Published in the Interests of the W orking People

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1 themilitant Published in the Interests of the W orking People V o l N o. 24 M o n d a y, J u n e 17, 1963 P ric e 10c Giant Detroit Demonstration Planned by Negro Groups D E T R O IT In response to the d ra m a tic events in B irm in g h a m, as w e ll as the accum ulated g rie v ances o f D e tro it-s ty le d is c rim in a tion, plans are w e ll u n d e rw a y fo r a mass Freedom M a rc h o f 100, 000 Negroes on Sunday, June 23. B e g in n in g at 2:30 p.m., the m a rc h ers w ill w a lk fro m Ver n o r and W oodw ard (n e a r d o w n to w n D e tr o it) to Cobo H a ll, the c ity s conv e n tio n centcr, fo r a g ia n t ra lly fe a tu rin g Rev. M a rtin L u th e r K in g. The dem onstration, organized by the n e w ly form e d D e tro it C o unc il fo r H u m an R ights, headed by Rev. C. L. F ra n k lin, has received pledges o f support fro m hundreds of c o m m u n ity organizations, block clubs, churches, local unions, youth groups and others; the S ocialist W orkers P a rty has also expressed its f u ll support. Thousands of leaflets, stickers, posters, etc. arc being d is trib u te d announcing the m arch. Thousands o f free copies o f the D e tro it C o u rie r and o f I llu strated News, m ilita n t N egro b i- w ee k ly, are bein g c irc u la te d th ro u g h o u t n e ig h borhoods and churches. A group of W ayne State U n iv e rs ity s tu dents, m any fro m the new student org anizatio n, U h u ru, signed up 650 p a rtic ip a n ts fo r a cam pus c o n tin gent in a single afternoon. S im ila r a c tiv ity is going on in every c o r ner of the com m u nity. U n lik e some past c iv il-rig h ts dem onstrations, w h ic h have trie d to re s tric t p a rtic ip a tio n to app ro ved organizations, a ll groups have been in v ite d to m arch under th e ir ow n banners and w ith th e ir ow n slogans. One o f the ou tsta nding features o f the m arch is th a t the le ad ership is n o t in the hands of the conservative old g u a rd. In the e a rly stages, w hen the idea of a m arch was fir s t projected, the N A A C P and T rade U n ion L e a d e r ship C o uncil (T U L C ), lo cal a f filia te of the N egro A m e ric a n L a bor C o un cil, together w ith w h ite lib e ra ls and c e rta in la b o r leaders, trie d to discourage the action u n less it w o u ld be c o n tro lle d by respectable fig u re s (th e m s e lv e s ). R um ors w e re spread th a t funds w o u ld be m ishandled; th a t Rev. K in g and the S outhern C h ris tia n Leadership Conference, w h ic h w ill receive a ll m oney collected, w o u ld not endorse the cou ncil w h ile it was headed b y such m en as Rev. F ra n k lin and Rev. A lb e rt Cleage, w ho has been characterized as a ra cist because of his uncom p ro m is in g m ilita n c y. A ll e ffo rts to d is ru p t the u n ity (Continued on Page 2) Jury's Verdict Against Muslims J U N E 10 A fte r u n u su ally long d e lib e ra tio n, th e a llw h ite ju r y in th e e ig h t-w e e k old Los A ngeles tr ia l o f 14 B la c k M u slim s w as today o r dered by th e jud g e to render a p a rtia l decision. T h e ju r y re tu rn e d verd icts fin d in g fo u r M u slim s g u ilty of resisting police. O ne of these w as also found g u ilty of sim ple assault but not o f felonious assault as charged. Ju ro rs w e re o rdered to continue delib e ra tio n and re p o rt fu rth e r th e r verd icts as th ey w e re reached. Vietnam Tyranny in Deep Crisis By S teve G ra h a m A w e -in s p irin g fo rm s o f protest m arked the B u d d h is t cam paign against the re lig io u s oppression o f d ic ta to r Ngo D in h D iem, as the crisis in S outh V ie tn a m continued despite U S. attem pts to cool it off. On June 10 in Saigon, a 73- y e a r-o ld B u d d h is t m onk had his robes doused w ith gasoline and then set fire to him self. S u r rounded b y a thousand p ra y in g and cha n tin g m onks and nuns, w ho k e p t the police aw ay d u rin g the te n -m in u te ordeal, the m onk, sat serenely, h o ld in g a s trin g o f beads, as he bu rne d to death as a protest against D iem. M onks and nuns ca rrie d signs, saying: A B u d d h is t p rie s t burns fo r fiv e dem ands. These w ere the dem ands p u t fo rw a rd M a y 8 a fte r governm ent troops, using arm o red cars, shot and ra n dow n B u d d h ist dem onstrators in the c ity o f H u e, k illin g nine. The dem ands are: 1) the rig h t to fly the B u d d h is t fla g ; 2) equal rig h ts w ith the C a th olic C h urch ; 3) an end to go vern m ent persecution of B uddhists; 4) governm ent ackno w le dgem e nt o f re s p o n s ib ility fo r the M a y 8 k illin g s and w o u n d - ings; and 5) p u nishm ent o f those responsible. A fe w days before, U S. o ffi- capital march to win rights urged by martin luther king B y F re d H alstead JU N E 12 Rev. M a rtin L u th e r K in g has proposed a mass M arch on W ashington to pressure congress to pass c iv il- rig h ts legislatio n expected to be in troduced n e x t week. The head o f the S outhern C h ris tia n Leadership Conference speaking June 9 on Open End, a television in te rv ie w program also suggested th a t the m archers m ig h t stage cials w e re h o pefu l th a t there w o uld be a cooling o ff in the relig io u s crisis. D iem had issued a statem ent c ritic iz in g some o ffic ia ls fo r th e ir in sensitive h a n d lin g of people. H ow ever, his s u rly gene ra litie s d id not a d m it governm ent re s p o n s ib ility fo r the M a y 8 massacre and fa ile d to satisfy the B uddists. B arbed W ire M oreover, the stackin g o f barbed w ire barricades on street corners and the concentration of e lite troops in Saigon gave the lie to U.S. ta lk o f cooling o ff. T he v e ry day o f D iem s statem ent, his planes dropped le afle ts on Hue denouncing the leading B ud dh ist priest. The n e x t day, M adam e Ngo D in h N hu, w ife o f D iem s b ro th e r and closest adviser, denounced B ud dh ist leaders as C om m unist dupes. T he governm ent persisted in its pretense th a t C om m unist ag itators caused the M ay 8 violence. U.S. o ffic ia ls now fear D iem s regim e m ay be ove rtu rne d. One o ffic ia l, according to the New Y o rk Tim es, described the s itu a tio n as w a tc h in g som ething s lo w ly s lip p in g th ro u g h y o u r f in gers. The re lig io u s dispute in a c o u n try w here about 80 per cent s it-in s in congress, i f necessary. T he proposal was repeated by the SCLC northeast reg io nal d i rector, Rev. George Law rence, w h o to ld a news conference in N ew Y o rk June 11 th a t unless congress acts p ro m p tly on the b ills, thousands upon thousands of Negroes w ill po ur in to W ashington to dem onstrate fo r action. Rev. L a w re nce w arned th a t a D ix ie c ra t filib u s te r against the c iv il-rig h ts o f the po pu latio n is B ud dh ist, destroys W ashington s w h ite w a sh o f D iem as le ad ing a broad n a tio n a l m ovem ent to w h ic h the po pulatio n is constantly ra lly in g. In the cerem onies over the charred rem ains of the s e lf-im m olated m onk, his co-re lig io n ists appealed in E nglish to U.S. m ilita ry personnel to help the m and not to supply D ie m s troops w ith weapons to be used against them. Gen. P aul D. H a rk in s, head of the U.S. forces in South V ietnam, on June 10, ordered U.S. advisers (in p la in E nglish: troops) not to accom pany South V ie t namese m ilita ry u n its on m issions to suppress the B uddhists. F u r therm ore, any South Vietnam ese requests fo r equipm ent un de r d i rect U.S. c o n tro l fo r exam ple, helicopters m ust now be cleared w ith H a rk in s before d e liv e ry. U.S. personnel, H a rk in s says, are to re m ain n e u tra l in the dispute betw een the C a th olic governm ent and the B u d d h is t po pu latio n, u n less C o m m unist g u e rrilla s become in volve d. B u t the U.S. is not n e u tra l. I t created the D iem d icta to rship. I t m aintains it in pow er. I t finances it, arm s it, and tra in s its soldiers. It is as responsible fo r D iem s acts as he is. b ills w o u ld touch o ff massive acts o f c iv il disobedience a ll ove r the natio n. H e said N egro and w h ite supporters o f c iv il-rig h ts groups w ill tie up p u b lic tra n s p o rta tio n by la y in g o u r bodies pro stra te on run w a ys o f airpo rts, across ra ilro a d tra cks and at bus depots. In his taped T V in te rv ie w, Rev. K in g offered the strongest c ritic ism he has p u b lic ly made to date o f the K ennedy a d m in is tra tio n s role in c iv il rights. He declared th a t both the D em ocratic and Rep u b lic a n parties have betrayed the cause o f ju s tic e by th e ir co l- J U N E 12 VVe are ju s t going to press at th e tim e of the shocking news o f th e racist m u rd e r of M ed g ar Evers, M is sissippi F ie ld S ec re tary of th e N A A C P. F ig h ters fo r e q u a lity and brotherhood can best honor the m em o ry of this heroic m a rty r by e x ten d in g his s tru g gle fo r fu ll Freedom N O W. la b o ra tio n w ith D ixie cra ts, and sharp ly critic is e d K ennedy fo r fa ilin g to take a m o ra l stand on the issue o f desegregation. K in g s words, how ever, w ere m ild com pared to statem ents b y others in the m ovem ent. The Rev. James Bevel, an SCLC aide fro m M ississippi, was quoted in the June 9 N ew Y o rk Tim es m agazine as saying: Some p u n k w ho calls h im s e lf the P resident has the audacity to te ll people to go slow. I m not prepared to be h u m ilia te d by w h ite tra sh the rest o f m y life, in c lu d in g M r. K e n nedy. T he fig h tin g mood sum m ed up by th a t statem ent and m anifested (Continued on Page 8) Battle to Win Freedom Now Keeps Rising B y W ill L u tte r T h ro u g h o u t the c o u n try Negroes are m arching, s ittin g -in, p ic k e tin g and som etim es b a ttlin g the police, as the struggle fo r e q u a lity and freedom thunders o n w a rd in a crescendo o f protest. In D a n v ille, Va., police and deputized c ity em ployes w e n t w ild, using n ig h ts tic k s and sa w e d -o ff baseball bats on dem onstrators a l ready dow ned by high-pressu re fire hoses, as the y broke u p a p ra y e r v ig il on the c ity h a ll steps and charged a cro w d near the ja il pro te sting e a rlie r arrests. F o rty - fiv e Negroes w ere hospitalized. O ver 100 m ore w ere ja ile d. Snipers in the N egro c o m m u n ity alleg ed ly fire d 15 shots at police p ro w l cars in re ta lia tio n. In C am bridge, M d., Negro leaders, charging a doublecross, broke a thre e -w e e k truce w ith calls fo r mass protests against the in d e te rm in a te sentences given tw o 15- y e a r-o ld dem onstrators p re v io u s ly arrested. Negroes, ja ile d in the m ost recent dem onstrations, w e nt on a ram page, sm ashing p lu m b in g fix tu re s and s tu ffin g m attresses th ro u g h cell bars. R abbi Is ra e l M. G oldm an, v ice -chairm a n of the M a ry la n d Com m ission on In te r ra cia l P roblem s w a rne d: These people are f u ll o f resentm ent and feel they are being betrayed. We are fa cin g ra c ia l disaster in th is c o u n try, and, God fo rb id, v io le n t re v o lu tio n. In St. Louis pickets protested face -to -fa ce segregation w h e re - ( Continued on Page 2)

2 Page Two THE M IL IT A N T Monday, June 17, 1963 New Washington Numbers Game Gov t Juggles Fallout Safety Figures F allout from nuclear tests w ill contaminate food in the United States w ith 50 strontium units this year, compared to 8 to 13 units last year, the Federal Radiation Council announced on June 3. A few more years of testing at the 1962 rate could raise the radiation content in food to a level where the government, under existing regulations, could be forced to take counter-measures. As a result, the council, a cabinet-level advisory board to the president, is considering revising present regulations. Present regulations stipulate th at when the level of radioactiv ity in food is under 20 strontium units, the government does nothing. When the radiation level is from 20 to 200 units, the government watches the contamination closely. And when the radioa ctivity rises to the 200-to-2,000- u n it range, the Radiation Council considers whether or not to take counter-measures to remove the radioactive contaminants from the food. This year the radioactive content o f the food reached the second range. Representative M elvin Price (D -I l l.), a member of the Joint Committee on Atom ic Energy, said the proposed regulations would boost the lim its so the risks do not look lik e hazards. The safety lim its, w hich now D A G M A R W IL S O N, in itiator of Women s Strike for Peace. face revision, are based on standards developed to protect workers in radioactive-m aterials industries. Dr. Paul C- Tompkins, executive director of the Radiation Council told the jo in t committee at a hearing, I f we get pushed hard in ternationally and must conduct more nuclear tests, levels above the industrial exposure standard may be okay. Women S trike For Peace issued a statement June 3 protesting the irresponsible action w hich the Federal Radiation council is taking to raise the radiation protection guideline. The statement continued: Now that fallout from the nuclear tests of 1962 is reaching record levels, we find that once again the government is evading, rather than meeting the issue. By avoiding definite levels at which counter-measures would be advised, by falsely assuring the public of no health hazards, by making guidelines in fin ite ly adjustable so as to contain future increases, and by neglecting preparations fo r feasible countermeasures, the government is seriously remiss in its duty toward public welfare. We feel that this new action is an attempt to legalize a recognized hazard ju st as if it were decided to legalize a certain amount of crime. W hile scientists disagree on levels of radiation causing diseases such as cancer, and hence, the numbers of people who w ill suffer from fallo ut to date, they are not disagreed that any additional ra diation is lik e ly to cause additional damage.... Giant Demonstration Planned in Detroit (Continued from Page 1) of the march have so fa r failed. M ore and more now the tendency is to get on the bandwagon before i t is too late. TULC did a flip -flo p from its original stance and is now offering fu ll support. The M ichigan A F L-C IO has announced its endorsement. The liberal police commissioner has even offered the police marching band and the mounted division to head the pa-... Freedom Fight Keeps Rising (Continued from Page 1) by black children, attending the same schools as whites, have separate classes, use separate doors, and have separate times fo r lunch and recess. In Los Angeles, a united fro nt o f Negro organizations presented demands to city and county o fficials fo r action against de facto school segregation. They also denounced police b ru ta lity and job discrim ination on projects in vo lving public funds. In Newark, Negroes threaten to picket city construction projects where they fin d job discrim ination. The N ewark Co-ordinating Council sponsored a demonstration of 75 Negroes at city hall; gave the mayor 30 days to act. In Englewood, N.J., 75 adults and 35 children marched from the almost completely Negro Lincoln school to the predom inantly w hite Cleveland school, in that comm u n ity s long battle over desegregation. C H IC A G O Changes in Marriage and the Family. Speaker, Evelyn Reed, socialist w riter and lecturer on anthropology. Fri., June 21, 8 p.m. Debs H all 210, 302 S. Canal St. Ausp. Friday N ight Socialist Forum. DETROIT Three Negro Students Discuss Prospects for Equality. Speakers Charles Johnson, Rufus Griffin, John Watson. Fri., June 21, 8 p.m. Debs Hall, 3737 Woodward. Ausp. Friday N ight Socialist Forum. NEW YORK J O H N O. KILLENS, author o f "A nd Then W e Heard the Thunder" and "Y oun gblo od" speaks on 100 Years of Freedom? Fri., June 21, 8:30 p.m. 116 University Place. C ontrib. $1 (students, 50c.). Ausp. M ilitant Labor Forum. In Ann A rbor, 200 Negroes and whites demonstrated all night at city hall fo r s w ift passage of a fair-housing ordinance. Progress was registered in Nashville, where, follow ing weeks of very m ilita n t demonstrations, a b i- racial committee announced that most downtown hotels, motels and restaurants have agreed to desegregate immediately. Progress was also made in Orlando, Fla., where most local businessmen agreed to hire Negroes as clerks, salesmen, secretaries and in other positions custom arily restricted to whites. Violence was narrow ly averted in Gadsden, Ala., as w hite hoodlums moved in on teenage Negroes picketing a variety store. W idespread picketing of lunch counters continues there. Restaurants were also a target in Savannah where 104 Negroes were arrested June 9. In Albany, Ga., complaints have been made to the F B I that girls were forced by police matrons to disrobe in fro n t of male prisoners. Two w hite members of the Student N onviolent Co-ordinating Committee, Joyce B arre tt of Philadelphia and Joni Rabinowitz of New Rochelle, N. Y., are the complainants. Albany Police Chief Laurie P ritchett denied a charge by SNCC member Faith Holsaert of B rooklyn that a policeman ran his hand over me and threatened to strip me after I was arrested. A T L A N T A The ja ilin g of three college students brought to 89 the number of s it-in demonstrators arrested since A p ril. Negro and w hite college and highschool students, and some teachers from A tla n ta s predom inantly Negro colleges, have been active here. In another development Howard Zinn, chairman of Spelman College s history department and a member of the SNCC executive committee, has been fired w ithout warning. rade. The local NAACP is s till offic ia lly holding out, however. Rev. Cleage, w ritin g in Illu s trated News, pointed out that the old guard leadership has missed an im portant fact. The tim e has passed when power in the Negro community is derived from the support and good w ill of w hite liberals. A ny Negro leadership must secure its strength from the masses of Negro people. I t must speak fo r them, articulating their legitim ate aspirations in all areas of the freedom struggle. This observation aptly explains w hy in the D etroit area, w ith a Negro population of over h a lf a m illion, the NAACP, TULC and other respectable organizations were able to get a turnout of only 350 at a May 10 ra lly in solidarity w ith Birm ingham, w hile 1,000 people paid $3 a plate to attend a testim onial dinner fo r the disreputable Rev. Cleage on M ay 25. Turning Point? I f the m arch is successful in m obilizing 100,000 Negroes, or even anywhere near that figure, it w ill be one of the most im portant demonstrations in the N orth in many years. It w ould signal a turning point in the N orthern struggle ju st as significant as the student sit-ins did in the South three years ago. I t w ould fu rth e r weaken the hold of the conservative and gradualist Negro leadership, who have now lost the in i tiative. I t would inspire the Negro masses w ith greater confidence in th e ir own independent strength and encourage them to re ly, on it, rather than on phony allies, and i t w ould help to produce a new and more radical leadership. It w ould also undoubtedly stim ulate fu rth e r sim ilar mass action in other Northern cities. The big thing about this march, therefore, w ill be the size of the turnout. That is w hat the Negroes foes and friends w ill be watching. The size of the march w ill be more im portant than the plans of the leaders, the program of Rev. King, and even the specific slogans carried by various groups. So the immediate job of everyone who wants Freedom Now is to help get out 100,000 Negroes, or more, on June 23. The management of the Chicago Heights Ford plant is taking fu r ther advantage of the treacherous refusal of the international o fficials of the United Auto Workers to back up the membership of L o cal 588. The company fire d 15 more men June 15 apparently fo r picketing last month during a strike over safety conditions. In ternational officials refused to authorize the strike. Fired earlier were Bernard Fox, local president, and John Conway, unit com m itteeman, who stopped an unsafe press by job action because they couldn t get prom pt action w ith the grievance procedure clogged w ith 220 unsettled grievances. His bark is notoriously worse than his bite, but fo r w hat it is w orth, here is w hat Transport Workers Union President Michael J. Q u ill said in a recent issue of the union s paper: B ig business in the U nited States has, fo r too long, run our government. Now our government must run big business. Q u ill called fo r government ownership of all big in dustry. This approach, said Q uill, would of course be branded as Socialism; but unless the big m iddleman is put out of business, unless the p ro fit system is taken out of big industry and our natural resources, we in America are defin ite ly headed fo r another arm y of 15 or 16 m illio n unemployed. Q uill said government ownership is the only solution to the problem of joblessness due to ra ilroad automation and mergers. There is only one alternative to immediate government seizure and control of the railroads and that is a general strike of all railroad workers from the A tla n tic to the Pacific. The Amalgamated Clothing Workers, which has organized most laundry workers in the New Y ork C ity area, is tryin g to organize the 1,500 Chinese who iron shirts at some 60 non-union shirt laundries. The union isn t getting very far, however, because wage scales are so abysmally low in the unionized laundries that the C hinese sh irt ironers find they make more than union scale plus two meals a day. Most employees of regular laundries are Negroes and Puerto Ricans, and the laundry industry is a rb itra rily exempted from federal m inim um -wage coverage. The West Penn Power Company claims its lines have been sabotaged. The company was struck last month by 1,300 service, lines, and production workers organized in Local 102 of the U tility W orkers of America, A FL-C IO. The company claims barbed w ire was throw n over a power lin e in B utler county, burning out a transform er, and that tree branches were found across power lines in an area where there are no trees. The union is demanding jobsecurity safeguards. The company has sought injunctions against mass picketing in Pennsylvania counties where it has power stations, and has hired a number of private gumnen since the strike began. Five railroad operating craft unions have notified th e ir locals to be prepared to strike as railroad corporations prepare to institute the new w ork rules w hich have been in dispute fo r several years. Union leaders, however, don t take the notifications very seriously, because government intervention is expected. The fact that government mediators and boards in this dispute have repeatedly declared that there can be no strike has disarmed the unions. The companies don t have to give an inch, said one union negotiator, they know the government is going to step in, so w hy bargain w ith us? I f a strike is actually called, a b ill imposing compulsory a rb itra tion on the unions in this single dispute w ill be presented to congress and is expected to pass quickly. The b ill has been drafted by the railroad corporations which are planning to get it introduced by adm inistration spokesmen. Reaction to the congressional vote against renewal o f Public Law 78 the Mexican farm labor program has not been what some observers expected. The Southwestern farm operators have objected very little to the vote, w hile the Mexican capitalist press has been highly critical. Mexican ru lin g circles are w orried about the elim ination of the escape valve of m igratory w ork in the U S. fo r the increasingly im poverished and restive Mexican peasantry. As fo r the U.S. operators, their need fo r imported m igratory labor has fallen o ff in recent years due p a rtly to the increasing unemployment in this country and p a rtly to the mechanization of agriculture, particularly the cotton picking machine. These factors have created a large pool of domestic labor forced to w ork fo r p itifu lly low wages. Some big farm operators recently have actu ally been rejecting use of the Mexican farm labor program because under it the U.S. and Mexican governments set up certain m inim um standards of pay and conditions, w hile U S. citizens or the Mexican laborers who enter the country illegally have no such protection. For example, in 1962 the U.S. Department of Labor set a m in i mum wage of 70 cents an hour fo r workers imported under the program. A t the same time, U-S.- born, displaced sharecroppers and cotton crop workers in nearby Arkansas, were w orking fo r 50 cents an hour. A break down livened up the ten-m onth-old strike against the Shell O il Company in Pasadena, Texas last month. Dozens of cars suddenly stalled on the highway outside the plant May 21, backing up tra ffic fo r miles. The Houston Press printed a picture of cars w ith th e ir hoods up, th e ir owners poking around in the motors. The caption read: Car Trouble As Far As the Eye Can See. Strikers said they were grateful fo r the p u b licity to dramatize their demands fo r job security in the face of automation. Royal Dutch Shell has been operating the plant w ith supervisors and some scabbing building-trades union members. Documents of the Negro Struggle Texts of discussions on question with Leon Trotsky and o f analytical resolutions adopted by conventions of Socialist Workers Party. 65 cents Pioneer Publishers 116 University Place New York 3, N. Y.

3 Monday, June 17, 1963 THE M ILITA N T Page Three THE M ILITANT Editor: JO SEPH H A N S E N Managing Editor: GEORGE LA V A N Business Manager: K A R O LYN KERRY Published w eekly, except from J u ly 11 to Sept. 5 when published b i-w eekly, by The M ilita n t Publishing Ass n., 110 U niversity PI., N ew Y o rk 3. N.Y. Phone C H Second-class postage paid at N ew Y o rk, N.Y. Subscription: $3 a year; Canadian, $3.50; foreign, $4.50. Signed articles by contributors do not necessarily represent The M ilita n t s views. These are expressed in editorials. V o l No M onday, June 17, 1963 A Test-Ban Treaty? P re sid e nt K e n n e d y s June 10 speech at the A m e ric a n U n i v e rs ity in W ashington, D.C., has raised m a n k in d s hopes th a t a ban on n u cle a r te s tin g m ay soon be a rriv e d at. T h a t the decision w h e th e r o r n o t th e re sh a ll be such a ban rests w ith W ash ington has been g la rin g ly e vid e n t since K e n n e d y s re je c tio n o f the o ffe r of th re e y e a rly inspections m ade by K h ru s h chev a fte r he had been led by U.S. d ip lo m a ts to b e lie ve th a t w o u ld be acceptable. Indeed, w o rld s c ie n tific o p in io n backs the S o vie t co n te n tio n th a t U.S. insistence on m ore inspections is n o t ju s tifie d. O b v io u s ly th a t insistence has been m e re ly a dodge to a void a test ban. T h ough a test ban cannot by any stre tch o f the im a g in a tio n be considered as e n d ing the nucle a r arm s race o r as a b e g in n in g of d isarm am ent, i t w o u ld nonetheless be a p o sitive step. F o r n u cle a r te s tin g is endangering the b io lo g ic a l ca p ita l o f a ll m a n kin d. I t m u s t be k e p t in m in d th a t K e n n e d y s w illin g n e s s fo r h ig h - le v e l ta lk s about a ban is based n o t on any sudden conversion to peacefulness b u t on th e fa c t th a t i t w o u ld now be to th e in te re s t o f U.S. im p e ria lis m. A tru ce to te s tin g by U.S. im p e ria lis m and th e K re m l i n, b o th o f w h o m a p p a re n tly have concluded a n ew series o f tests, w o u ld a t th is ju n c tu re serve th e ir com m on in terests b y h in d e rin g th e spread o f n u c le ar w eapons am ong th e o th e r nations o f th e w o rld. C e rta in ly opponents o f w a r w o u ld be n a ive to th in k th a t the sw eet reasonableness o f K e n n e d y s June 10 speech cancels o u t his bellicose record, w h ic h includes p u ttin g th e w o rld on the b rin k la s t O ctober and b u ild in g the U.S. n u cle a r arsenal to m egalom aniac o v e rk ill p ro p o rtio n s. In Memory of the Rosenbergs I t is te n years n o w since J u liu s and E th e l Rosenberg w ere ra ilro a d e d to the e le c tric c h a ir a t th e h e ig h t o f the w itc h -h u n t and c o ld -w a r h yste ria. O n June 19, 1953 th e y w e re electrocuted despite th e ir pleas o f innocence and w o rld -w id e appeals fo r clem ency fro m such notables as th e pope and the p re sid e n t o f France. T h is w as the fir s t peace -tim e e xe cution on espionage charges in U.S. h is to ry. I t is an in e ra d ica b le b lo t on th is c o u n try s record. A t th e same tra v e s ty o f a tr ia l, and on even flim s ie r evidence, M o rto n S obell was sentenced to 30 years im p ris o n m e n t fo r conspira cy to c o m m it espionage. D espite constant appeals, his case has n e ve r been re vie w e d and he s t ill languishes in p riso n in in c re a s in g ly bad h e a lth. R e ce n tly he was m oved fro m A tla n ta to a p riso n m e d ica l center in M isso u ri. D octors, em phasizing his poor h e a lth, have jo in e d m any p ro m in e n t persons in u rg in g his release. T h ough he is e lig ib le fo r parole, i t is denied him. T he C o m m itte e to Secure Justice fo r M o rto n S obell plans a series o f p u b lic a c tiv itie s a ro u n d th is te n th a n n iv e rs a ry to back up an appeal to th e S uprem e C o u rt and appeals fo r e xe cutive clem ency. These a c tiv itie s in c lu d e a C arnegie H a ll m e e tin g June 19 to be addressed b y D r. H a ro ld U re y and fe a tu rin g a film e d in te rv ie w w ith B e rtra n d R ussell. A y o u th d e m o n stra tio n is also p la n n e d at th e W h ite House, S a turday, Ju n e 15. P artisans o f c iv il lib e rtie s and dem ocracy should jo in in these actions w h e re ve r possible. T here is no b e tte r w a y to m a rk the a n n iv e rs a ry o f th e savage execu tion o f th e Rosenbergs th a n by p a rtic ip a tin g in th e cam paign to fre e th e ir fe llo w v ic tim o f in ju s tic e. Fund Scoreboard City Quota Paid Percent Chicago $ $ 1, Newark Baltimore St. Louis Detroit Boston Minneapolis-St. Paul 1, San Diego M ilw aukee O akland-berkeley San Francisco The General Cleveland Connecticut New Y ork 5,800 3, Denver Seattle Los Angeles 6,300 3, Philadelphia Totals to June 10 $21,120 $15,345 72% Cruel and Unusual Punishment Pomeroys Still Persecuted By Constance Weissman A husband and w ife, unjustly imprisoned fo r ten years, have been try in g in vain fo r over a year since th e ir release to break through the inhumane and vin d ictive red tape of the laws and im m igration regulations of the U.S. and the P hilippine Republic w hich keeps them apart. Despairing of being able to be together in either country, the couple decided the only possibility of being reunited was to meet in another country. B ut the P hilippine Republic now refuses to issue the w ife a visa. O nly a campaign of public protest on th e ir behalf can make it possible fo r the long-suffering, long-separated husband and w ife to be reunited. Ten Year Term The M ilita n t of Nov. 21, 1960, told the earlier part of the story of W illia m Pomeroy, a young Am erican, and his w ife, Celia, both of whom had been imprisoned in the P hilippine Islands fo r ten years. They had been given life sentences after being forced to plead g u ilty to charges specifying 16 in cidents in w hich neither had participated. Indeed, Pomeroy obviously could not have participated in some of them because they occurred before he arrived in the Philippines. However, both pleaded g u ilty in order to escape death sentences. W illia m Pomeroy Celia Pomeroy W illia m Pomeroy graduated from high school in Rochester, N. Y., during the depression of the 1930 s. He w ent to the P h ilip pine Islands as a soldier in W orld W ar II. He took part in the inva sion of Leyte and was la te r stationed at F ort Statsenberg in Centra l Luzon. There he became acquainted w ith the movement of the Huks, m et some of them and became sympathetic to th e ir cause. A fte r the w a r he returned to the U nited States and was discharged from the arm y in In less than a year he w ent back to the P hilippines to continue his studies at the U niversity of the P hilippines. He became a w rite r, m arried Celia M ariano, and together, under pressure of the a n ti- H uk terror, they w ent to the h ills to jo in the g u e rrilla fighters. Celia Mariano, a teacher, was one of the firs t to jo in the resistance after the Japanese invasion. She w orked w ith the Huks a ll through the w ar, teaching, w ritin g, publishing underground newspapers and even fighting. Captured W hile in the mountains, both of the Pomeroys taught and wrote. In A p ril, 1952, both W illia m and Celia Pomeroy were captured. They were kept in severe close confinement in separate prisons fo r ten years. Meantime, Japanese collaborators had long since been given amnesty. In 1960, a committee headed by Vincent H allinan was form ed to w in freedom fo r the Pomeroys, after the N ational Guardian had Militant Fund Drive There s Just Time for You to Pitch In This is the next to the last fund story and scoreboard in The M ilita n t s $21,000 Fund Campaign. Five cities have already made it to the top or gone over. Chicago, whose performance in this campaign has been exem plary sent in an additional $100 in order to show B altim ore it re a lly meant business in its early challenge to a ll groups fo r firs t place firs t! That is Socialist competition in action and we lik e it! Salute to Newark N ewark also deserves special mention. For the firs t tim e in a good m any years it has gone over the top in a campaign. Congratulations. I w ould also lik e to make special mention of a sm all group in P ittsburgh who pledged $10 to The General s quota and came through w ith more than they had pledged. This sm all group of three people, tw o of whom are seriously ill, have very little extra money yet they continue to support The M ilita n t w ith th e ir T ru th Dollars, not ju st during campaigns, but all through the year. I w ould like to take this oppo rtu n ity to urge readers to emulate our P ittsburgh friends. T ru th By M arv el Scholl National Fund D rive D irector Dollars are im portant a ll of the time. They keep the p rinter, the post office, the photo-engraver, etc., happy. The M ilita n t staff are all socialists. They w o rk long, hard hours w ritin g the paper and planning its layout, almost e n tire ly on a voluntary basis. B u t the p rin tin g company and paper suppliers are not socialists. The w herew ithal to keep them tu rn in g our w ritte n copy into a newspaper is v ita lly im portant. And we hope that you w ill feel that such contributions w ill be w orth your w h ile in terms of receiving a w eekly paper that contains a significant amount of im portant m aterial not available elsewhere. In the past we have presented a substantial amount of exclusive coverage on the great events in Cuba and A lgeria; on the Sino-Soviet debate, etc. W ith your help we intend to continue m aking such news available in this country. So keep your T ru th Dollars ro lling in. W ith our loyal readers to provide the financial means, The M ilita n t sta ff pledges itse lf to keep the paper at its high level and to do everything possible to im prove it. Send your contributions to 116 U n iversity Place, New Y o rk 3, New Y ork. exposed the facts about th e ir fate. In December, 1961, they were released. B ut freedom has been a sad experience fo r them. Upon his release, Pomeroy was deported to the U.S. I f he returns to the P hilippines he w ill be sent back to prison. Actions and appeals to obtain a U.S. visa fo r Celia Pom eroy have been unavailing. This couple has been separated fo r more than eleven years, enduring the w orst hardships. I t has been common practice fo r democratic governments to respect the rig h t of a m arried couple o f d iffe re n t national origins to rem ain together even though this meant m aking exceptions to certain im m igration regulations. Yet U.S. officials have told Mrs. Pomeroy that under the terms of the W alter-m cc arran Im m igration A ct she cannot enter this country unless she proves by her actions for five years th a t she has repudiated her struggles fo r P hilippine independence and land reform. W illia m Pomeroy has been advised not to w rite or do anything displeasing or he w ill never see his w ife again. No Passport The Pomeroys have therefore decided to go to a th ird country to live. They do not w ant to do this, but they w ant to be together after a ll the years of separation. Celia Pomeroy applied fo r a P hilippine passport six months ago so that she could jo in her husband in this new country. She has not received an answer but the P h ilip pine Foreign A ffa irs O ffice in d i cated they w ould reject her a p p lication, because they th in k that Mrs. Pomeroy w ould be a threat to the national security abroad. We urge our readers to w rite, preferably by a irm ail (25c per h a lf ounce), to President Diosdado Macapagal, Malacanang, M anila, P hilippine Republic, asking that he approve a passport fo r Celia M ariano Pomeroy so that she may jo in her husband. TO S P E A K A T N E W Y O R K F O R U M. John O. K illens, distinguished novelist, w ill speak at the M ilita n t Labor Forum Frid ay, June 21, at 8:30 p.m. His subject w ill be 100 Years of Freedom? M r. K illens is the author of the w id ely read novel about Southern Negro life, Y o u n g blood, and the recently published A n d Then W e H eard the T h u n d e r, about a Negro s experience in a Jim Crow A rm y unit during W orld W ar II.

4 Page Four TH E M IL IT A N T M A Symposium: Which Road Leadstoaworldofenduringpeace? [The M ilitant Labor Forum in New York was filled to capacity May 10 to hear a symposium on Which Road to Peace? The panelists were Dave Dellinger, Fred Halstead, Mrs. Pauline Lurie and H arry Purvis. The following are excerpts from their presentations.] Dellinger:... I th in k that w hat we have to do i f we w ant peace is attack the causes of war. Now this may not seem very revolutionary or very novel. I t is. Because we a ll lik e to liv e w ith the assumption that things are not going to be quite as d iffic u lt as they re a lly are. I t s a natural h u man tendency w hich w e re a ll prey to fo llo w the lin e of least resistance. A nd this is p a rticu la rly true, in a society lik e ours, fo r those o f us who are gregarious and don t lik e to be completely isolated and apart from personal and norm al social life and, perhaps, lik e to th in k of ourselves as being effective. Therefore there s a great tendency not to come down as hard as we could, and as we must, on the things that actually cause w ar... I t starts a ll the way from proving that we re more p a trio tic than the m ilitarists but th a t we w ant peace and w on t they ju st do this one little thing a little d iffe re n tly. Maybe that w ill lead to some things that are more d iffic u lt to realize b ut essentially represent the same tendency, that is, not coming to grips in a very real sense w ith the point that w ar is the health of the state, as Randolph Bourne said during W orld W ar I. There s a pretty real sense in w hich w ar is no accident. Now accidental w ar may take place th a t s an e ntirely d iffe re n t thing. I t s no accident in our society. I t s the logical culm ination of the everyday processes of our economic and social power structure... I th in k it s a tragic m istake fo r people interested in peace to say, Now le t s not be divisive. L e t s not bring in those economic questions. L e t s not bring in those politic a l questions... Halstead: F irs t I w ant to make it clear th at the avoidance of nuclear w ar is the most im portant question of our tim e even fo r revolutionary socialists. A t the same tim e I believe in the struggle fo r socialism. A nd I believe th at everything is subordinate to that, to fig h tin g always fo r the poor and the humble against the exploiters and the usurpers of unnecessary privilege. There s no contradiction between those tw o things as I see it- One comes from the other. I don t believe that we w ill ever have secure peace u n til w e ve done away w ith the exploitation of man by man, u n til we don t need the cops and the extension of the internal exploitative system w hich is im perialist expansion. Four Canadians Who Saw Cuba Four Canadians a member of the British Columbia legislature, a unionist-journalist, a school principal, and a college student who all visited Cuba recently, offer honest and illuminating reports on what life is really like there. Published by the Canadian Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Send 35 cents for a copy to: PIONEER PUBLISHERS 116 University Place New York 3, N. Y. B ut that doesn t mean that I believe tha t atomic w ar is inevitable. We can avert that disaster but we can only do it by fighting every concrete act o f w a r or move tow ard w ar as it occurs. And as effectively as we can. And that can only be done in the course of and never in contradiction to the struggle of the mass of the ordinary people against the specia lly privileged. Just look at the history of recent times, say since the Second W orld War. There were those in the capitalist w orld who planned to start the T h ird W orld W ar as soon as the second one was over. That s w hy Hiroshim a H arry dropped the atom bomb on H iro - DAVE D ELLIN G ER is a left-wing pacifist. He has participated in many peace walks, vigils, fasts and other anti-w ar actions. He is an editor of Liberation magazine. shima and Nagasaki. Everybody knows that the w ar was won and that that mass m urder was meant fo r only one thing, to show the rest of the w o rld that the rulers of the U nited States are top dog. The th ird w orld w ar didn t come rig h t after the second, and it didn t come not because someone else had an atomic deterrent. Nobody else had it fo r quite a w hile. I t didn t come because there were a num ber of revolutionary developments w hich occurred throughout the w o rld w hich kept the capita lis t class of balance. The firs t of these I participated in myself, even though I didn t know anything about it at the time. I was in the navy, in the S ixth Fleet, helping to carry N a tionalist soldiers from Shanghai up north to fig h t the Communists. B u t that didn t last long because we had a going home movement. Not because we gave a damn or knew anything and cared less, as ordin ary Am erican sailors, about the struggle between the N ationalists and Communists but because we wanted to go home. I t was sufficient so that i f they had involved us in that w ar we w ould have just sat down and done nothing. And the B ritish Navy there w ould have m utined. I know because I talked w ith B ritish sailors. And the capitalist governments couldn t possibly have gotten the w ar going because of w hat amounted to revolutionary mass sentiment. And the second thing that staved o ff the w ar was the Chinese Revolution. I t is m y position that it is sowing an illu sion to say to people that you can avoid w ar by having conferences of the various leaders of the pow erful nations of the w orld. These may serve some purpose but i t s strictly secondary. I get frig h t ened when I hear that the top leaders of the top nations of the w orld are going to closet them selves together and discuss my fate and yours. I feel much more comf ortable about peace and about the possibility of staving o ff the w ar when I see masses of people demonstrating in the streets keeping the capitalists o ff balance. For example, I believe that the demonstrations in Birm ingham rig h t now are a m ajor force fo r peace. Mrs. Lurie: I speak not as a pacifist or a social revolutionist but as a frightened m other really. B ut I agree w ith you tha t stopping nuclear w ar is our p rim ary concern, our firs t concern. And although I can t help participating in many actions fo r peace m y concern is that we speak m ostly to ourselves. We a ll agree, I am sure, that there are terrible injustices in the w orld and u n til they are stopped there w ill be no true peace. B u t my hope is that w ith a new program of Women fo r Peace that we can reach and speak to new people. We can involve new people, we can educate new people on w hat peace w ill mean. The point of Women fo r Peace is the sim plicity of the program. We have no dues, nor organization, we have no leaders, no members, there is complete autonomy. W hat in d ividual groups or women care to do they are free to do. We feel that on this basis we can ask many people to do w hat we are doing. S im ply ask fo r peace and disarmament. Say no to war, no to the warmakers. Support the U nited Nations. That is the fu ll extent of our program. We feel that although many people support other peace groups that have more complex and in volved programs, they can all take part in a program such as the Women fo r Peace have. Whereas the reverse is not tru e actually... O ur feeling is best stated by Dr. Spock who we a ll fe lt always spoke to us in a very straight fashion. He said there is no point in raising children i f they re going to get burned alive. The firs t step is to get rid of nuclear testing as soon as we can. The danger of annihilation through miscalculation or mistake is ten times greater than the ris k that the Russians w ill fool us. Most of the women I know in Women fo r Peace w ould rather stay home... we don t relish the idea of leaving our fam ilies, spending money... to lobby, go MRS. PAULIN E LU R IE is a representative of Women s Strike for Peace. Several days before the symposium she was in Rome with a WSP delegation to w hich the late Pope John X X II I granted an audience. on trains, v is it congressmen. We re none of us actually politicians. We leave that to the politicians. But we w ould lik e to exert a m oral influence on these men. We felt, fo r example, that our recent pilgrim age to Rome was a case in point. This trip, and the sacrifices involved, can be imagined by most both men and women. I t s not easy fo r a housewife who s never been away from home before to leave and to prepare fo r her fam ily fo r tw o weeks... We fe lt that this was a sm all e ffo rt we could make to help achieve something to help im plem ent the peace makers. When we had our audience w ith Pope John on the 24th of A p ril we represented 65 women from 18 countries. We had three races, six faiths and non-believers and it was quite a task fo r us from our various backgrounds to get together and make a simple compromise statement. A nd yet we did it. We fe lt this should be an example to the politicians. We were told by the pope he thanked us fo r coming and he said to us, in returning to your homes and your countries, be everywhere ambassadors fo r peace. We were met by U Thant who was in Geneva fo r only a day and agreed to see a few of our w om en. He said w ork such as ours was close to his heart. That we should keep it up. We were asked by people in the street could they sign a petition? W hat could they do to help? They fe lt that our concern was th e ir concern. They wanted to w ork fo r peace. They didn t ju st w ant to ta lk about it anymore. And we feel we must support by our physical presence, by le t ters, by program, by education, the e ffo rt to make serious peace proposals. A nd we must at the same tim e say no vigorously if th a t s w hat you mean by upsetting interests that are vested and established. We say no very vigorously by demonstrating and by try in g to upset those we feel are not serious in th e ir efforts for peace. We fe lt that past wars and conflicts though they were costly were lim ited. They were lim ited to those bearing arms and that was p re tty much th e ir free choice. B u t now we feel that new understandings and attitudes are needed in the face of nuclear annihilation... A w o rld of peace is a w orld in w hich ideological differences can be discussed and arbitrated. I don t believe that because men can t negotiate and compromise that m y children must die. We know a ll of us w hat peace can do fo r us, the beautiful w orld we could have in peace. Now we have to see w hat we can do fo r peace. Purvis:... W ell now w hich road to peace? The road to peace w hich I advocate is the road embodied in that revolutionary document of That the self-evident truths are that a ll men are equally endowed w ith rig h t to life and lib e rty and that governments are instituted among men to secure these rights and derive their ju st power from the governed... A nd if we really dedicate ou r selves to these self-evident truths we w ill amend our constitution, elim inate the power to declare w ar ju st as we elim inated slavery. Because w ar is an in d iscrim inate use o f governmental power, an unjust power in that it indiscrim inately punishes the innocent w ith the guilty, it puts a bomb on the baby in the bathtub along w ith the person w ho s putting people in gas chambers. This is not respect fo r the life and lib e rty of people, not respecting in d iv id ual rights; and in the second it places the use of governmental power outside of our jurisdiction. To try to deter the actions of people to try to govern the conduct of people through te rro r but to govern the conduct o f peoples who have no representation in that government is not a just power derived from the consent of the governed. So we say if we really believe in those revolutionary principles in our D eclaration o f Independence we w ill abandon this attem pt to deter through terrorism of the bomb, we w ill w o rk fo r a representative in stitu tio n and we w ill in stitute among men a government of the w orld. We w ill de- B A N T H E B O M B! A W om en's Si onstration at the United Nations. velop the U nited Nations and here I align m yself w ith Mrs. L urie and against David D ellinger and Fred Halstead. Because I th in k we need a police force as distinct from m ilita ry force. I th in k there s an im portant m oral distinction, ethical distinction that we should keep in mind. W hat the w o rld needs is a police force fo r the U nited Nations and a crim in al court such as the N urem berg court, not w ith a ll the bad things about the N urem berg court but w ith the essential good thing about the N urem berg trials that it held individuals responsible fo r violation of international law. We must change the nature of international law and not consider that it is broken by nations, communities and try to punish communities anymore than we go out and lynch a com m unity when the leaders of that com m unity have violated the rights of somebody else... There are people who clim b on the backs o f others. T hat s w hy you do need police. T hat s w hy you do need courts to decide w hether someone s clim bing on the backs of others or ju st tryin g to prevent someone else clim bing on his back. I th in k it goes back to the ancient Hebrew scriptures, thou shall love th y neighbor as th y s e lf. This is the very basis of the Declaration o f Independence and the whole idea of rights. U n fortunately man is fa llib le, he does use his lib e rty to interfere w ith the lib e rty of other people so we have to have th ird -p a rty adjudication, I th in k. We have to have a th ird p arty to settle a dispute and that s w hat we need in the w orld today... [Following the initial presentations there was a question period and then brief summaries by the panelists. The following are excerpts from their answers to questions and from the summaries. The summaries were made in reverse order of the presentations.] Purvis:... I th in k we have to be careful not to fin d scapegoats fo r our troubles. I really feel that some people have an illusion that there are some groups called exploiters and this is put up there and i t s used as a substitute fo r reason and there s ju st enough tru th in it to make it palatable. B ut I th in k we have to be carefu l about it. I say to you that there are as many people who fa vo r the

5 nday, June 17, 1963 Page Five s to a W orld of Enduring Peace? ike for Peace anti-bom b dembalance of terror, who favor the atom bomb, in the labor unions and in CORE and in the organizations that perhaps you w ould all refer to as le ft-w in g as there are in the N ational Association of M anufacturers or in the Rotary Club or in the Catholic Church, the U nitarian Church or any other group. We are all human beings and I th in k we have to stop blam ing it on some, w hat w ould be the opposite of the piein-the-sky, some d e vil-in -th e -sky to whom we apply this tag o f exploiters... I th in k economic questions of the w orld, of underdeveloped countries w ould be solved if ta riff barriers were abolished, quotas w ere abolished and men could trade w ith men on a w orld-w ide basis and we had a free trade area as big as the w orld instead of as big as the U nited S tates.... And here is where I th in k M r. Castro is at his weakest. He had a rig h t to overthrow M r. Batista but he had a duty to protect the rights o f a ll Cubans to participate in his continuance in office or in the choice of his successor. I th in k every revolution has this obligation i f i t s going to become a legitim ate government and I feel the U nited States should now take a position that it w ill not recognize any new governm ent that has taken over by force u n til it has a re-election... I thought the objection to M r. Kennedy s Cuban policy objections coming from K eating and people lik e that was that he did not im perialistically go and m aintain U S. investments. The com plaint that I ve heard is that the U.S. is getting soft and is not being im perialistic enough. You pays your money and you takes your pick. I certainly th in k that the U nited States should not act outside of its national ju risd iction. I th in k that the U nited States should take over all external m atters. The U nited Nations should cover all international relations between people and the Am erican communities that I envisage as one that means if an Am erican had property in Cuba and he thought it was ille g a lly taken from him bv the Cuban governm ent that he w ould have an appeal to a U nited Nations court. Just as now if he lives in New Y ork and has property in New Jersey taken ille g a lly he has recourse to a com plaint in federal court. I m against Am erican im p erialism, I m against the Monroe Doctrin e I don t see how the Monroe D octrine can be squared w ith the Good Neighbor policy... I w ould like to see the Organization of Am erican States become a more representative in stitution and if the Organization of Am erican States is going to stop missiles being sent to Cuba I th in k it should stop armaments being sent to any country in the Western hemisphere. It should take ju risdiction over all international shipments of arms to any Western hemisphere country including the U n ited States... I t s my feeling and the feeling of our chairman, Russell Stabler, chairman of Voters fo r Peace out in Nassau s 4th Congressional district, that we should begin now to groom people, w ork on people, publicize the names of people who w ill run fo r the Electoral College in 1964 on a peace-candidate tic k et.... I th in k we should get together. I th in k i f Ruth Gage Colby would call a meeting the Voters fo r Peace and perhaps the Socialist W orkers P arty w ould be w illin g to come and a ll people who w ould be w illin g to put up a slate of candidates who w ould be dedicated to a peace platform. Lurie:... They [ Women Strike fo r Peace] recently published a rather lengthy tome called The Economics of Disarm ament. I t s a beautiful com pilation, quite w ell stated, of w hat ju st some o f the problems of disarmament are. And it is, indeed, aware that some of them are economic originate in economics. This, I th in k, is coming more and more into being that women are try in g to see w hat is going to occur and educate people so that they w ill be prepared. And this to me is the greatest value of Women S trike that it is very broad, sim ply an um brella that is reaching people fo r the firs t tim e in political and social action. Then as they get involved, as they understand a little more, they have a better picture of w hat the forces are in the w orld... We were active in Massachusetts in the Hughes campaign. I personally don t feel that this is an answer. I th in k it is an education. This I th in k is the greatest value. H AR RY PURVIS was an independent peace candidate in New York s Fourth Congressional District in the last election. He is a maverick Republican and member of the National Association of Manufacturers. That in peace campaigns, issues are being brought to the fore, challenges are being made to established politicians and in this way people are learning a great deal more about w hat the forces are in the w orld. I personally don t th in k it s a true answer that we re really going to have peace candidates in our country. I don t believe that they are allowed to get very fa r... I think it s been well established that before there ll be genuine peace in the w orld, in the true sense of the word, there need to be some fundam ental changes. B ut I personally and also as a representative of Women fo r Peace feel that the best approach to this is to go one step at a time. I cannot bring to a neighbor or friend where I liv e in a small conservative com m unity the idea that economic exploitation is the cause fo r all of man s ills. I can t open a conversation lik e this. But I can ta lk about strontium 90 in our children s m ilk. I can ta lk about the fear of accidental war. I can ta lk about the arms race escalating and thus creating a war. I feel lik e a b it of an apologist and I don t w ant to be, I don t personally w ant to be. But I must face the realities of the lim itations around me. I feel that, if I went fu rth e r than people are w illin g to hear, that m y usefulness w ould im m ediately be completely restricted and completely lim ited. On that basis I look fo r a large um brella, a simple statement looking fo r the first steps towards peace. A nd I hope that through this program not only women but men and everyone w ill be educated to the fact that there are some very im portant changes that need to take place before this peace can be achieved. Fred Halstead: For a number of reasons I don t th in k the Women s S trike fo r Peace has done too badly. For example, during the recent Cuban crisis a number of Women s S trike fo r Peace people w ent to Washington rig h t in the m iddle of the Cuban crisis when nobody else w ould do anything and carried signs, Don t Invade Cuba! I know in New Y ork C ity we couldn t get the peace movement to do that. They were afraid to carry that sign. Why? Because it was opposed to the particular move Kennedy was cooking up fo r the moment and it embarrassed the Democrats. The Women S trike fo r Peace people at least kept th e ir eye on the ball. A t least the ones in Washington did. They said they were fo r peace and that means you have to be against the w ar th a t s being prepared at the moment. And more power to them as long as they keep th e ir eye on the ball. They also kept th e ir eye on the ball when they are called up before the w itch -h u n t committee... They answered very correctly, in m y opinion...we take in anybody who is w illin g to oppose the concrete acts of w ar... That, of course, is lim ited. I t s not the fin a l answer to w ar not in m y opinion. B ut it at least is the correct approach to how to fig h t from moment to moment. The radical movement, the peace movement, and so on in this country is not very big. B ut it is considerable. I f it can all move together against a concrete act of w ar it can make a lo t of noise. A nd it can educate a lot of people. And it could make a difference in how the labor movement reacts, fo r example, the youth, and so on.... We run an election not ju st because we get some radio and TV time. We are also a political party that is fig h tin g fo r p o litica l power in the country. We expect to take over political power in the country. And that w ill be a revolution. We re not anarchists in the same sense that you are, Dave [D ellin g e r]. I m an anarchist in the philosophical sense. In the last run, I believe in in d ivid u a l human freedom and that the police and all that business of the state apparatus is a p rim itiv e stage in human development w hich we w ill outgrow. B u t we haven t outgrown it yet. A nd in the meantime we need governm ent apparatus and that s w hy we act lik e a political party. One of the things you do when you act lik e a politica l party is you pose the fact that you are contesting fo r political power. Mass action is a more effective means of blocking the drive tow ard w ar than running a small radical election campaign. B ut the one doesn t exclude the other... We run in elections also to keep up the tra d itio n of independent labor political action. To show that a th ird party can get on the ballot. We believe that a m ajor th ird party is possible in the not too distant future and that w ould be the biggest step towards peace. I t would be a party based on the labor unions, the Negro people, and other oppressed m inorities, FRED HALSTEAD is a revolutionary socialist, active in the trade union and anti-w ar movements. He is a staff w riter for The M ilita n t. and on the w o rking farmers. U n lik e big capital, the interests of these groups are not served by im peria list expansion and the w ar drive. B u t as it is now, the political power of these groups is trapped into supporting the w ar drive because they support the Democrats or Republicans. When a labor party development takes place, we know that such a party w ill in exorably tend to take a d ifferent position on w a r than the Democratic or Republican parties, which are controlled by the needs of capital. That we believe is the next stage fo r Am erican development. In the meantime we re a ll fo r independent peace candidates and radical candidates wherever they help this process along. Whenever they help to drive a wedge between those elected representatives of the capitalist class, who are carrying on the w ar e ffo rt between them and the w orking people whose interests lie in the other direction... Dellinger: The value of the women going down to Washington going down, as they are, as mothers the value is that they re getting d ire ctly and personally involved. B ut the disvalue or the danger in it is that they re frightened also of being anything other than being Republicans or Democrats, frightened to call fo r the radical things that need to be done. And I th in k that i f people get d ire ctly and personally involved, as these courageous women have, there is always the possibility that it w ill lead them on to something else. B ut if you are try in g to reach new people it is very im portant that you reach them w ith the truth. A nd if you re concentra tin g on im p lying th at w hat the negotiators do in Geneva or what the congressmen do in Washington, how President Kennedy tw ists and turns, that th at is going to fundam entally affect the peace, then unfortunately you are educating them or teaching them something w hich in the end w ill be an illu sion. It isn t an illusion because I say it is.... I t s an illusion because the facts are the facts and you can t, fo r instance, legislate that nobody w ill have anymore headaches and get rid o f them that way i f there are causes fo r headaches. A nd the women are sooner or later going to fin d out i f they keep m aking these trips that they ve got to either go beyond arm ament agencies and the various liberal senators and w hatnot or that they are going to accomplish absolutely nothing... For p o litica lly effective, or significan t action today, I d advocate to start w ith c iv il disobedience. Now I m not interested in token c iv il disobedience. That is, a g irl I know very w e ll and adm ire trespassed on a boatyard property when they were launching a submarine. A nd this was a good thing because this was a ll that people were ready to do. A token. B ut I m not fo r that except as the most elementary stage of beginning. Just as certain people as a token carried on freedom rides in the South in B u t this you see helped prepare the way fo r a mass outburst such as in Greenwood, Mississippi, and Birm ingham. B y re fe rrin g to them I don t mean th at they are to ta lly successful b u t they begin to give an idea o f w hat the power of the people m ight be and the effectiveness, as I say, o f causing economic and social dislocation. I f you get 10,000 people down to W ashington this is w hat a l ways happens in those marches on Washington and then you decide, w ell, to be sure we have 10,000 and not 3,000. O r you hope you w ill get 11,000 instead of 10, We ll be ve ry law -abiding and w e ll stay in the Linco ln M em orial and we ll get a w e llknown speaker. Maybe we can get Hubert H um phrey or Senator Clark, the darling o f the peace movement these days, get him to address us. That doesn t frighten anybody, th at doesn t get anyth in g under way. When I say frighten, I don t w ant them to th in k we re going to chop th e ir heads o ff b u t I w ant them to th in k we re going to take th e ir armaments factories away from them and we re going to tu rn them into peaceful p ro d u ctio n.... When I say they ll never get the socialist revolution by electing candidates I mean many things. F irst of all, to p ut it crudely and somewhat over-sim - p lifie d ly the elections are stacked. As long as the mass media are controlled by the private capitalist interests and as long as television, fo r instance w e ll you know, how many m illions of dollars is it that it really requires to elect a president these days? W hat i t s doing is le ttin g them set up the contest, choose the weapons, and then say, Yes, I ll fig h t in your area, I ll fight. I ll try to run m y candidate against M r. N ixon or M r. Rockefeller or whoever i t is. And it ju st isn t a fa ir contest. Secondly i f a m a jo rity were if it were possible to get a m ajority but as I say you can t reach them. I t s not an effective m ajority. The fact is today we have a kind of mob rule in this country. I always th in k o f the mob in the South in the te rrib le old days where they got all w orked up and lynched somebody. B ut w e re a mob vis-a-vis Cuba today. We really are... Do we really know w hether a m a jo rity of the Am erican people favor Am erican policy tow ard Cuba? See, it is debated between K eating and Kennedy. A nd as long as the means of mass propaganda are owned and controlled, w ith the vast expense involved, the way they are we ll never know w hat in th e ir hearts most Americans w ould be w illin g to do relative to sharing the w ealth say w ith the Cuban people...

6 Page Six THE M ILITA N T Monday, June 17, 1963 The European Common Market W hy de Gaulle W ants to Freeze O ut Britain B y E. G erm ain D u rin g the past few years, im portant changes have taken place th a t bear on the m ilita ry pacts among the im perialist powers. On the economic and financial fro n t, the relative w eight of the U.S. has decreased; th at of Western Europe and Japan has in creased; that of Great B rita in hasn t stopped going from bad to worse. W hether one considers the course of development of industria l production, exports, or cu r rency reserves, this general tendency is confirm ed on every score. However, in the m ilita ry and p o litica l domain, this same tendency does not appear. Am erican im perialism retains its quasimonopoly on the nuclear arms at the disposal of the im perialist camp. The direction o f N ATO and SEATO is completely in Washington s hands. D uring all the big in ternational crises of the last few years B erlin, Laos, Congo, Cuba, to cite only a few examples Washington imposed its own point of view, w hich was often quite d ifferent from th at of its partners and allies. D uring the recent Caribbean crisis, the allies of Am erican im perialism had to adm it th at Washington was m aking decisions w hich could lead to the unleashing o f a w orld w ar, w ith o u t even consulting them. De Gaulle s rebellion against this Am erican leadership constitutes an e ffo rt to readjust the politic a l and m ilita ry agreements w ith in the im perialist alliance to conform more w ith the economic relationships between the U.S. and capitalist Europe. B u t capitalist Europe is not a u n ifie d bloc" w hich presents a united fro n t to the face of Yankee im perialism. I t is itself divided among im p erialist powers, each w ith its own interests. These in terests diverge as much in the realm of economics as in the p o litic o -m ilita ry area. The Inter-Im perialist Contradictions B ritish im perialism seeks above a ll to retain its position in the Commonwealth, at the same tim e enlarging its outlets on the European continent w ith o u t w hich it is condemned to ever-increasing decay. Thus i t comes into c o llision w ith those who seek to m ainta in high customs barriers between the Common M arket and the th ird w o rld [the form er colonial and sem i-colonial nations], w ith the aim of protecting, above all, European agriculture and some other economic sectors w hich are not capable of w ith standing com petition fro m abroad. N ow it is precisely French im perialism w hich constitutes the most protectionist element w ith in the Common M arket. West German im perialism is above a ll preoccupied w ith secur it y problems beginning w ith B e rlin. F or it, the presence of Am erican troops in Europe and in W est B e rlin is a v ita l question Just Out Moscow vs. Peking The Meaning Of the Great Debate By W illiam F. W arde The first comprehensive appraisal of the Sino-Soviet dispute from a Marxist standpoint 50 cents PIONEER PUBLISHERS 116 University Place New York 3, N. Y. w hile this question is a m atter of indifference to de Gaulle. West Germany would like to acquire its own nuclear weapons, but Washington is opposed to it. In the economic area, the Common M arket constitutes fo r West Germany a necessary but insufficient outlet and it therefore looks rather favorably on a ll efforts to enlarge it. Despite a largely successful program of modernization and De Gaulle readjustm ent, French im perialism remains weaker than B ritish and German im perialism in its capac ity to compete in the industrial field. From that flow s its more protectionist tendency and its refusal fo r the moment to allow an enlargement of the Common M a r ket to include Great B rita in and some other capitalist countries of Europe. The countries of the Franco-A frican C om m unity rem ain fo r it areas of economic, commercial and strategic im portance and experience has taught it th at it can hardly count on the fu ll and complete solidarity of Am erican im perialism in the defense of its position there. Hence the desire of a whole section of the French im perialists, led by de Gaulle, to b uild th e ir own n u clear strikin g force, to serve as an element in blackm ailing and pressuring th e ir allies and com petitors. Doomed to Defeat The lesser im perialism s (Italian, Belgian, D utch) don t tru st a French-G erm an co-leadership of the Common M arket, fo r fear it w ould go beyond th e ir own pa r ticu la r interests. They w ould look k in d ly on Great B rita in s entry into the Common M arket, especially since th e ir economic interests are in general somewhat parallel to rather than contrary to, the in terests of B ritish im perialism. In the m ilita ry area, th e ir ambitions are lim ite d to assuring the covering of capitalist Europe by Washington, since they have neither the means nor the w ill fo r large-scale rearm ing. The conclusion th at emerges fro m this picture is clear enough: de Gaulle s policy of creating an integrated European political and m ilita ry force in Europe, in dependent of Washington, is doomed to defeat because it runs afoul of the in te r-im p e ria l ist contradictions in Europe i t self (and, in addition, because it overestimates the specific m ilita ry, p o litica l and economic w eight of French im perialism, w hich in no case justifies French leadership of capitalist Europe). This policy proceeds from the erroneous hypothesis, according to w hich the economic stage of the Common M arket w ould have already brought into being a unified economic force, w h ile at the moment and doubtless fo r a long period to come national capita lis t interests s till predominate in the economy of each of the member countries of the Common M arket. Double Blackmail Does that mean that de G aulle s efforts w ill rem ain vain and that his policy is completely absurd? Not at all. He has at his disposal tw o pow erful weapons of blackm ail: the disintegration of the Common M arket, and his own resignation in France. This double blackm ail is efficacious, because fo r the international bourgeoisie de Gaulle is today irreplaceable in France, where his disappearance from the scene w ould provoke an exceptionally serious social and p o litica l crisis. I t is efficacious because, fo r the other member countries of the Common M arket, the la tte r is all the more im portant as an outlet inasmuch as the markets of the colonial and sem i-colonial countries are in danger o f constantly shrinking. W hat w ill be the probable results o f de G aulle s blackm ail? Am erican im perialism and the pow erful European im perialists w ill be obliged to make concessions to him in areas th at are v i tal to French im perialism : the protected markets fo r French agriculture (and a few French industries) in the Common M arket w ill be tem porarily conserved; the entrance of Great B rita in into the Common M arket w ill be delayed; Am erican im perialism (and perhaps B ritish im perialism ) w ill in d ire ctly help French im p e ria l ism build its nuclear strikin g power; changes w ill be made in the NATO command, increasing the w eight o f West Germany and France somewhat. Basically, w hat French im perialism wants in the economic area is a greater delay before the Common M arket is enlarged w ith a view to increasing meanwhile the com petitive capacity o f certain French industries (and French agricultu re). I t is d iffic u lt to succeed in this w ith only the forces of French im perialism itself. Im - M acm illan portant contributions from other im perialist powers in the Common M arket w ill be needed. A nother thrust of economic integration in the fram ew ork o f the Common M arket, a new and accentuated phase of capitalist concentration, could b ring into being gigantic units of production, whose capital w ould be provided by three or fo u r countries jo in tly, w hich w ould then be capable o f meeting victoriously the com petition of B ritish and even Am erican im perialism. From then on French im peria l ism w ould abandon its objections, not only to Great B rita in s entry into the Common M arket, but even to the dissolution of this M arket into an A tla n tic Free- Exchange Zone. Proof of the Approaching Recession B ut in capitalist society, the concentration of capital does not result from any conscious decision or from any economic analyses, but is rather the product of a b itte r com petitive struggle in w hich there are few victors and many vanquished. U n til now, this com petition has played only a m inor role in the existence of the Common M arket, because the capitalist economy of Europe has been characterized by ten years of almost uninterrupted expansion. In the conditions of such an expansion, protectionist reflexes had no occasion to rise to the surface. B u t the forces of long term expansion are beginning to be more and more exhausted. For tw o years now there has been stagnation in the steel industry, and many authorities expect a sim ila r stagnation in the autom obile in dustry and in other sectors o f the durable consumers goods industry (refrigerators, radio and TV, washing machines, etc.) beginning around Protectionism The more expansion slows down and the more a recession threatens or even breaks out, the more w ill tendencies tow ard economic integration be accompanied by p rotectionist outcries (note French reaction to the onslaught of Ita l ian refrigerators on the intern al French m arket; the German reaction in the face of soaring im ports of steel products w h ile the G erman steel industry is in a crisis, etc.). O nly at the end of long convulsions and o f several successive cycles w ould national capitalism be able effectively and on a large scale to give way to an in te grated, European capitalism. And before that s a rrived at, the European w orkers movement and even the European revolution w ill again have th e ir say. The real test of the Common M arket, therefore, s till lies ahead. N either de G aulle s blackm ail nor the refusal o f France s partners to yield to this blackm ail w ill be able to b ring i t about. This test w ill result from the basic contradictions of capitalist economy w hich make economic recessions inevitable. [Translated from L 'Intern ationale, A p ril, 1963.] World Events For Whites Only Pocket-sized, push-button, teargas bombs are on sale in South A frica. A Johannesburg dealer said demand was brisk and he had sold quite a few. The tear-gas containers, costing about $12 each, contain enough gas to deal w ith a mob, according to advertisements. They are on sale to whites only. The spray is said to blind victim s to ta lly fo r ten minutes when fire d from up to 12 feet away. I t is said to have no lasting effect, the B ritish news agency, Reuters, reports. The spray is the invention of a German im m igrant, G unther M anfred Puss, who w orked on gas research fo r the German arm y. He m igrated to South A fric a in 1958, the report concludes. French Intimidate Martinique Tw elve members of the Union of A nti-c olonial Y outh of M a rtinique, arrested in A p ril, have been transported to France and im prisoned on charges of p lotting against the authority of the state. T h e ir actual crim e: asserting the rig h t of France s West Indian colonies, M artinique and Guadelupe, to self-governm ent, a rig h t im p lic itly recognized by the 1958 French Constitution. There is a social, political and economic problem in the islands: low wages, unemployment, poverty, and a typical colonial economy w ith a single crop agriculture, exchange o f raw m aterials fo r French goods, and economic domination by French shipping companies and im p ort-e xpo rt houses. A ll le ftis t groups in M artinique have form ed the F ront fo r the Defense of Public Liberties. I t has w ritte n the French President, denouncing the v irtu a l dictatorship on the island. The pending tria l in France o f 12 members of the anti-colonial youth group before a special court is the capstone to this regime of in tim id a tio n and vio lence. How Khrushchev H it China In a recent le tte r fro m Peking, Anna Louise Strong describes w hat happened when in the late summer of 1960 Khrushchev cracked down on China s economy. W ith in a m onth great housing areas, b u ilt fo r Soviet experts all over China w ent dark... Peking and Shanghai bus lines cut services and ran w ith great plastic bags of sewer gas on th e ir roofs fo r w ant of gasoline... the swank turbo-jets th at make the Peking- Canton run in fo u r hours, were parked on the edges o f airports dangerous fo r lack of servicing... tractors halted in the fields in the m idst of the drought, lacking parts. Co-existence and disarm a ment are not the issues in d i spute, according to Miss Strong, since the Chinese also stand fo r them. Algiers: No Shoeshines Here A Reuters dispatch asserts that Algiers is probably the hardest place in the w o rld to get a shoeshine. Since P rem ier Ben Bella launched his Operation Shoeshine Boy last February, more than 600 boys between nine and sixteen were persuaded to go into reorientation homes to learn a new trade of th e ir choice. Ben Bella said: We are fig h tin g fo r an A lgeria in w hich no man w ill kneel before another man. The man who puts his foot out to have his shoe cleaned by a kneeling boy should be ashamed. Franco's Butchery Continues M anuel Moreno Barranco, a young Spanish novelist has been m urdered in police headquarters in Jerez de la Frontera. A fte r having lived fo r a w h ile in Paris, he returned to Barcelona last May. Unable to fin d w ork, he w ent to Andalusia where he was arrested, beaten to death by the police and his body throw n out the w indow. Moreno was not involved in any p o litica l underground w o rk nor was he active in any party. His m urder apparently was purely and sim ply a case o f the savagery of Franco s police.

7 Monday, June 17, 1963 THE M ILITA N T Page Seven le tte rs fro m o u r re a d e rs On Dallas TV Screen Dallas. Texas On the TV news you see Negroes sit in at a dime store. One is beaten by a w hite man. W hite people throw sugar and catsup on the Negro sit-inners. The whites looked in a frenzy of spite and hate. I wonder if they could see themselves in the Negroes place? The Negro has fought in every Am erican war. He has been used and abused. Do an article on this. Use some of the m aterial recalling the brave fighters. M any don t know these facts and many of us need to be refreshed on it because of the mass stu pidity th a t s im posed on us. One good scene on TV. A big sewer plant opening on F ort W orth and there was a scene of 10 Y E A R S AGO IN T H E M IL IT A N T On the very eve of a truce in Korea, a ll the carriers of B ig Business propaganda in the U.S. began to beat the drums don t bring the boys back home. Don t relax the defense effort. Don t th in k this means real peace. In th e ir own twisted way these spokesmen fo r W all Street know th at there is no peace under capitalism. The overriding tendency of Am erican B ig Business is to make w ar, a ll-o u t w ar, on the Soviet bloc. The sooner the better, to th e ir w ay of thinking. The m ain obstruction to this aim is the tu rb u le n t revolutionary movement of the w orkin g class and colonial people throughout the w o rld and the unw illingness o f the Am erican people to be dragged into a hopeless w orld conflict to p u t down this revolution... Eisenhower s address to the Junior Chamber of Commerce in M inneapolis June 10 indicates w hat it is that drives B ig Business towards w ar: A gain and again, he said, speaking of m ilita ry and economic security, we m ust re m ind ourselves tha t this is a m atter not only of p o litica l principle but of economic necessity. I t in volves our need fo r m arkets fo r our agricu ltural and in dustria l products, our need to receive in return fro m the rest of the w orld such essentials as manganese and cobalt, tin and tungsten, w ith o u t w hich our economy cannot function.... The Am erican w orking class must learn the lesson of history there is no peace under capitalism. U n til this monstrous system is destroyed the horror o f w ar w ill continue to plague the earth. June 15, Y E A R S AGO An attem pt to insert a section in the N AA C P Statement to the N ation, praising the no-strike policy of the U A W -C IO and attacking strikes in im ica l to the w ar efforts of our country and its allies, was defeated after a heated debate. Grace Carlson, delegate from the St. Paul Branch of the NAACP, made the m otion to strike out this section. She pointed out that this m ight easily be in te r preted as an attack on the United M ine W orkers U nion w hich was fig h tin g in the interests of thousands o f Negro miners. Clarence Sharpe of Cleveland, James Anderson of Los Angeles and several other delegates took the flo o r in opposition to the nostrike clause. O nly one S talinist delegate spoke in support of the inclusion of this section. B y common consent, the Committee w hich had prepared the Statement agreed to its w ith d ra w a l a fte r hearing the w eighty arguments made against it. June 12, city officials posing in new sewer pipe. Thelma Lucio Phila. Anti-Bias Pickets Philadelphia, Pa. On my w ay to w ork I stopped at the picket line at the construction site where Negroes are demanding an end to Jim Crow hiring. I t was about 7:45 a.m. and I had to w alk about tw o blocks to get to the line. From a distance I could see the swaying skunk hats of the highway patrolm en and placards raised aloft. W alking tow ard me was a black brother on his w ay to w ork. I asked: Trouble yet? He answered, A little scuffle, but there was a confident look in his eye and a smile on his lips. I looked at the mass of pickets and said, They re b urying Jim Crow over there. He replied: "T h a t s it. Just w a lkin g in the neighborhood you fe lt the rh yth m ic beat of the tim e-bom b, Freedom NOW Jobs fo r A ll! As I neared the line there were mothers leaving proudly who had been there since 6 a.m. and now had to leave to go on to th e ir jobs. There were high school and ju n io r high school students looking back at the line as they le ft fo r school after doing th e ir picketing stint. On the line a m other said to me, I l l w a lk I ll fig h t i f I have to so that when m y child finishes school he w on t be a w o rry. He ll be able to look fo r any job. These demonstrations are ju st a small taste of the em bittered agony th at flow s in the streets here. A large num ber of the p ickets know the South. They know they pay taxes lik e the whites, that they've got homes and fam ilies to take care of like the whites and they re determined they re going to have the same job rights as the whites. Pearl Spangler A Nomination New Y ork, N. Y. I have a suggestion to ease the problem of both the College of of Cardinals and the people of Vietnam. Make Ngo D inh Diem the next pope. P.R. Cuba Jamming U.S. Radio? New Y ork, N. Y. The Associated Press says Cuba is try in g to jam U.S. broadcasts b u t that the Voice of Am erica estimates that one out of seven Cubans s till listen to the A m e rican radio. Tw o experiences I had w h ile visitin g Cuba in the summer of 1960 indicate th a t such alleged jam m ing w ould hard ly be w orth Cuba s effort. T alking to a w e ll-to -d o doctor who was not at all sympathetic to the revolution (too much free medical care now, he complained) he suddenly and rather b itte rly asked: W ell, have you seen any bodies on the streets? When I asked w hy he asked the question he replied: I listen to the M iam i radio w ith the reports about shootings in the streets, but I look out the w indow and don t see any bodies." A nother experience: one eveing shortly after the o il refineries were nationalized we were d rivin g w ith a Cuban frie nd and he turned on the car radio. I t was a M iam i newscast w hich reported triu m p h antly that the refineries were shut down because the Cubans didn t Thought for the Week know how to operate them. We were in the area of the refineries and our frie nd turned and drove down. There was an orange glow in the sky and the refineries were obviously going fu ll blast. H.C. Role of Liberalism San Francisco, C alif. Enclosed is $3 fo r a renewed subscription to your paper. Unemploym ent difficu ltie s in San F rancisco have prevented m y attending to this m atter earlier. Thank you fo r the several issues sent to me after m y subscription expired. As a political science m ajor at U C LA tw o years ago I became disgusted w tih a ll politica l thought, especially w ith liberal ideology. That liberalism seemed to lack content, to be out of contact w ith the re a lity of contem porary social upheavals, attested to the fact that it was a mask fo r a rotten p o litical system whose putrescence was the very source of the w o rld s ills and whose destruction should be the aim of contem porary upheavals. M y appreciation fo r The M ilita n t lies in its relentless exposure of the festering sores of the system w hich the lib e ra l press ignores. Keep up the good w ork! C.S. W a r Plant Insecurity Los Angeles, C alif. On m y return fro m a trip to Juneau, Alaska, looking fo r w o rk Wonder Why? A ctin g on the basis of an executive order issued by the president back in 1961, the Departm ent of the A rm y announced in New Y o rk last week that it intends to start h irin g more Negroes and Puerto Ricans. Hard Times on Capitol H ill When the Senate approved the funds fo r the adm inistration s m ental-health program, N orthern liberals joined w ith D ixiecrats in k illin g a Republican-sponsored rid e r to bar contribution of federal funds to Jim Crow m ental hospitals. R eporting on this the June 10 Newsweek said: B u t in voting against the c iv il-rig h t rider, M a jo rity W hip H ubert H um phrey was heard to complain, I can t do this kind of thing much longer. A in t It the Truth A character in a Chicago Tribune Laughing M atter cartoon by Salo says: I always manage to save a little something from m y pay each week the envelope it comes in. For Your Next Cookout O ur favorite shop, T iffa n y s, is o ffe r ing dinner plates by Wedgewood, $306 a dozen. Grounds for Discharge? The Am erican C iv il Liberties Union has intervened in behalf of a member of the A rm y s Standby Reserve facing discharge on grounds other than honorable. Last October he w rote his commanding officer that if called up fo r fu rth e r duty he w ould refuse to serve in protest against our naval blockade of Cuba, a policy I consider to be dangerous, foolish and im m oral. According to the June N orthern C alifornia A C LU News, the lib e r ties group takes the view that the Reserve has the rig h t to reject a member who says he won t obey The President... defines the problems of race, unemployment and education, but doesn't come to grips w ith them.... He plays touch-governm ent; he seems to touch everything and tackle nothing.... The surprising thing about this is that the President knows how to concentrate on a single subject and focus the attention of the whole nation on it. He has done so in the past on the B e rlin crisis and the Cuban crisis. A ll w ill listen i f he carries his c iv il rights battle into the South or the racial jungles of the N orthern cities. B ut he has done none of these things." James Reston in the June 9 New Y ork Times. I picked up the Easter Edition of the Los Angeles Times dated A p ril 14. A n article caught my eye. I t described the massive (1,500 and more) demonstrations supporting the local branch of the Women S trike fo r Peace the preceding A p ril 13. I t stated that actress R ita Moreno, of West Side Story and Academy A w ard w inner fo r best supporting actress of last year, discussed the necessity of supporting industry not based entire ly on defense contracts at the ra lly in M ca rth u r Park follow ing the demonstration. She was so rig h t! Up north, Seattle was in tu rm o il because its main industry, Boeing, was threatened by a strike. In Juneau I was told by the local citizens, The security office is the only place to get w o rk rig h t away. Do the w orkers in these sm aller cities know w hat happens in Los Angeles when the government does not award a contract? Long L ayoffs! J.J. U.S. Image in South Wales Swansea, South Wales, U.K. The press has re a lly gone to tow n here giving some v iv id pictures of the b ru ta lity th at has gone on in the Southern U.S. in the name of states rights. We even had Panorama, w hich is orders. B u t on the basis of a recent high court decision, it holds that since the man completed his active duty under honorable conditions, he is entitled to an honorable discharge. Big Post Hole The Defense Departm ent wanted to b u ild a mile-deep hole in the ground fo r a post-attack command headquarters fo r use in a nuclear holocaust. B u t the House A rm ed Services Committee refused to vote funds fo r the project w hich would have cost at least $100 m illio n. The committee felt it was an unw arranted expenditure. Progress Report James Leslie was sworn into the F irs t B attalion of the 71st In fa n try of the New Y ork N ational Guard June 3. He is the lone Negro member of the 900-man battalion. A N ational Guard officer said there have been Negroes in the 71st in the past, but he couldn t remember when or how many. Smooth-Skinned Screeners? Mrs. Frances K night, head o f the State D epartm ent s passport d iv i sion and rabid advocate of political screening of passport applicants, was chided by congressmen fo r staging a cosmetics show fo r women in her departm ent on company tim e during the Cuban crisis. Quizzed by a House subcom m it- BBC s most intellectual program, give a wide coverage of the B irmingham freedom fights. A ll the non-violent groups were covered, but the Black M uslim s seemed to be ignored. O r are they m ostly active in the North? B u ll Connor gave an in te rvie w to the BBC reporter and to the m a jo rity of people I came in contact w ith during the day. He gave the impression of being another Verwoerd [racist prim e m inister of South A fric a ], From the discussion the outstanding point seemed to be how long w ill it be before the Negroes take up arms. I see from The M ilita n t that the Young Socialist A lliance is having its trouble w ith the w itch-hunters, no doubt they w ill survive. Jack Davis Likes Civil Rights Stand Forest Grove, Ore. I enjoy your newspaper and adm ire your guts to say w hat you believe. W hile I m not a M arxist, or even a m ilita n t socialist, I do sympathize w ith you on m any Issues, m ainly on those re latin g to c iv il rights. Y our stories on the ideological conflict between Russia and China are most interesting. T. K. It Was Reported in the Press tee, she stated there had been a passport departm ent b rie fin g by an outstanding speaker on m anners and dress. The outstanding speaker turned out to be the head of a cosmetics firm plugging her wares. Mrs. K n ig h t sought to suggest that the b rie fin g had occurred last February. Under questioning she adm itted i t had been three months previous. Tense Times M IA M I, June 3 (JP) For 15 jitte ry minutes a red overnight bag sat vib ra tin g and buzzing softly in a roped-off area on a Pan Am erican A irw a ys ramp. Then the bag s owner, M r. and Mrs. R. Furgeson... joined policemen, firem en and F B I agents who had rushed to the scene. The F u r- gesons opened the bag, shut o ff a battery-pow ered electric tooth brush in it and ended the bomb scare. Plaything Some may see social significance in the o ffe r of a New Y ork jew eler fo r a Fidget Stone (genuine jade, $10) w hich, an ad announces, is ju st w hat the docto r ordered! The public is urged: Just fid dle w ith our fidget stone and feel euphoria setting in!.... more fu n than a massage.... soothing as a lu lla b y... You ll love to handle it. C arry it.... rub it.... give it to your nervous friends. INTRODUCTORY OFFER! A Four-Month Subscription To The M ilitan t fo r only $1 Nam e... S tre e t... Zone... C ity... S tate... Send to The M ilita n t, 116 U niversity Place, N ew Y o rk 3, N. Y.

8 Page Eight th e MILITANT Monday, June 17, 1963 Racist Hoodlums Beaten Back By North Carolina Negroes Lexington, N orth Carolina, is a fu rn itu re and te xtile c ity near the industrialized center of the state know n as the Piedmont. I t has a population of 18,000, including 2,000 Negroes. Being a ru ra l town, no desegregation has taken place there. B u t on June 5 Negro youth staged some sit-ins there. The next night, 2,000 w hite men gathered in dow ntown Lexington. A fte r m illin g around fo r a w hile, the mob moved to the edge of the Negro section. They were armed, some w ith guns, some w ith bottles of kerosene. A bout 100 Negroes gathered on the side o f the street where the Negro d istrict begins. According to the June 8 N. Y. Times they had been attending an N AACP meeting in a nearby church. However, most of the Negroes were barricaded in th e ir houses. When shots were fired, the w hite mob fled fo r cover. A shot w hich the N. Y. Times reports was apparently fire d from the Negro group struck Fred L in k, a w hite man from Lexington. He died on the way to the hospital. A w hite photographer was also shot but is recovering. Police arrested seven Negroes six teenagers and one 23-year-old. Ten whites were arrested fo r in citing to riot. One was accused of assaulting a Negro g irl w ith his fists. One of the w hite men had tw o shotguns and rifle in the car. He claimed he was a gun trader. By Joan F a rr The assault by the w hite mob resulted from the efforts of a group of 15 Negroes, some of them children, who the day before sought service at segregated cafes, a theater and a bow ling alley. Lexington is 30 miles South of Greensboro, where thousands of Negroes have been staging demonstrations fo r nearly a month. Greensboro M ayor David Schenck has hastily issued an appeal to the businessmen of that c ity to desegregate im m ediately. N orth Carolina is the state where Robert W illiam s organized a defense guard when the Negroes of Monroe were threatened by K u K lu x K la n mobs who drove through the colored com m unity firin g in to homes. As a result of Monroe Negroes digging trenches and standing guard in fro n t of th e ir homes, the K la n gave up such te rro r raids. The N.Y. Times, in an article entitled, Puzzled Whites Had Thought Negroes Were Content, said that whites in Lexington were as surprised as were the cops by the realization that Negroes in Lexington were dissatisfied w ith their condition there. W hy the Negroes have a new school and they seemed to be pleased w ith everything, a w hite businessman said. It must be outsiders, our Negroes are not unhappy, said another.... King Urges Capital March (Continued from Page 1) across the country in increasingly m ilita n t mass demonstrations succeeded at last in forcing the president of the U nited States to pronounce segregation m orally wrong and the Negro struggle fo r equality right. Kennedy's statement was made on television June 11 after Negro students James Hood and V ivian J. Malone, were registered by federal force at the U niversity of Alabama. Kennedy also indicated that his c iv il-rig h ts proposals w ould have three m ain features: 1) desegregation of public accommodations, such as hotels and restaurants, 2) fu lle r participation of the federal government in lawsuits against segregated schools, and 3) greater protection fo r the rig h t to vote. Up to now Kennedy has attempted to placate N orthern Negroes, whose votes are so strategic, w ith c iv il-rig h ts b ills w hich were too weak to antagonize the Dixiecrats. A tim e-honored va ria tion on this shell game has been fo r N orthern liberals to introduce somewhat stronger c iv il-rig h ts legislation in order to w in praise fro m Negro leaders, and then to allow the D ixiecrats to w h ittle the b ills down to almost nothing. The liberals then continue th e ir pose as great friends of c iv il rights, saying: We trie d. This tim e, however, the situation is much more serious. As K ennedy pointed out in his T V speech, his problem is to get the issue out of the streets and into the courts. Some legislation has to be passed. B u t w ill it be w h ittle d down enough to be acceptable to the Dixiecrats? O r w ill the Negroes be able to force something through th at they can really utilize to advance th e ir struggle? Kennedy w ill w ant to compromise. That is w hat gives the M arch on W ashington suggestion urgency. Every concession must be forced w ith mass action. The president of the St. Louis division o f the Negro Am erican Labor Council, Ernest Calloway, announced last week th at the d iv i sion has been planning to o r- ganize a large contingent of bt. Louis Negro w orkers fo r a national emancipation march on Washington this fa ll to demand equal job rights. The march is reportedly being planned by the SCLC, N ALC, CORE, the NAACP and the Student N onviolent Coordinating Committee. Calloway, who is also an associate research director fo r the Central Conference of Teamsters, said the St. Louis N A LC is also organizing the Negro unemployed and planning direct-action p ro j ects in St. Louis. The Teamsters U nion had previously called fo r a national car caravan to Washington to protest an ti-strike legislation. A combining of these announced marches could create a tremendous force. In describing the c iv il-rig h ts legislation he w ill propose, K ennedy made no m ention of fa ir employm ent practices. This should be a m ajor demand o f a M arch on Washington. Tax Office Blocks Funds Of Pacifist Organization The federal governm ent has a t tached the bank account of the Committee fo r N on-v iolent Action because tw o of its employes refuse to pay taxes on the grounds that such money w ill be used fo r w ar preparations. The CNVA, a pacifist organization, supported the tw o and did not deduct w ithholding tax money from their pay. There have been numerous cases of objectors to w ar preparations refusing to pay income tax, thus in v itin g federal prosecution. In this case, however, the Internal Revenue Service has apparently taken no action against the two individuals but against the pacifist organization w hich employed them. A. J. Muste, CNVA chairman, last M arch w rote the ta x bureau that his organization w ould not be an instrum ent fo r collecting taxes and that the government would have to do the collecting itself from the individuals involved. M U S IC TO W A R M Y O U R H E A R T. Budding perform ers at nursery for children of w orking mothers in Santiago de Cuba. Such nurseries are being established throughout Cuba and are com pletely in tegrated. From the tim e it came to power, the R evolutionary Governm ent of Cuba has moved decisively to stamp out every m anifestation of racial discrim ination. What Castro Would Do About Racism If He Were President of the USA The following is a section of a speech delivered at a Harlem civil-rights rally June 1 by newsman W illiam Worthy who faces a jail term for returning from Cuba to his native U.S. without a passport. The rally was sponsored by the Harlem Anti-Colonial Committee. May I draw a w ord picture of w hat we really are ta lkin g about when we say: De-colonize A m erica NOW. Let us imagine that in November, 1960, Fidel Castro, instead of John F. Kennedy, had been elected president of the U.S- On the basis of his clear record of elim inating all racial barriers in Cuba and stopping police b ru ta lity, about 95 per cent o f the cops in this country, black and white, N orth and South, w ould catch the firs t planes out, to escape prosecution. M any of them w ould w ind up in South A frica as refugees. There they w ould fin d the political and racial clim ate w holly compatible and congenial. I f B u ll Connor were caught and arrested before fleeing, Fidel would not perm it anyone to lynch him. He w ould be given a fa irtria l. In open court, evidence w ould be presented of 30 years of his tyranny and te rro r as B irm ingham s police commissioner. O l B u ll w ould have fu ll opportu n ity to testify in his own defense. His attorneys could crossexamine all of the prosecution s witnesses, many of whom w ould be Negroes. And then, since it is inconceivable that any court could find him innocent, he w ould be taken out and shot. M eanwhile, on his firs t day in office, Fidel w ould have occupied the entire South w ith federal troops. W ithout bureaucratic delays, the ja ils w ould be emptied of all Freedom Fighters and other victim s of the Jim Crow system. F id e l s new cabinet w ould decree Ban on Communist Speakers At Calif. U Widely Opposed U niversity of C alifornia President C lark K e rr has ta citly adm itted that UC s policy o f banning Communist P arty speakers, w h ile allow ing reactionaries to be heard on campus, is untenable. This was the meaning of K e rr s announcement that the Board of Regents w ould give early consideration to rem oval of the ban. K e rr said that UC is the only leading u n i versity in the country w hich prohibits Communist P arty speakers. Students registered overw helm ing opposition to the ban. A vote of UC students at Berkeley was 2,947 to 847; at U C LA it was 5,157 to 1,793 or a total of almost three-to-one against the in frin g e ment of the freedom to hear all viewpoints. In addition a resolution to remove the ban was adopted unanim ously by faculty representatives of the San Francisco, Berkeley and Davis campuses to the UC s Academic Senate. UC Chancellor at Berkeley, Edw ard W. Strong, told the 49th annual meeting of the A AU P : I quite agree that a consistent open forum policy the announced policy of UC is not being m aintained when a speaker from the radical rig h t is perm itted to speak on campus but a Communist is not. The w ritte n words of both are in our lib ra ry freely circulating. To ban the spoken w ord of one but not the other... appears to be an offense to logic... How ridiculous the ban is, was shown when permission to play a tape of a speech by the regional director of the Communist P arty was denied but permission to read aloud a magazine article by him was granted. S im ilarly, a reading was perm itted of excerpts from a book, borrowed from the u n ive r sity lib ra ry, by H erbert Aptheker, a leading Communist P arty theoretician. SLATE, a student political o r ganization, next plans to show a silent film of Aptheker, w hile a student reads aloud from one of his books. The Am erican C ivil Liberties Union of Southern C alifornia, w hich is fig h tin g the speaker ban and had appealed an adverse decision in a low er court, has decided to drop the suit pending fu rth e r developments by the Board of Regents and Professor K e rr s prom ise to make a recommendation w ith in the next few months. the im mediate desegregation of a ll public facilities. Henceforth, all persons who continued to discrim inate w ould go to ja il or to a h u manely operated rehabilitation center in an e ffo rt to cure them of th e ir racist insanity. A ll jobs, a ll housing, a ll opportunities w ould be made available to everyone w ith o u t discrim ination. Most beautiful of all, Fidel w ould disband the entire repressive F B I apparatus and w ould burn a ll the secret police garbage and intim ate gossip that thousands of psychopathic agents have assembled over the years. He w ould put J. Edgar Hoover in an in te grated cell in A tlan ta Penitentiary as punishm ent fo r fo u r decades of crim inal neglect of duty. Hoover has never protected the constitutional rights of Negroes. Sadly but realistically even a pacifist has to make a prediction that w ill scare and alarm many persons. The prediction is that it is going to take a drastic, Castrotype revolution before this problem o f the races w ill be resolved. N orth and South, the tw isted w hite man in the U.S. has no more in tention o f giving up his Jim Crow system than do the fanatics in the Union of South A frica. Five years ago, even three years ago, I w ouldn t have dreamed of speaking in these terms. Today, honesty and the facts before my eyes compel me. W illia m W o rth y