods are suspected of being detrimental to health because of the chemicals and additives they contain. t åðéâëáâþò, åðéæþìéïò habituated h*/bitsueitid adj If you are habituated to sth, you have become used to it. u More people are habituated to cigarettes than to drugs or alcohol in this country. t óõíçèéóìýíïò, åèéóìýíïò gradual adj A gradual change or process occurs in small stages over a long period of time, rather than suddenly. u Losing weight is a slow, gradual process. t âáèìéáßïò, óôáäéáêüò appalled */pc:ld adj If you are appalled by sth, you are shocked or disgusted because it is so bad or unpleasant. u We are all, of course, appalled that such items are still on sale in the shops. t ôñïìáãìýíïò 52

13 extent Ik/stent n If you are talking about how great, important, or serious a difficulty or situation is, you can refer to the extent of it. u The full extent of the losses was disclosed yesterday. t âáèìüò, Ýíôáóç radical adj Radical changes and differences are very important and great in degree. u The country needs a period of calm without more periods of radical change. t äñáóôéêüò undermining Vnd*/maInIN n The undermining of sth such as a situation, feeling or a system means that you make it less strong or less secure than it was before, often by a gradual process or by repeated efforts. u Western intelligence agencies are accused of trying to undermine the government. t õðïíüìåõóç adverse adj Adverse decisions, conditions, or effects are unfavourable to you. u Despite the adverse conditions, the road was finished in just eight months. t äõóìåíþò, áíôßîïïò knock-on /nokon adj If there is a knock-on effect, one action or event causes several other events to happen one after the other. u The peseta s problems had a knock-on effect on the escudo. t Ýíôïíç åðßäñáóç, óõíýðåéá forward-looking /fc:w*d /lukin adj If you describe a person or organization as forwardlooking, you approve of the fact that they think about the future or have modern ideas. u The party needs to be forward-looking. t ïîõäåñêþò, ðñïïäåõôéêüò profound pr*/faund adj You use profound to emphasize that sth is very great or intense. u Anna s patriotism was profound. t Ýíôïíïò cut down kvt daun phr.v If you cut down on sth or cut down sth, you use or do less of it. u He cut down on coffee and cigarettes, and ate a balanced diet. t ðåñéïñßæù, åëáôôþíù viable /vai*bl adj Sth that is viable is capable of doing what it is intended to do. u Cash alone will not make Eastern Europe s banks viable. t åöéêôüò, ðñáãìáôïðïéþóéìïò alternative C:l/tE:n*tIv n An alternative to sth, is sth else that you can have or do instead. u In this case, there is no alternative. t åíáëëáêôéêþ ëýóç impact n The impact that sth has on a situation, process, or person is a sudden and powerful effect that it has on them. u The major impact of this epidemic worldwide is yet to come. t åðßðôùóç influential Influ/enSl adj Sb or sth that is influential has a lot of influence over people or events. u He had been influential in shaping economic policy. t éó õñüò, ðïõ áóêåß åðéññïþ House of Commons haus *v /kom*nz n The House of Commons is the part of parliament in Britain or Canada whose members are elected. The building where they meet is also called the House of Commons. u The House of Commons has overwhelmingly rejected demands to bring back the death penalty for murder. t ç ÂïõëÞ ôùí ÊïéíïôÞôùí integrated /IntIgreItId adj Integrated is sth in which many different parts are closely connected and work successfully together. u We believe that pupils of integrated schools will have more tolerant attitudes. t åíéáßïò, ïëïêëçñùìýíïò sustainable s*/stein*bl adj A sustainable plan, method, or system is designed to continue at the same rate or level of activity without any problems. u The creation of an efficient and sustainable transport system is critical to the long-term future of London. t óôáèåñüò objective *b/djektiv n Your objective is what you are trying to achieve. u His objective was to play golf and win. t óôü ïò proportion pr*/pc:sn n A proportion of a group or an amount is a part of it. u A proportion of the rent is met by the city council. t ðïóïóôü access n If you have access to a building or other place, you are able or allowed to go into it. u The Mortimer Hotel in Shepherd s Bush offers easy access to central London. t ðñüóâáóç mode m*ud n A mode is a particular way of doing sth or a particular type of sth. u We should focus on environment-friendly modes of transport. t ôñüðïò shot in the arm SOt In D* A:m phr A shot in the arm is sth that gives sb/sth the help or encouragement they need more. t «ôïíùôéêþ Ýíåóç» decayed di/keid adj If sth such as a society, system, or institution is decayed, it gradually becomes weaker or its condition gets worse. u Congress has tried dozens of approaches to revitalize decaying urban and rural areas. t åîáóèåíçìýíïò, ðáñçêìüæùí escalate /esk*leit v If a bad situation escalates or if sb or sth escalates it, it becomes greater in size, seriousness, or intensity. u Defeat could cause one side or other to escalate the conflict. t êëéìáêþíù, -ïìáé, áõîüíù óå Ýíôáóç vicious circle /vis*s /se:kl phr A vicious circle is a problem or difficult situation that has the effect of creating new problems which then cause the original problem or situation to occur again. u The vicious circle of poverty is the main problem the Government tries to deal with. t öáýëïò êýêëïò rural /ru*r*l adj Rural places are far away from large towns or cities. u These plants grow in the more rural areas. t áãñïôéêüò, õðáßèñéïò wither away /wid*(r) */wei phr.v If sb or sth withers away, they become very weak. u The question now is whether the railways will flourish ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ B2 - Practice Tests - Companion 53

14 or wither away in the hands of the private sector. t öèßíù, åëáôôþíïìáé scanty adj You describe sth as scanty when there is less of it than you think there should be. u So far, what scanty evidence we have points to two suspects. t ëéãïóôüò, áíåðáñêþò non-existent non Ig/zIst*nt adj If you say that sth is non-existent, you mean that it does not exist when you feel that it should. u Hygiene was non-existent: no running water, no bathroom. t áíýðáñêôïò overpriced *Uv*/praIst adj If you say that sth is overpriced, you mean that you think it costs much more than it should. u I went and had an overpriced cup of coffee in the hotel cafeteria. t áêñéâüò fare fe*(r) n The fare is the money that you pay for a journey that you make, for example, in a bus, train, or taxi. u He could barely afford the railway fare. t åéóéôþñéï, íáýëá despair di/spe*(r) n Despair is the feeling that everything is wrong and that nothing will improve. u I looked at my wife in despair. t áðüãíùóç take off teik Of phr.v If sth such as a service or entertainment is taken off, it is withdrawn so that people can no longer use it or watch it. u The network took the programme off air in t êáôáñãþ drown draun v If you say that a person or thing is drowning in sth, you are emphasizing that they have a very large amount of it, or are completely covered in it. u People gradually find themselves drowning in debt. t ðíßãïìáé (êáé ìôö) long-term lon te:m adj Sth that is long-term has continued for a long time or will continue for a long time in the future. u A new training scheme to help the long-term unemployed is expected. t ìáêñïðñüèåóìïò Activity 6 Step 2 environmental NnvaNBrBn'mDntBl adj Environmental means concerned with the protection of the natural world of land, sea, air, plants, and animals. u Environmental groups plan to stage public protests during the conference. t ðåñéâáëëïíô(ïëïã)éêüò Activity 7 shy GaN adj A shy person is nervous and uncomfortable in the company of other people. u She was a shy, quiet-spoken girl. t óõíåóôáëìýíïò, íôñïðáëüò solemn 'sklbm adj Someone or something that is solemn is very serious rather than cheerful or humorous. u His solemn little face broke into smiles.t áãýëáóôïò, óïâáñüò, "âáñýò" genuine 'dfdnjlnn adj Genuine is used to describe people and things that are exactly what they appear to be, and are not false or an imitation. u They're convinced the picture is genuine. t ãíþóéïò, áõèåíôéêüò turn out phr.v. If something turns out to be a particular thing, it is discovered to be that thing. u It turned out that I knew the person who got shot. t áðïäõêíåßïìáé moral 'mkrbl adj A moral person behaves in a way that is believed by most people to be good and right. u The people who will be on the committee are moral, cultured, competent people. t "çèéêüò", åíüñåôïò Practice Test 4 Module 1 Activity 1 Step 1 steer clear sti*(r) kli*(r) When you steer a car, boat, or plane, you control it so that it goes in the direction that you want. If you steer clear of sb or sth, you deliberately avoid them. u I think a lot of people, women in particular, steer clear of these sensitive issues. t áðïöåýãù dash n A dash of a quality is a small amount of it that is found in sth and often makes it more interesting or distinctive. u It was a romantic story with a dash of mystery thrown in. t ëßãï, ìéêñþ áëëü ïõóéþäçò ðñïóèþêç common sense /kom*n sens n Your common sense is your natural ability to make good judgements and to behave in a practical and sensible way. u Use your common sense. t êïéíþ ëïãéêþ risky /riski adj If an activity or action is risky, it is dangerous or likely to fail. u Investing in airlines is a very risky business. t ðáñüôïëìïò, ñéøïêßíäõíïò pro pr*u n A pro is a professional. u I have enjoyed playing with some of the top pros from Europe and America. t åðáããåëìáôßáò instinctively In/stINktIvli adv If sth is done or happens instinctively it happens without thinking, automatically. u Jane instinctively knew all was not well with her 10-month old son. t åíóôéêôùäþò steering wheel /sti*rin wi:l n In a car or other vehicle, the steering wheel is the wheel which the driver holds when he or she is driving. t ôéìüíé rear ri*(r) adj The rear of sth such as a building or vehicle is the back part of it. u He settled back in the rear of the taxi. t ïðßóèéïò, ðßóù tyre /tai*(r) n A tyre is a thick piece of rubber which is fitted onto the wheels of vehicles such as cars, buses, and bicycles. t ëüóôé ï 54

15 skid skid v If a vehicle skids, it slides sideways or forwards while moving, for example when you are trying to stop it suddenly on a wet road. u The car pulled up too fast and skidded on the dusty shoulder of the road. t ãëéóôñþ, íôåñáðüñù (ãéá áõôïêßíçôï) straighten out /streitn aut phr.v Here, it means to make a car face forward by gaining control of it again. t åðáíáöýñù ôï áõôïêßíçôï óå ßóéá èýóç angle n If sth is at an angle, it is leaning in a particular direction so that it is not straight, horizontal, or vertical. u The wall s at a slight angle. t ãùíßá spin spin v If sth spins or if you spin it, it turns quickly around a central point. u The latest discs, used for small portable computers, spin 3600 times a minute. t ðåñéóôñýöïìáé, óôñéöïãõñßæù cruise kru:z v If a car, ship, or aircraft cruises somewhere, it moves there at a steady comfortable speed. u A black and white police car cruised past. t ðñï ùñþ ìå ìýôñéá êáé óôáèåñþ ôá ýôçôá pile-up /pailvp n A pile-up is a road accident in which a lot of vehicles crash into each other. u There was a 54-car pile-up. t êáñáìðüëá slam v If you slam sth down, you put it there quickly and with great force. u She listened in a mixture of shock and anger before slamming the phone down. t óðñþ íù, ôõðþ äõíáôü brakes breik n (pl) Brakes are devices in a vehicle that make it go slower or stop. u The brakes began locking. t öñýíá lock lok v When you lock sth in a particular position, it is held or fitted firmly in that position. u He leaned back in the chair and locked his fingers behind his head. t áóöáëßæù, -ïìáé, áêéíçôïðïéþ, -ïýìáé highway /haiwei n A highway is a main road, especially one that connects towns or cities. u I crossed the highway, avoiding the traffic. t ïäéêþ áñôçñßá, áõôïêéíçôüäñïìïò fatality n A fatality is a death caused by an accident or by violence. u Drunk driving fatalities in this country have declined more than 10 percent over the past 10 years. tâßáéïò èüíáôïò, èáíáôçöüñï áôý çìá, äõóôý çìá -related ri/leitid comb.adj -related combines with nouns to form adjectives with the meaning `connected with the thing referred to by the noun. u Twelve people die every hour from smokingrelated diseases. t ó åôéêüò ìå motorist /m*ut*rist n A motorist is a person who drives a car. t ïäçãüò áõôïêéíþôïõ erratically adv Sth that is done erratically does not follow a regular pattern, but happens at unexpected times or moves along in an irregular way. u Police stopped him for driving erratically. t óðáóìùäéêü, áêáíüíéóôá speed up spi:d Vp phr.v When sth speeds up or when you speed it up, it moves or travels faster. u You notice that your breathing has speeded up a bit. t áõîüíù ôá ýôçôá slow down sl*u daun phr.v If sth slows down it starts to move or happen more slowly. u The car slowed down as they passed the police car. t åëáôôþíù ôá ýôçôá turn signal te:n /sign*l n A car s turn signals are the flashing lights that tell you it is going to turn left or right. t öëáò (áõôïêéíþôïõ) conventional k*n/vens*nl adj A conventional method or product is one that is usually used or that has been in use for a long time. u The risks of conventional family planning methods should be considered. t óõìâáôéêüò keep your distance ki:p jc:(r) /dist*ns phr If you keep your distance from sb or sth, you do not get physically close to them. u He walked towards the doorway, careful to keep his distance. t êñáôþ áðüóôáóç Activity 1 Step 2 hesitate /heziteit v If you hesitate, you do not speak or act for a short time, usually because you are uncertain, embarrassed, or worried about what you are going to say or do. u The telephone rang; Catherine hesitated, wondering whether to answer it. t äéóôüæù, åßìáé åðéöõëáêôéêüò backwards adv If you move or look backwards, you move or look in the direction that your back is facing. u He took two steps backward. t ðñïò ôá ðßóù disabled dis/eibld adj Sb who is disabled has an illness, injury, or condition that tends to restrict the way that they can live their life, especially by making it difficult for them to move about. u We should look into the practical problems encountered by disabled people in their workplace. t áíßêáíïò (óå êüðïéá äñáóôçñéüôçôá) inexperienced InIk/spI*ri*nst adj If you are inexperienced, you have little knowledge or experience of a particular situation or activity. u They are inexperienced when it comes to decorating. tüðåéñïò inconsistently Ink*n/sIst*ntli adv When sb behaves inconsistently, he/she is not behaving in the same way every time a similar situation occurs. u He was driving inconsistently. t áëëïðñüóáëëá, ìå Üóôáôï ôñüðï Activity 2 procedure /pr*si:dj*(r) n A procedure is a way of doing sth, especially the usual or correct way. u A biopsy is usually a minor surgical procedure. t äéáäéêáóßá ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ B2 - Practice Tests - Companion 55

16 parking lot /pa:kin lot n A parking lot is an area of ground where people can leave their cars. u A block up the street I found a parking lot. t þñïò óôüèìåõóçò, ðüñêéíãê state of the art phr When sth is said to be state of the art, it means that it is as good as it can be at the present time, using the most modern techniques or methods. u The system was state of the art. t ôåëåõôáßáò ôå íïëïãßáò valuable adj If you describe sth or sb as valuable, you mean that they are very useful and helpful. u The experience was very valuable. t ðïëýôéìïò queue kju: n A queue is a line of people or vehicles that are waiting for sth. u There was still a queue for tickets on the night. t ïõñü convenient k*n/vi:ni*nt adj If you describe a place as convenient, you are pleased because it is near to where you are, or because you can reach another place from there quickly and easily. u Martin drove along until he found a convenient parking place. t åîõðçñåôéêüò, âïëéêüò breakdown /breikdaun n If a car or a piece of machinery has a breakdown, it stops working. u Her old car was unreliable, so the trip was filled with breakdowns. t ìç áíéêþ âëüâç courtesy /ke:t*si adj Courtesy is used to describe services that are provided free of charge by an organization to its customers, or to the general public. u A courtesy bus operates between the hotel and the town. t äùñåüí õðçñåóßá repair ri/pe*(r) n A repair is sth that you do to mend a machine, building, piece of clothing, or other thing that has been damaged or is not working properly. u Many women know how to carry out repairs on their cars. t åðéóêåõþ signify /signifai v If an event, a sign, or a symbol signifies sth, it is a sign of that thing or represents that thing. u A `Les Routiers symbol displayed outside a restaurant signifies there s excellent cuisine to be enjoyed inside. t õðïäçëþíù, äåß íù assistance */sist*ns n Sb or sth that is of assistance to you is helpful or useful to you. u Can I be of any assistance? t âïþèåéá personnel pe:s*/nel n The personnel of an organization are the people who work for it. u If you need help at work, your Personnel Manager should be able to help. t ðñïóùðéêü baggage n Your baggage consists of the bags that you take with you when you travel. It is also called luggage. u The passengers went through immigration control and collected their baggage. t áðïóêåõýò trolley /troli n A trolley is an object with wheels that you use to transport heavy things such as shopping or luggage. u A porter relieved her of the large cases she had been pushing on a trolley. t êáñïôóüêé convenience k*n/vi:ni*ns n If you describe sth as a convenience, you mean that it is very useful. u Mail order is a convenience for buyers who are too busy to shop. t Üíåóç, åõêïëßá expose Ik/sp*Uz v To expose a person or situation means to reveal that they are bad or immoral in some way. u After the scandal was exposed, Dr Bailey committed suicide. t åêèýôù dispenser di/spens*(r) n A dispenser is a machine or container designed so that you can get an item or quantity of sth from it in an easy and convenient way. u There are cash dispensers outside the bank. t áõôüìáôïò ðùëçôþò subscribe s*b/skraib v If you subscribe to a magazine or a newspaper, you pay to receive copies of it regularly. u My main reason for subscribing to New Scientist is to keep abreast of advances in science. t ãßíïìáé óõíäñïìçôþò persist p*/sist v If sth undesirable persists, it continues to exist. u These problems persisted for much of the decade. t åììýíù assist */sist v If you assist sb, you help them to do a job or task by doing part of the work for them. u Julia was assisting him to prepare his speech. t âïçèþ Activity 3 consideration k*nsid*/reisn n If you show consideration, you pay attention to the needs, wishes, or feelings of other people. u Show consideration for other rail travellers. t åõáéóèçóßá, åíäéáöýñïí fabulous adj If you describe sth as fabulous, you are emphasizing that you like it a lot or think that it is very good. u The scenery and weather were fabulous. t Ýîï ïò, öáíôáóôéêüò title /taitl n Publishers and booksellers often refer to books or magazines as titles. u It has become the biggest publisher of new poetry in Britain, with 50 new titles a year. t ôßôëïò (âéâëßïõ) assistant */sist*nt n An assistant is a person who helps or supports sb, usually in their job. u You should arrange an appointment with my assistant. t âïçèüò old people s home phr An old people s home is a place where old people live and are cared for when they are too old to look after themselves. t ïßêïò åõãçñßáò vet vet n A vet is a doctor who is qualified to treat sick or injured animals. A vet is also called a vetenerian. u We took our dog to the vet. t êôçíßáôñïò surgery /se:dj*ri n A surgery is the room or house where a doctor or dentist works. u I took my son to the doctor s surgery. 56

17 t éáôñåßï estate agent I/steIt /eidj*nt n An estate agent is sb who works for a company that sells houses and land for people. t êôçìáôïìåóßôçò Activity 4 starve sta:v v If people starve, they suffer greatly from lack of food which sometimes leads to their death. u A number of the prisoners we saw are starving. t ëéìïêôïíþ, "ðåéíþ" seek si:k v If you seek something such as a job or a place to live, you try to find one. (FORMAL) u They have had to seek work as labourers. t (áíá) æçôþ Activity 5 look into phr.v. If a person or organization is looking into a possible course of action, a problem, or a situation, they are finding out about it and examining the facts relating to it. u It should also look into the possibilities of wind-generated electricity. t äéåñåõíþ ôïí.. look over phr.v. If you look something over, you examine it quite quickly in order to get a general idea of what it is like. u He could have looked over the papers in less than ten minutes. t êïéôüæù, åîåôüæù look up phr.v. If a situation is looking up, it is improving. (INFOR- MAL) u Things could be looking up in the computer industry.t âåëôéþíïìáé look after phr.v. If you look after someone or something, you do what is necessary to keep them healthy, safe, or in good condition. u I love looking after the children. t öñïíôßæù, ðñïóý ù look forward to phr.v. If you look forward to something that is going to happen, you want it to happen because you think you will enjoy it. u He was looking forward to working with the new Prime Minister. t äåí âëýðù ôçí þñá íá.. look to phr.v. If you look to someone or something for a particular thing that you want, you expect or hope that they will provide it. u The difficulties women encounter with their doctors partly explain why so many of us are looking to alternative therapies. t ðñïóâëýðù óå look through phr.v. If you look through something that has been written or printed, you read it. u He happened to be looking through the medical book `Gray's Anatomy' at the time. t åîåôüæù look down on phr.v. To look down on someone means to consider that person to be inferior or unimportant, usually when this is not true. u I wasn't successful, so they looked down on me. t åõåëðéóôþ óå.., ðñïóâëýðù óå.. Activity 6 Step 1 neglect ni/glekt v If you neglect to do sth that you ought to do or neglect your duty, you fail to do it. u We often neglect to make proper use of our bodies. t áìåëþ mundane mvn/dein adj Sth that is mundane is very ordinary and not at all interesting or unusual. u Be willing to do mundane tasks with good grace. t êïéíüôïðïò, áíéáñüò befall bi/fc:l v If sth bad or unlucky befalls you, it happens to you. u A disaster befell the island of Flores. t óõìâáßíù, ôõ áßíù adequate adj If sth is adequate, there is enough of it or it is good enough to be used or accepted. u One in four people worldwide are without adequate homes. t åðáñêþò package n A package tour, or in British English a package holiday, is a holiday arranged by a travel company in which your travel and your accommodation are booked for you. u I booked us a package holiday for our vacation. t ðáêýôï (ïñãáíùìýíùí äéáêïðþí) error /er*(r) n An error is sth you have done which is considered to be incorrect or wrong, or which should not have been done. u NASA discovered a mathematical error in its calculations. t óöüëìá bother /bod*(r) v If you do not bother to do sth or if you do not bother with it, you do not do it, consider it, or use it because you think it is unnecessary or because you are too lazy. u Nothing I do makes any difference anyway, so why bother? t ìðáßíù óôïí êüðï íá insurance policy In/SU*r*ns /pol*si n An insurance policy is a document which shows the agreement that you have made with an insurance company. u You are advised to read the small print of household and motor insurance policies. t áóöáëéóôþñéï óõìâüëáéï lull lvl v If you are lulled into feeling safe, sb or sth causes you to feel safe at a time when you are not safe. u It is easy to be lulled into a false sense of security. t êáèçóõ Üæù, êáëìüñù all-inclusive C:l In/klu:sIv adj All-inclusive is used to indicate that a price, especially the price of a holiday, includes all the charges and all the services offered. u An all-inclusive two-week holiday costs around 2880 pound per person. t ðïõ ðåñéëáìâüíåé ôá ðüíôá incur In/kE:(r) v If you incur sth unpleasant, it happens to you because of sth you have done. u The government had also incurred huge debts. t åðéóýñù, åðéâáñýíù arduous /A:dju*s adj Sth that is arduous is difficult and tiring, and involves a lot of effort. u The task was more arduous than he had ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ B2 - Practice Tests - Companion 57

18 calculated. t åðßðïíïò encompass In/kVmp*s v If sth encompasses particular things, it includes them. u His repertoire encompassed everything from Bach to Schoenberg. t ðåñéëáìâüíù wetsuit /wetsu:t n A wetsuit is a close-fitting rubber suit which an underwater swimmer wears in order to keep their body warm. t óôïëþ áõôïäýôç flipper /flip*(r) n Flippers are flat pieces of rubber that you can wear on your feet to help you swim more quickly, especially underwater. t âáôñá ïðýäéëï torrent /tor*nt n A torrent is a lot of water falling or flowing rapidly or violently. u The rain came down in torrents, and we could see nothing. t åßìáññïò clutch klvts v If you clutch at sth or clutch sth, you hold it tightly, usually because you are afraid or anxious. u I staggered and had to clutch at a chair for support. t áñðüæù, êñáôþ óöéêôü inflatable In/fleIt*bl adj An inflatable object is one that you fill with air when you want to use it. u The children were playing on the inflatable castle. t öïõóêùôüò variation ve*ri/eisn n A variation is a change or slight difference in a level, amount, or quantity. u The survey found a wide variation in the prices charged for canteen food. t äéáêýìáíóç, áðüêëéóç imperative Im/per*tIv adj If it is imperative that sth is done, that thing is extremely important and must be done. u It was imperative that he act as naturally as possible. t åðéôáêôéêüò, åðéâåâëçìýíïò undertake Vnd*/teIk v When you undertake a task or job, you start doing it and accept responsibility for it. u She undertook the difficult job of monitoring the elections. t áíáëáìâüíù extreme Ik/stri:m adj You use extreme to describe situations, activities or behaviour which are unusual and much more severe that you would expect. u It is hard to imagine Lineker capable of anything so extreme. t áêñáßïò white water rafting wait /wc:t*(r) / ra:ftin n White-water rafting is the activity of riding on a raft over rough, dangerous parts of a fast-flowing river. t ñüöôéíãê óå Üãñéá íåñü bungee jumping /bvndji /djvmpin n If sb goes bungee jumping, they jump from a high place such as a bridge or cliff with a long piece of strong elastic cord tied around their ankle connecting them to the bridge or cliff. t ìðüíôæé ôæüìðéí - ôï íá ðçäþîåéò áðü ýøïò äåìýíïò ìå óêïéíß ãéá íá íïéþóåéò ìéá Ýíôïíç åìðåéñßá insurer In/SU*r*(r) n An insurer is a company that sells insurance. t áóöáëéóôþò Activity 6 Step 2 admirably ad'mnrbbbln adv An admirable quality or action is one that deserves to be praised and admired. u Johnstone's research is admirably wide-ranging. t áîéïèáýìáóôá, êáôü ôñüðï èáõìüóéï, èáýìá demonstrate 'ddmbnstrent v If you demonstrate a particular skill, quality, or feeling, you show by your actions that you have it. u The government's going to great lengths to demonstrate its military might. t áðïäåéêíýù, åêöñüæù, åîùôåñéêåýù, "äåß íù" Activity 7 compulsory kbm'phlsbrn adj If something is compulsory, you must do it or accept it, because it is the law or because someone in a position of authority says you must. u In East Germany learning Russian was compulsory. t õðï ñåùôéêüò obese ol'bi:s adj If someone is obese, they are extremely fat. u Obese people tend to have higher blood pressure than lean people. t ðá ýóáñêïò, õðåñâïëéêü ðá ýò initially N'nNGBlN adv Initially means soon after the beginning of a process or situation, rather than in the middle or at the end of it. u Forecasters say the gales may not be as bad as they initially predicted. t áñ éêü Practice Test 5 Module 1 Activity 1 Step 1 launch lc:ntg v To launch a large and important activity, for example a military attack, means to start it. u The police have launched an investigation into the incident. t èýôù óå êßíçóç Þ êõêëïöïñßá, "âãüæù Þ ëáíóüñù óôçí áãïñü" via 'vanb prep If you do something via a particular means or person, you do it by making use of that means or person. u Translators can now work from home, via electronic mail systems. t äéü ìýóïõ, ìýóù resident 'rdzndbnt n The residents of a house or area are the people who live there. More than 10 percent of Munich residents live below the poverty line. t êüôïéêïò physical 'fnznkbl adj Physical things are real things that can be touched and seen, rather than ideas or spoken words. u Physical and ideological barriers had come down in Eastern Europe. t õëéêüò, öõóéêüò, ôçò õëéêþò õðüóôáóçò attribute B'trNbju:t n An attribute is a quality or feature that someone or 58

19 something has. u Cruelty is a normal attribute of human behaviour. t áñáêôçñéóôéêü, ãíþñéóìá customize 'khstbmanz v If you customize something, you change its appearance or features to suit your tastes or needs. u...a control that allows photographers to customise the camera's basic settings. t ðñïóáñìüæù resemble rn'zdmbbl v If one thing or person resembles another, they are similar to each other. u She so resembles her mother. t ìïéüæù, Ý ù êïéíü ãíùñßóìáôá thus JHs adv You use thus to show that what you are about to mention is the result or consequence of something else that you have just mentioned. (FORMAL) u Even in a highly skilled workforce some people will be more capable and thus better paid than others. t êáôü óõíýðåéá, Üñá, óõíåðþò, åî áéôßáò áõôïý, ãéá ôï ëüãï áõôü appear B'pNB(r) v If you say that something appears to be the way you describe it, you are reporting what you believe or what you have been told, though you cannot be sure it is true. u The aircraft appears to have crashed near Katmandu. t öáßíïìáé, äåß íù óáí.., Ý ù ôçí åìöüíéóç ôïõ.. at will phr If you can do something at will, you can do it when you want and as much as you want. u...scientists who can adjust their experiments at will. t êáôü âïýëçóç modify 'mkdnfan v If you modify something, you change it slightly, usually in order to improve it. u The plane was a modified version of the C-130. t åðéöýñù (âåëôéùôéêýò) ìåôáôñïðýò, ìåôáôñýðù rapidly 'rapndln adv Sth that changes rapidly means that happens very quickly. u...countries with rapidly growing populations... t ìå ôá ýôçôá, ãïñãü, ãñþãïñá require rn'kwanb(r) v If you require something or if something is required, you need it or it is necessary. (FORMAL) u If you require further information, you should consult the registrar. t ðñïûðïèýôù, ñåéüæïìáé, áðáéôþ vehicle 'vi:nkbl n A vehicle is a machine with an engine, for example a bus, car, or truck, that carries people or things from place to place. u The vehicle would not have the capacity to make the journey on one tank of fuel. t ü çìá instantaneous NnstBn'teNnNBs adj Something that is instantaneous happens immediately and very quickly. u Death was not instantaneous because none of the bullets hit the heart. t áêáñéáßïò, óôéãìéáßïò purchase 'pm:tgbs n The purchase of something is the act of buying it. (FORMAL) u This week he is to visit China to discuss the purchase of military supplies. t áãïñü, áðüêôçóç ìå áãïñü submarine 'shbmbri:n n A submarine is a type of ship that can travel both above and below the surface of the sea. The abbreviation sub is also used. u...a nuclear submarine. t õðïâñý éï particularly pb'tnkjllbln adv You use particularly to indicate that what you are saying applies especially to one thing or situation. u Keep your office space looking good, particularly your desk. t éäéáéôýñùò, åéäéêü, óõãêåêñéìýíá currency 'khrbnsn n The money used in a particular country is referred to as its currency. u More people favour a single European currency than oppose it. t (éó ýïí) íüìéóìá refer (to) rn'fm:(r) v If you refer to someone or something as a particular thing, you use a particular word, expression, or name to mention or describe them. u Our economy is referred to as a free market. t áíáöýñù, áíáöýñïìáé (óå..), êüíù ëüãï (ãéá..) regularly 'rdgjllb(r) adv Regularly means frequently. u Potentially dangerous bacteria are regularly sent from one laboratory to another. t êáôü ôáêôéêü Þ óõ íü äéáóôþìáôá, ôáêôéêü exchange Nks'tGeNndF v If you exchange something, you replace it with a different thing, especially something that is better or more satisfactory. u If the car you have leased is clearly unsatisfactory, you can always exchange it for another. t áíôáëëüóóù, "áëëüæù" fluctuate 'flhktglent v If something fluctuates, it changes a lot in an irregular way. u Body temperature can fluctuate if you are ill. t áõîïìåéþíïìáé, ìåôáâüëëïìáé open market n Goods that are bought and sold on the open market are advertised and sold to anyone who wants to buy them. u The Central Bank is authorized to sell government bonds on the open market. t åëåýèåñç áãïñü attempt B'tDmpt v If you attempt to do something, especially something difficult, you try to do it. u The only time that we attempted to do something like that was in the city of Philadelphia. t åðé åéñþ, ðñáãìáôïðïéþ áðüðåéñá: range renndf v If things range between two points or range from one point to another, they vary within these points on a scale of measurement or quality. u They range in price from $3 to $15. t (äéá) êõìáßíïìáé concern kbn'sm:n n Concern is worry about a situation. u The European Community has expressed concern about reports of political violence in Africa. t áíçóõ ßá in regard to rn'ga:d phr You can use in regard to to indicate the subject that is being talked or written about. u The department is reviewing its policy with regard to immunisation. t áíáöïñéêü ìå.. taxation twk'sengbn n Taxation is the system by which a government takes ÊÑÁÔÉÊÏ ÐÉÓÔÏÐÏÉÇÔÉÊÏ B2 - Practice Tests - Companion 59

20 money from people and spends it on things such as education, health, and defence. t öïñïëïãßá, öïñïëüãçóç Activity 1 Step 2 represent rdprn'zdnt v If you represent a person or group at an official event, you go there on their behalf. u The general secretary may represent the president at official ceremonies. t áíôéðñïóùðåýù, åêðñïóùðþ go-kart n A go-kart is a very small motor vehicle with four wheels, used for racing. t ãêüêáñô, ìéêñü ôåôñüôñï á ï Þìáôá áãþíùí unstable Hn'steNbl adj You can describe something as unstable if it is likely to change suddenly, especially if this creates difficulty or danger. u The situation is unstable and potentially dangerous. t áóôáèþò, "ñåõóôüò", åõìåôüâëçôïò Activity 2 located lol'kentnd adj If something is located in a particular place, it is present or has been built there. (FORMAL) u The restaurant is located near the cathedral. t âñßóêïìáé, åäñåýù tube tgu:b n The tube is the underground railway system in London. (BRIT) u I took the tube then the train and came straight here. t õðüãåéïò (óéäçñüäñïìïò) ìåôñü (ôïõ Ëïíäßíïõ) inn n An inn is a small hotel or pub, usually an old one. (OLD-FASHIONED) u...the Waterside Inn. t ðáíäï åßï, Üíé previously 'pri:vnbsln adv Previously means at some time before the period that you are talking about. u Previously she had very little time to work in her own garden. t ðñéí, ðñïçãïõìýíùò, Üëëïôå, êáôü ôï ðáñåëèüí barn ba:n n A barn is a building on a farm in which crops or animal food can be kept. t óéôáðïèþêç, á õñþíáò intimate 'NntNmBt adj If you use intimate to describe an occasion or the atmosphere of a place, you like it because it is quiet and pleasant, and seems suitable for close conversations between friends. u...an intimate candlelit dinner for two. t ïéêåßïò, (óôåíü) öéëéêüò section 'sdkgbn n A section of something is one of the parts into which it is divided or from which it is formed. u He said it was wrong to single out any section of society for Aids testing. t ôìþìá venue 'vdnju: n The venue for an event or activity is the place where it will happen. u Birmingham's International Convention Centre is the venue for a three-day arts festival. t ôüðïò äéåîáãùãþò (áãþíá êôë.) Activity 3 control panel kkn'troll 'panbl n A control panel or instrument panel is a board or surface which contains switches and controls to operate a machine or piece of equipment. u The equipment was extremely sophisticated and was monitored from a central control-panel. t ðßíáêáò åëýã ïõ remove rn'mu:v v If you remove something from a place, you take it away. (WRITTEN) u At least three bullets were removed from his wounds. t áöáéñþ, áðïóðþ, âãüæù turbulence 'tm:bjllbns n Turbulence is violent and uneven movement within a particular area of air, liquid, or gas. u His plane encountered severe turbulence and winds of nearly twohundred miles an hour. t áíáôüñáîç yeast ji:st n Yeast is a kind of fungus which is used to make bread rise, and in making alcoholic drinks such as beer. t ìáãéü assemble B'sDmbBl v When people assemble or when someone assembles them, they come together in a group, usually for a particular purpose such as a meeting. u There wasn't even a convenient place for students to assemble between classes. t óõãêåíôñþíù-ïìáé, ìáæåýù-ïìáé charge tga:df v If you charge someone an amount of money, you ask them to pay that amount for something that you have sold to them or done for them. u...the architect who charged us a fee of seven hundred and fifty pounds. t åðéâáñýíù, ñåþíù overdue olvb'dfu: adj An overdue library book has not been returned to the library, even though the date on which it should have been returned has passed. t êáèõóôåñçìýíïò, åêðñüèåóìïò balance 'balbns n The balance in your bank account is the amount of money you have in it. u I'd like to check the balance in my account please. t õðüëïéðï (ëïãáñéáóìïý) operator KpB'reNtB(r) n An operator is a person who connects telephone calls at a telephone exchange or in a place such as an office or hotel. u He dialled the operator and put in a call for Rome. t ôçëåöùíçôþò Þ ôçëåöùíþôñéá uninstall HnNn'stC:l v Ôo remove a program from a computer. u Uninstall any programs that you no longer need. t áðïìáêñýíù, áðïóýñù, "ðáßñíù", áöáéñþ, âãüæù enroll Nn'roLl v If you enrol or are enrolled at an institution or on a course, you officially join it and pay a fee for it. u I thought I'd enrol you with an art group at the school. t åããñüöù-ïìáé (ìýëïò êôë.) recipe 'rdsnpn n A recipe is a list of ingredients and a set of instructions that tell you how to cook something. u...a traditional 60

IN A SMALL PART OF THE CITY WEST OF

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