World History Final Exam Review Part I

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1 World History Final Exam Review Part I Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question Which of the following describes a system of indirect rule? a. Imperial powers govern their colonies using local rulers. b. Imperial powers give up spheres of influence to trading companies. c. Imperial powers send their own officials to administer their colonies. d. Imperial powers absorb territory into their existing political systems. What was the Neolithic Revolution? a. the change from hunting and food-gathering to farming b. a rejection of Paleolithic values by Neolithic people c. the evolution of animistic spiritual beliefs d. the migration of people from Asia to the Americas 3. Which event sparked nationalist unrest in the Balkans in the 1990s? a. Serbian ethnic cleansing b. the discovery of oil in the Adriatic Sea c. NATO air strikes d. the collapse of communism in Yugoslavia Which of the following outcomes might support the domino theory? a. Cambodia and Laos ended up with communist governments dominated by Vietnam. b. After communism collapsed in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe became democratic. c. Korea remained politically and economically divided. d. China restricted political liberties while allowing economic freedom. Which of the following generalizations regarding how African nations won their independence is true? a. Most, but not all, nations were able to win their independence peacefully. b. All nations were forced to fight for their independence. c. Economic sanctions helped many nations win their independence. d. Most nations won their independence at the voting polls. The spread of plague during the Middle Ages a. strengthened Europe s ties to the Middle East and China. b. caused a population boom in the cities. c. created terror, bewilderment, and violence. d. led to significant medical advancements. Cultural diffusion is a. the migration of people from Asia to the Americas. b. the extinction of traditional ways of life. c. the evolution of organized religions. d. the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies. Which of the following countries was once a Portuguese colony? a. Peru c. Brazil b. Cuba d. Mexico Copernicus proposed which of the following? a. The sun travels around Earth. b. Earth travels around the sun. c. Gravity keeps the planets in orbit around the sun. d. Earth is the center of the universe.

2 10. By 1900, which two nations surpassed Britain as the world s leading industrial nations? a. Japan and Germany c. Germany and the United States b. France and Germany d. Japan and the United States 11. Which of the following statements describes Mayan government? a. Each city had its own ruler. c. One king ruled all Mayan city-states. b. The emperor claimed divine power. d. Only men could rule. 12. Many Italians supported the Fascist party because it a. ended the influence of the Church. c. pledged to unite Italy and Germany. b. was the only political party. d. promised to improve the economy. 13. Who began a vast global exchange that included people, plants, and animals? a. Samuel de Champlain c. Christopher Columbus b. Bartolomé de las Casas d. Hernán Cortés 14. The Indian National Congress wanted a. unification with Pakistan. c. eventual self-rule for India. b. a revolution to end British rule. d. a tax on British goods. 15. Which of the following events was the spark that finally set off widespread revolt in Latin America in the early 1800s? a. Napoleon s invasion of Spain c. the American Revolution b. uprisings in the Balkans d. the French Revolution 16. Industrialization in the textile industry resulted in a. improved working conditions. c. slower production times. b. the establishment of factories. d. better-paying jobs. 17. One of the biggest factors contributing to political instability in African nations immediately after independence was a. natural disasters. c. the failure of communism. b. ethnic conflict. d. the lack of natural resources. 18. The stability of ancient India s social order was a result of the a. caste system. c. economic prosperity. b. spread of Buddhism. d. popularity of Hinduism. 19. The Holy Roman emperors failed to build a unified nation-state in Germany partly because they a. were excommunicated by the pope. c. were distracted by the Crusades. b. lacked the resources to do so. d. could not control their vassals. 20. Lenin believed that a socialist revolution could succeed in Russia if a. revolutions were carried out simultaneously in other parts of Europe. b. Russia became an industrial state. c. the peasants owned the land they worked. d. a small group of dedicated revolutionaries controlled the government. 21. Which two groups held the top position in Ottoman society? a. men of the pen and men of husbandry b. men of the sword and men of the pen c. men of husbandry and men of negotiation d. men of negotiation and men of the sword

3 22. Jesus proclaimed that his mission was to a. overthrow Roman rule. c. lead the Jews out of Palestine. b. bring spiritual salvation to believers. d. reject the Ten Commandments. 23. The trade region that includes Japan and the United States is known as the a. Organization of American States. c. Asian tigers. b. Pacific Rim. d. European Union. 24. During the last two decades of the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to a. global protection of human rights. b. a policy of nuclear disarmament. c. the development of chemical and biological weapons. d. allow communism to spread throughout Asia. 25. What did Europeans consider to be the most important item of African trade during the 1500s and 1600s? a. gold c. enslaved persons b. guns d. rum 26. World War II in Europe began with Hitler s invasion of a. Austria. c. Czechoslovakia. b. France. d. Poland. 27. The Declaration of Independence clearly reflects the ideas of a. Thomas Hobbes. c. John Locke. b. Catherine the Great. d. George III. 28. Which of the following is a defining geographic feature of life on the Indian subcontinent? a. desertification c. deforestation b. a lack of arable land d. monsoons 29. The Western powers chose a policy of appeasement during the 1930s partly because a. they were distracted by colonial unrest. b. they supported the acts of aggression. c. they were fighting civil wars of their own. d. they wanted to avoid a repeat of World War I. 30. The most lasting achievement of Alexander the Great was the a. Macedonian dynasty. c. spread of Greek culture. b. library in Alexandria, Egypt. d. unity of his empire. 31. Which of the following statements accurately describes the economic policy of mercantilism? a. It was based on a belief that a nation s real wealth was measured in its gold and silver treasures. b. It downplayed the role of government in stimulating economic growth. c. It encouraged trade by abolishing laws that regulated trade. d. It discouraged the establishment of overseas colonies. 32. Henry IV of France granted religious tolerance to the Huguenots with the a. Fronde. c. Edict of Nantes. b. levée. d. English Bill of Rights. 33. In the late 1800s, American sugar growers overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and asked the United States to annex a. Samoa. c. Hawaii. b. Cuba. d. the Philippines.

4 34. How did the Scientific Revolution change thinking about the physical universe? a. Scientists now based their theories on observations and experimentation. b. Scientists now used common sense to guide their theories. c. Scientists now based their theories on the writings of the ancient Greeks. d. Scientists now relied on religious teachings to prove their theories. 35. Hammurabi s Code was an important achievement because a. it was the first major collection of laws. b. it treated men and women as equals. c. it ended capital punishment. d. it rejected the principle of an eye for an eye. 36. Which of the following statements is true regarding India and Pakistan during the Cold War? a. Pakistan allied itself with the United States, while India favored the Soviet Union. b. Pakistan supported the Soviet Union, while India supported the United States. c. They both remained nonaligned. d. They both refused economic aid from foreign countries. 37. The printing revolution of the late 1400s resulted in a. decreased funding for the arts. c. increased competition with China. b. the beginning of compulsory education. d. the spread of literacy. 38. The build-up of armed forces in Europe during the late 1800s is an example of a. mercantilism. c. imperialism. b. isolationism. d. militarism. 39. To make Rome s tax system fairer, Augustus a. consolidated the types of taxes that were collected. b. taxed foreigners at a higher rate than Roman citizens. c. increased the taxes paid by the rich. d. ordered a census to compile records of who should be taxed. 40. Iraq s history of internal and external conflicts partly results from a. the collapse of communism. c. a series of natural disasters. b. its oil resources and ethnic diversity. d. its lack of stable political leadership. 41. Which of the following points to a decline in patriotism in the Roman empire? a. Caligula appointed his horse as consul. b. Diocletian fixed the prices of goods and services. c. Mercenaries replaced citizen-soldiers in the Roman army. d. Poor farmers abandoned their own farms to work for wealthy landowners. 42. Which of the following was a consequence of the Industrial Revolution? a. making one s own clothing c. traveling by steamship b. working by candlelight d. traveling by horse-drawn cart 43. Why was coal important to the Industrial Revolution? a. Trading coal with other countries brought wealth to invest in industry. b. Coal provided the fuel to produce iron. c. Mining coal provided jobs for unemployed farm laborers. d. Coal provided fuel to heat workers homes. 44. The intention of China s Four Modernizations was to a. get rid of noncommunists. c. limit family size. b. improve China s economy. d. end the democracy movement.

5 45. The Renaissance marked a renewed interest in a. African civilization. c. Muslim civilization. b. East Asian civilization. d. Greco-Roman civilization. 46. Peter the Great forced Russians to accept social reforms that would make their culture more like that of a. Ottoman Turkey. c. Western Europeans. b. China. d. Native Americans. 47. The concept of the salon originated a. in the 1600s with a group of noblewomen in London. b. in the 1700s with a group of middle-class women in Paris. c. in the 1600s with a group of noblewomen in Paris. d. in the 1700s with a group of noblemen in Paris. 48. Why did Spain s Philip II try to invade England in 1588? a. to stop the English from invading Spain b. to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation c. to end English attacks on Spanish treasure ships d. to punish Elizabeth I for not marrying him 49. During the period of Exploration, Europeans sought new trade routes so that they could a. avoid exposure to the Black Death. c. travel along the Silk Road. b. reach their American colonies faster. d. gain direct access to Asia. 50. What was the goal of the Green Revolution? a. to encourage recycling c. to slow India s population growth b. to enable India to feed all of its people d. to turn India into an industrial nation 51. The Trojan War most likely had its roots in a. religious differences between Mycenae and Troy. b. the economic rivalry between Mycenae and Troy. c. the romantic longings of the Trojan prince Paris. d. Troy s desire for independence from Mycenae. 52. In the 1930s, Japanese militarists wanted to a. get rid of the emperor. c. adopt Western ways. b. revive traditional Japanese values. d. reform education. 53. Why did the Congress of Vienna redraw the boundaries of some European countries? a. to encircle France with strong countries c. to prevent the growth of nationalism b. to distribute land more fairly d. to create more countries 54. What methods did the philosophes apply when developing their ideas? a. methods of astrology c. methods of science b. methods of philosophy d. methods of mathematics 55. What does the Muslim duty of the hajj require? a. a declaration of faith c. the learning of Arabic b. giving charity to the poor d. a pilgrimage to Mecca 56. Nationalism posed the biggest threat to which of the following? a. Prussia c. Italy b. Germany d. Austria

6 57. During his voyages, Chinese explorer Zheng He a. defeated Mongol invaders. b. established trade centers in Southeast Asia and India. c. united China under the Ming dynasty. d. made first contact with Native Americans. 58. Which of the following helped the Allies achieve the breakthrough they sought in World War I? a. the waging of total war c. the Russian Revolution b. the battle of Gallipoli d. the involvement of the United States 59. During China s Tang and Song dynasties, which group formed the top level of society? a. merchants c. peasants b. the scholar-gentry d. artists 60. How did the Germans view the lands they occupied? a. as resources to be plundered and looted c. as partners in a new world order b. as allies in their war against Britain d. as converts to their cause 61. The geography of Greece helped create a. a large Greek empire. c. many small city-states. b. unity among Greeks. d. isolation from the outside world. 62. The exchange of enslaved Africans for guns in Africa and for molasses in the Americas was part of a. the triangular trade. c. the price revolution. b. the Columbian exchange. d. mercantilism. 63. Which city was the target of an unsuccessful German blitz for two months in 1941? a. London c. Paris b. Vichy d. Dunkirk 64. The scattering of the Jewish people is called the a. Babylonian Captivity. c. covenant. b. Diaspora. d. Torah. 65. Unlike the Nationalists, Mao Zedong s Communists gained the most support from which group in China? a. workers c. warlords b. peasants d. militarists 66. In response to the Nile River s frequent flooding, the Egyptians a. developed geometry so they could survey the land. b. wrote in stone so water would not wash away their records. c. mummified their dead to prevent contamination of drinking water. d. built pyramids so they could live above the flood plain. 67. How was medieval Ethiopia different from its neighbors? a. It had contact with Europe. c. It was Christian. b. It had no contact with Europe. d. It was Muslim. 68. Which of the following statements is an argument against globalization? a. Success in trade earns money that can be used to improve infrastructure. b. Competition for goods and services limits product availability. c. Nations involved in free trade often become more democratic. d. Globalization takes away indigenous people s land and culture.

7 69. During the Bantu migration, West African farmers and herders moved to a. the Mediterranean coast. c. southern Africa. b. the Sahara. d. the Middle East. 70. What is one reason that Stalin refused to relinquish control of Eastern Europe after World War II? a. He wanted a buffer zone between the Soviet Union and Germany. b. He intended to ransom the region in exchange for reparations. c. He wanted to guarantee that the region would have democratic governments. d. He wanted control of the region s natural resources. 71. How did conquest of the Americas affect Spain? a. Diseases from the Americas wiped out Spain s population. b. Wealth from the American colonies made Spain Europe s greatest power. c. Spain became the first European nation to use horses. d. Many Spanish converted to Native American religions. 72. Why has North Korea remained isolated and poor? a. It lacks the natural resources necessary for development. b. Natural disasters have wiped out native industries. c. Reparations from the Korean War have left it outcast and bankrupt. d. Its government clings to hard-line communism. 73. The Magna Carta guarantees which of the following rights? a. freedom of religion c. universal manhood suffrage b. the right to bear arms d. due process of law 74. Which of the following was a cause of the Sepoy Rebellion? a. reduction in the sepoys salary c. British insensitivity to Indian customs b. tax increases d. food shortages 75. How did city life improve during the late 1800s and early 1900s? a. Streets were narrowed so more houses could be built. b. Street lights and organized police forces made cities safer. c. Homelessness was reduced by crowding people into tenements. d. Pollution was reduced when factories relocated outside city limits. 76. Which of the following people was responsible for the unification of Germany? a. Otto von Bismarck c. Count Camillo Cavour b. Guiseppe Garibaldi d. Napoleon III 77. Compared with settlers in the Spanish and French colonies, English colonists had a. a large degree of self-government. b. fewer legal and political rights. c. more violent conflicts with Native Americans. d. greater access to gold and silver. 78. Unlike its neighbors, Vietnam a. adopted Islam rather than Buddhism as its main religion. b. maintained its independence from Chinese and Indian conquerors. c. was influenced more by China than by India. d. granted women more freedom. 79. Which of the following helped British farmers increase food production in the 1700s? a. improved farm machinery c. the availability of more farmworkers b. new kinds of crops d. reducing the size of their farms

8 World History Final Exam Review Part II Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following groups finally conquered the Byzantine empire? a. German Christians c. Ottoman Turks b. Arabs d. Seljuk Turks 2. Which of the following principles is based on Roman law? a. An accused person is innocent until proven guilty. b. Citizens have the right to carry weapons. c. Punishment is determined by the crime, not by social class. d. Citizens are free to practice any religion they choose. 3. China s Ming and Qing dynasties a. prohibited all foreign trade. c. allowed foreign trade only with Britain. b. encouraged foreign trade. d. restricted foreign trade. 4. Chinese philosopher Confucius taught that harmony resulted when a. each person looked out for his own interests. b. true social equality was achieved. c. people accepted their place in society. d. a strong ruler controlled society. 5. During the Reign of Terror, Robespierre tried to a. execute all French nobles. c. crush all opposition to the revolution. b. restore the Catholic Church. d. reinstate the monarchy. 6. What name was given to U.S. strategy in World War II s Pacific theater? a. fire-bombing c. saturation bombing b. kamikaze d. island-hopping 7. Why was Bloody Sunday in 1905 a turning point for Russia? a. It forced the tsar to abdicate. c. It demonstrated the need for reform. b. It led to the abolition of serfdom. d. It sparked industrialization in Russia. 8. Which of the following areas did Napoleon annex to France? a. the Netherlands c. Britain b. Poland d. Russia 9. How did Latin America s military rulers justify the harshness of their regimes? a. by blaming the United States c. by claiming a need for order b. by blaming the Roman Catholic Church d. by citing Marxist theory 10. Which of the following civilizations ruled an area that included the Andes? a. Aztecs c. Mayas b. Olmecs d. Incas 11. Which of the following is a legacy of the Phoenicians? a. cuneiform c. runes b. hieroglyphics d. the alphabet 12. One effect of urbanization in Africa is

9 a. higher literacy rates. c. lower birthrates. b. weakened kinship ties. d. the preservation of traditional culture. 13. The people of Paris stormed the Bastille on July 14, 1789, because a. they wanted to hide from the revolutionaries. b. they wanted to steal the tax money stored inside. c. they wanted to free Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. d. they believed there were weapons stored inside. 14. Which of the following helped Adolf Hitler gain power in Germany? a. big business and labor c. the promise of a new democracy b. the support of the Weimar government d. the Great Depression 15. Which of the following is a consequence of growing cash crops in Africa? a. There is a food shortage. b. Countries are achieving economic independence. c. Governments are neglecting industrial development. d. Small farmers are becoming wealthy. 16. Which of the following did Gandhi use to fight British rule? a. pressure from the United Nations c. passive resistance b. violent demonstrations d. armed resistance 17. Which of the following conditions during the Industrial Revolution supported Karl Marx s ideas? a. People left the countryside and moved to the cities. b. People were no longer threatened by famine. c. More material goods were available and more people could afford them. d. There were a few wealthy business people while the majority of people were poor. 18. Who was punished most harshly for its involvement in World War I? a. Serbia c. Germany b. Austria-Hungary d. Russia 19. Which is a true statement about England s Commonwealth? a. The Commonwealth was a republic in name, but Cromwell ruled as a dictator. b. For the first time, poor men were granted seats in Parliament. c. Charles I governed as a constitutional monarch. d. Women exercised political rights equal to those of men. 20. Why did both Britain and Russia want to control Iran? a. to spread their political beliefs c. to gain possession of its oil fields b. to help it modernize d. to save it from Ottoman rule 21. Latin American social and political life in the early 1800s was dominated by the a. creoles. c. mulattoes. b. mestizos. d. peninsulares. 22. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen stated that a. all male citizens had the right to vote. b. all men were born free and equal. c. male and female citizens were equal before the law. d. all citizens had to pay equal taxes. 23. Martin Luther s criticism of the Roman Catholic Church focused on the

10 a. sale of indulgences. c. translation of the Bible into German. b. selection of a new pope. d. doctrine of predestination. 24. Even though feudal Japan had an emperor, the country was actually governed by the a. kamikaze. c. samurai. b. daimyo. d. shogun. 25. Why was the Dutch East India Company able to challenge Portugal s domination of Asian trade? a. The Company was more technologically advanced than Portugal. b. The Company had full sovereign powers. c. Portugal was weakened by a series of military defeats. d. Portugal paid more attention to its African interests than its Asian ones. 26. Mexico s independence movement began with a. Touissant L Overture s slave revolt. c. the coronation of Emperor Agustín I. b. the execution of José Morelos. d. the Grito de Dolores. 27. Han emperors incorporated into government the teachings of which philosopher? a. Hanfeizi c. Buddha b. Confucius d. Laozi 28. One of the challenges facing South Africa since the abolition of apartheid is a. ending racial violence in former black townships. b. choosing political leaders who are not racially biased. c. incorporating supporters of apartheid into the new government. d. closing the socio-economic gap between blacks and whites. 29. Which of the following was an obstacle to peace in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict? a. lack of Arab support for a peace agreement b. Israeli settlements in the occupied territories c. pressure on the region from the United States d. the death of Yasir Arafat 30. Mao Zedong was able to defeat China s Nationalists because a. most of the Chinese people supported him. b. he was financed by wealthy landowners. c. the Japanese government supported him. d. the Nationalists had no leader. 31. One cause of Russia s March 1917 revolution was a. Lenin s return to Russia. c. the death of Rasputin. b. the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. d. food shortages. 32. Which of the following is considered to be the main feature of civilization? a. settled farming c. the use of simple tools b. the establishment of cities d. domestication of animals 33. Trade within the colonies of the British empire was controlled by a. Parliament. c. wealthy landowners. b. colonial assemblies. d. King George III. 34. One effect of the Cold War was a. an outbreak of civil wars. c. widespread fighting. b. the founding of the United Nations. d. increased political tension worldwide. 35. The split between Sunni and Shiite Muslims began with a disagreement about

11 a. the role of women in Islam. c. designating Mecca as a holy city. b. choosing Muhammad s successor. d. practicing the Five Pillars. 36. Which group dominated the economic and political lives of towns during the Middle Ages? a. farmers c. guilds b. knights d. the clergy 37. When World War I ended, many Indians expected a. to gain more territory. c. separate states for Hindus and Muslims. b. greater self-government. d. to become citizens of Britain. 38. Which of the following helped Britain become a global power in the 1700s? a. its position next to mainland Europe c. its rich resources b. its favorable climate d. its success in war 39. Which of the following statements regarding Germany under Hitler is true? a. The Nazis controlled the government but had little influence on other German institutions. b. The Nazis controlled all aspects of German life. c. Most Germans were barely affected by Nazism. d. The Nazis kept firm control over Germany but followed moderate and tolerant policies. 40. How was humanist thought incorporated into Renaissance art? a. The use of perspective allowed for the creation of realistic art. b. Artists used shading to make objects look round and real. c. Artists studied human anatomy so they could portray the human body more accurately. d. The painting of portraits reflected an interest in individual achievement. 41. How did Muslim society view merchants? a. Merchants were considered outcasts. c. Merchants were honored. b. Merchants were tolerated. d. Merchants were ignored. 42. How is England s prime minister chosen? a. He is appointed by Parliament s House of Lords. b. He is elected by the people. c. He is appointed by the monarch. d. He is the leader of the majority party in Parliament s House of Commons. 43. What was the main purpose of Stalin s five-year plans? a. to turn the Soviet Union into a modern industrial power b. to increase farm production c. to turn the Soviet Union into a military power d. to produce more consumer goods 44. On the eve of World War I, Bosnia was ruled by a. the Ottoman empire. c. Germany. b. Austria-Hungary. d. Serbia. 45. Monks and nuns improved life during the Middle Ages by a. giving land to peasants. c. opposing the feudal system. b. caring for the sick and poor. d. excommunicating criminals. 46. Conflict between Athens and Sparta resulted in the a. Trojan War. c. Punic Wars. b. Peloponnesian War. d. Persian Wars. 47. Which of the following statements describes a patrilineal culture?

12 a. Sisters made their sons available to help their brothers. b. Kinship ties came through the father s side. c. Inheritance was traced through the mother s side. d. The husband joined his wife s family in her village. 48. Which Greek city-state had a democratic government? a. Marathon c. Athens b. Thebes d. Sparta 49. Which of the following had the greatest effect on the course of World War I? a. the submarine c. the zeppelin b. the airplane d. the tank 50. What was one result of Mikhail Gorbachev s efforts to reform the Soviet Union? a. the launching of Sputnik c. a return to hard-line communism b. the disintegration of the Soviet Union d. a buildup of nuclear weapons 51. French styles of art and architecture became the standard for Europe as a result of the reign of a. Louis XIV. c. Henry IV. b. Louis XVI. d. Louis XIII. 52. Latin America s newly independent nations were weakened in the 1800s by a. the end of the triangular trade. b. regionalism and the emergence of caudillos. c. the continued dominance of the peninsulares. d. the collapse of their plantation economies. 53. Sikhism blends the beliefs of Islam and a. Judaism. c. Buddhism. b. Hinduism. d. Christianity. 54. Which of the following statements about France s social structure is true? a. There was inequality among the three estates. b. Most people belonged to the First Estate. c. The Second Estate was content with the social structure. d. The Third Estate was made up entirely of peasants. 55. Ethiopia was able to successfully resist European imperialism because a. it had a favorable balance of trade. b. it had modern weapons and a well-trained army. c. it formed an alliance with the Ottomans. d. its leader was educated in the West. 56. Developing countries that borrowed money from developed nations often a. became economically dependent. b. made rapid progress toward modernization. c. were able to pay back their debts. d. developed economic independence. 57. Who led Haiti s fight for independence? a. José de San Martín c. Simón Bolívar b. Touissaint L Ouverture d. Dom Pedro 58. Which of the following terms best reflects conditions in Europe after 1815?

13 a. turmoil c. stability b. peace d. democracy 59. What is one reason why Germany s Schlieffen Plan failed? a. Russia mobilized more quickly than expected. b. Austria-Hungary withdrew from the war. c. The United States entered the war. d. German tanks became stuck in the trenches. 60. In the early 1800s, Serbs gained autonomy within a. Austria-Hungary. c. Greece. b. the Ottoman empire. d. Spain. 61. What was the purpose of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine? a. to guarantee Cuba s independence b. to avoid entangling alliances in Latin America c. to establish the United States as a police power in the Western Hemisphere d. to expand the U.S. Constitution to include Mexico 62. How did early socialists propose to end the injustices of the factory system? a. by fostering revolution among the working class b. by placing limits on population growth to reduce the size of the working class c. by establishing communities in which all work and property was shared d. by expanding suffrage to include workers and women 63. Why did Simón Bolívar s dream of a united Gran Colombia never come true? a. South America was reconquered by Spain. b. A slave revolt distracted Gran Colombia s political leadership. c. Rivalries triggered civil wars among the liberated nations. d. His quarrel with José de San Martín led to a split in leadership. 64. How did the Crusades affect life in Europe? a. They promoted religious tolerance in Europe. b. They caused Europe to isolate itself from the rest of the world. c. They helped to increase the power of monarchs. d. They caused Europe s economy to collapse. 65. The earliest known writing was invented by the a. Egyptians. c. Babylonians. b. Sumerians. d. Akkadians. 66. How did the development of written Chinese affect China? a. It led to the creation of public schools. b. It simplified the language. c. It fostered unity. d. It promoted literacy among the peasantry. 67. The most controversial new scientific theory of the 1800s was Charles Darwin s a. theory of natural selection. c. determination of Earth s age. b. atomic theory. d. germ theory. 68. Native Americans in North America developed different cultures that were influenced by a. the Inca. c. Greece and Rome. b. their environment. d. monotheism. 69. Thinkers during the Age of Reason challenged the established social order by

14 a. calling for a just society based on reason. c. calling for an end to government. b. supporting peasant rebellions. d. denying the existence of heaven. 70. In the Roman republic, plebeians were represented by a. tribunes. c. senators. b. consuls. d. patricians. 71. Both Hindus and Buddhists believe in a. formal rituals. c. many gods. b. the caste system. d. nonviolence. 72. What was the goal of China s May Fourth Movement? a. to win equal rights for women b. to install a Communist government in China c. to strengthen China by modernizing it d. to make China a military power 73. The system of rule in which land was given in exchange for loyalty and service is called a. feudalism. c. oligarchy. b. democracy. d. canon law. 74. How did Elizabeth I resolve the conflicts of the English Reformation? a. Her policies restored England to the way it had been before Henry VIII s reign. b. Her reforms established a middle ground between Protestant and Catholic practices. c. She conducted witch hunts to destroy any non-christians in England. d. She expelled all remaining Catholics from England. 75. Why is Justinian s Code important? a. It provided a model for modern international law. b. It introduced the concept of individual rights. c. It incorporated the ideas of Greek philosophers. d. It guaranteed the supremacy of the monarch. 76. What is the chief goal of the United Nations? a. to end world hunger c. to protect the global environment b. to promote economic development d. to keep the peace